Chairul A. Nidom
Lab. Biokimia Departemen Kedokteran Dasar Veteriner Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Airlangga

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PENGARUH PAPARAN ARTEMISININ TERHADAP EKSPRESI GEN PART PADA PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM GALUR PAPUA 2300 Plumeriastuti, Hani; Maslachah, Lilik; Nidom, Chairul A.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Plasmodium  resisten terhadap artemisinin menjadi salah satu permasalahan kesehatan di dunia karena belum ada obat baru pengganti artemisinin. Resistensi P. falciparum terhadap obat antimalaria  artemisinin dapat terjadi karena dipengaruhi oleh faktor internal dari P. falciparum, antara lain induksi ekspresi gen yang mengekspresikan protein. Salah satu gen tersebut adalah gen Triptophan-rich Protein (PArt). Fungsi Triptophan-rich Protein penting dalam membrane-spanning protein dan berperan dalam folding protein untuk menjaga kontak hidrofobik. Penelitian ini bertujuan membuktikan overekspresi gen Triptophan-rich Protein P. falciparum galur Papua 2300 yang disebabkan oleh paparan artemisinin berulang in vitro. Waktu penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Februari sampai November 2013. Tempat penelitian di Rumah Sakit Penyakit Tropik dan Infeksi Universitas Airlangga. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah experimental design dengan post test only control group design. Kultur  in vitro P. falciparum galur Papua 2300 dibagi dalam kelompok kontrol (K) dan kelompok perlakuan paparan artemisinin berulang, yaitu paparan artemisinin ke-1 (PO1), paparan artemisinin ke-2 (PO2) dan paparan artemisinin ke-3 (PO3) menggunakan konsentrasi IC50. Ekspresi gen Triptophan-rich Protein (PArt) diukur dengan qRTPCR. Hasil menunjukkan paparan artemisinin berulang pada P. falciparum  dapat meningkatkan level ekspresi gen Part (2??CT) relatif terhadap kontrol. Simpulan, paparan artemisinin in vitro menyebabkan overekspresi gen  Tryptophan-rich Proteins(PArt) oleh promoter P. falciparum galur Papua 2300. [MKB. 2015;47(3):129?36]Kata kunci: Artemisinin, fenotip, gen Triptophan-rich Protein (PArt), P. falciparum galur Papua 2300 Effect of Artemisinin Exposure toward PArt Gene Expression in Plasmodium falciparum Papua 2300 StrainAbstract Artemisinin resistant Plasmodium  has become one of the worldwide health problems, since there is currently no new therapeutic medicine to replace artemisinin. Even though the mechanism of artemisinin resistance has not been clearly understood, the resistance of P. falciparum towards the antimalaria artemisinin may occur due to the influence of by the internal factors of P. falciparum, including the induction of the protein-expressing gene expression. One of the genes is the Triptophan-rich Protein (PArt) gene that is important in the membrane-spanning protein and plays a role in protein folding to maintain hydrophobic contact.. This study aimed to prove that  Triptophan-rich Protein overexspression in P. falciparum Papua 2300 strain may cause repeated artemisin exposure in vitro. This study was performed in a period from February to November 2013 in Infection and Tropical Diseases Hospital, Airlangga University. The design used was experimental study with post-test only control group design. In-vitro culture of P. falciparum Papua 2300  strain were divided into a control group (K) and treatment groups that were treated regularly with artemisinin, i.e. artemisinin exposure I (PO1), artemisinin exposure 2 (PO2) and artemisinin exposure 3 (PO3)  using IC50 concentration. The Tryptophan-rich Protein gene expression level was detected using  qRTPCR. The result showed that in vitro repeated artemisinin exposure in P.  falciparum  Papua 2300 strain  relatively increased the expression level of the Tryptophan-rich Protein (PArt) genes (2??CT)  when comparedwith control. In conclusion, in vitro artemisinin exposure may cause Tryptophan-rich Proteins (PArt) gene overexpression by P. falciparum  Papua 2300 strain promoter. [MKB. 2015;47(3):129?36]Key words: Artemisinin, phenotype, Triptophan-rich Protein (PArt) gene,  P. falciparum Papua 2300 DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n3.593 
Profil Fenotipik Plasmodium falciparum Galur Papua 2300 Akibat Paparan Antimalaria Artemisinin in Vitro Maslachah, Lilik; Dachlan, Yoes Prijatna; Nidom, Chairul A.; Fitri, Loeki Enggar
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Resistensi parasit P. falciparum dan penurunan efikasi terhadap artemisinin mengakibatkan masalah malaria menjadi semakin  kompleks. Hal ini menjadi salah satu permasalahan kesehatan di dunia  yang belum dapat diselesaikan sampai saat ini karena belum ada obat baru pengganti artemisinin. Penelitian ini untuk membuktikan bahwa paparan obat antimalaria artemisinin berulang in vitro dapat menyebabkan perubahan profil fenotipik P. falciparum galur Papua 2300. Waktu penelitian Februari sampai dengan November 2013. Tempat penelitian di Biomedik Universitas Brawijaya Malang dan Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Airlangga. Desain penelitian experimental design dengan post test only control group design. Kultur P. falciparum galur Papua 2300 dipapar artemisinin berulang dengan dosis IC50. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap viabilitas dan nilai IC50 dengan menggunakan analisis probit. Kelompok kontrol tidak menunjukkan perubahan nilai IC50 juga pada kelompok perlakuan PO1. Nilai IC50 terjadi peningkatan setelah perlakuan PO2. Paparan artemisinin berulang pada PO2, PO3, dan PO4 menyebabkan waktu viabilitas P. falciparum galur Papua 2300 lebih pendek daripada PO1. Viabilitas stabil setelah perlakuan PO3. Simpulan, paparan artemisinin berulang berpengaruh pada perubahan peningkatkan nilai IC50 dan waktu viabilitas P. falciparum galur Papua 2300.  [MKB. 2015;47(1):1–9]Kata kunci: Artemisinin, fenotipik, P. falciparum galur Papua 2300, resistensiPhenotypic Profile of  Plasmodium falciparum Papua 2300 Strain Exposed to in Vitro Antimalarial Artemisinin The presence of the P. falciparum resistance and decreased of efficacy against artemisinin and its derivatives result in increasingly complex malaria issues. Malaria has become one of the currently unresolved world’s health problems due to the lack of  new artemisinin replacement drugs. This study aimed to provide evidence that the repeated exposure of in vitro artemisinin may cause a change in P. falciparum Papua 2300 strain phenotypic. This study was conducted during the period of  February to November 2013 in Biomedics Brawijaya University and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University. A post-test control only experimental design was used. In vitro cultures of  P. falciparum Papua 2300 strain were treated by repeated artemisin in IC50 concentration and were observed for their viability and IC50 using probit analysis. The control group did not show any changes after IC50value and PO1 treatment. An increase in IC50 value was occurred after PO2. Repeated exposures of artemisinin in PO2, PO3 and PO4 had shorter viability periods than PO1. The viability of was stable after PO3 in this group. In conclusion, repeated exposures of artemisinin influence changes in  IC50 value and viability period of  P. falciparum Papua 2300 strain. [MKB. 2015;47(1):1–9]Key words: Artemisinin, phenotypic, P. falciparum Papua 2300, resistance DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n1.390