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Sifat Fisikokimia Oleoresin Fuli Pala Hasil Ekstraksi Berbantu Ultrasonik Pada Metode Pengeringan yang Berbeda Aryanis Mutia Zahra; I Wayan Budiastra; Sugiyono S; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan
Warta Industri Hasil Pertanian Vol 36, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Balai Besar Industri Agro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (632.369 KB) | DOI: 10.32765/warta ihp.v36i1.4722

Abstract

Ekstraksi berbantu ultrasonik (Ultrasound Assisted Extraction, UAE) dapat meningkatkan rendemen, kualitas dan fungsionalitas ekstrak serta mempersingkat waktu ekstraksi. Fuli memiliki lebih banyak senyawa aromatik yang dapat dipertahankan dalam berbagai proses pengolahan daripada biji pala. Pengeringan menjadi proses penting yang mempengaruhi kualitas fuli pala sebagai bahan baku oleoresin. Penelitian ini membandingkan rendemen, sifat fisik dan komposisi senyawa kimia oleoresin fuli pala hasil UAE pada metode pengeringan yang berbeda. Fuli pala dikeringkan dengan dua metode pengeringan (penjemuran dan pengasapan), digiling menjadi bubuk berukuran 60 mesh. UAE diaplikasikan pada bubuk fuli pala dalam etanol (1:4 b:v) pada frekuensi 20 kHz, daya 700 W, amplitudo 90%, suhu maksimum 50oC dan waktu ekstraksi 45 menit. Maserasi  selama 7 jam pada suhu ruang dilakukan sebagai perlakuan kontrol. Sifat fisik (bobot jenis, indeks bias, nilai a*, kroma dan hue) oleoresin fuli pala hasil UAE berbeda nyata antara pengasapan dan penjemuran. Sifat fisik (bobot jenis, indeks bias, nilai L, nilai a*, nilai b*, kroma dan hue) oleoresin juga berbeda nyata antara hasil ekstraksi berbantu ultrasonik dan maserasi. Pengasapan menghasilkan rendemen, sisa penguapan dan total senyawa utama oleoresin fuli pala hasil ekstraksi berbantu ultrasonik (19,78%, 24,36%, dan 63,37%) lebih tinggi dari penjemuran (15,80%, 23,05%, dan 53,91%) serta maserasi (14,49%, 22,07%, dan 54,31%).
STUDI PENERAPAN STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE PASCAPANEN TOMAT DAN PERMASALAHAN YANG DIHADAPI AKTOR DI SEPANJANG RANTAI PASOK Laras Putri Wigati; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan; Emmy Darmawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 17, No 2 (2020): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v17n2.2020.68-76

Abstract

Penanganan pascapanen adalah hal penting yang perlu diperhatikan oleh seluruh aktor di suatu rantai pasok hingga sampai ke tangan konsumen. Evaluasi penerapan penanganan pascapanen sesuai standard operating procedure (SOP) perlu dilakukan agar dapat menemukan pada tahap-tahap mana saja yang perlu diperbaiki sehingga mutu produk lebih dapat terjaga. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi penanganan dan penerapan SOP pascapanen tomat, serta mengidentifikasi permasalahan penanganan pascapanen tomat yang dihadapi oleh aktor. Aktor yang terlibat pada rantai pasok adalah petani, pengepul, pedagang eceran dan konsumen. Metode pemilihan responden awal menggunakan purposive sampling yakni pemilihan petani di Desa Perbawati, Sukabumi dan dibedakan menjadi tiga tipe petani berdasarkan luas lahan yang dimiliki. Pemilihan responden selanjutnya menggunakan metode snowball sampling hingga responden akhir yakni konsumen. Penerapan SOP diperoleh dari wawancara dan observasi lapang. Parameter yang digunakan adalah membandingkan penanganan pascapanen yang dilakukan oleh aktor dan dibandingkan dengan SOP yang telah disusun oleh Direktorat Budidaya dan Pascapanen Sayuran dan Tanaman Obat, Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura Kementerian Pertanian dan dilakukan perhitungan persentase kesesuaian dan upaya perbaikan yang diperlukan. Pada penelitian ini didapatkan kesesuaian penerapan SOP sebesar 54,44% dan diperlukan perbaikan sebesar 45,56%. Hal ini menunjukkan kesesuaian antara SOP dan pelaksanaan di lapang pada tingkat petani, pengepul, maupun pedagang eceran kondisi lingkungan panas menjadikan produk terpapar sinar matahari secara langsung serta kebersihan yang kurang dijaga membuat kualitas produk mudah menurun. Study Implementation of Standard Operating Procedure on Post-Harvest Tomato and Problems Faced by Actors in the Supply Chain.Postharvest handling is an important part that needs to be considered by actors in a supply chain until it reaches consumers. Evaluation of the implementation of postharvest handling according to the standard operating procedure (SOP) needs to be done to be able to find at what stages need to be improved so the product quality can be maintained well. This study aimed to identify the handling and the SOP implementation postharvest tomatoes, also identify the problems of handling postharvest tomatoes faced by the actors. The actors involved in the supply chain are farmers, collectors, retailers, and consumers. The first actors as respondents selected by the purposive sampling method were farmers in Perbawati Village, Sukabumi, and divided into three types of farmers based on the area of land they have. The next respondents selected by the snowball sampling method to the consumer as final respondents. The application of SOP obtained from interviews and real observations. The parameters used were comparing postharvest handling carried out by the actors and compared with SOP that has been published by the Directorate of Vegetable and Postharvest Cultivation and Medicinal Plants, Directorate General of Horticulture, Ministry of Agriculture and calculating the percentage of suitability and the percentage of improvement needed. In this study, the suitability of SOP implementation was 54.44% and 45.56% improvement was needed. These results showed the compatibility between the SOP and the implementation in the field at the level of farmers, collectors, and retail that high temperature of environmental conditions made the product exposed to direct sunlight and low maintained hygiene made the quality of the product easy to decrease.
Flow Behavior of Isolate Protein from Soybeans var. Grobogan and Whey Protein Isolate at Acidic Condition under Various Heating Times Warji Warji; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan; Sri Yuliani; Karin Schroën; Nanik Purwanti
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 6 No. 2 (2018): JURNAL KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1774.721 KB) | DOI: 10.19028/jtep.06.2.171-178

Abstract

AbstractFlow behavior of Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) suspension and Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) solution at pH 2.0 under various heating times were studied using steady shear viscosity measurements. Shear rate sweeps with increasing shear rates (up ramp) was performed to investigate the structural breakdown of the proteins during shearing. Down ramp shear rates were performed to check structural recovery of the proteins. The results showed that unheated SPI suspension has Newtonian flow; meanwhile, unheated WPI solution was slightly shear thickening. Heating the proteins at 80ºC for 4, 8, 12, and 16 h changed flow behavior of the proteins. Flow curve of SPI suspension heated for 12 h and 16, fitted Ostwald model with flow behavior index (n) of 0.625 and 0.264, respectively. This index indicates pseudoplastic (shear thinning) behavior, which also observed in heated WPI solution. The changes in flow behavior was attributed by the changes in protein structures, i.e., globular structures into fibrillar structures under prolonged heating at acidic condition. This conversion also increased the apparent viscosities of the proteins. SPI fibrils have higher apparent viscosities than WPI fibrils. This difference might be attributed to the detail fibril structures. SPI fibrils have branched and curvy structures; meanwhile, WPI fibrils are long and straight.AbstrakPerilaku aliran suspensi Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) dan larutan Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) pada pH 2.0 pada berbagai lama pemanasan diinvestigasi. Shear rate yang meningkat diaplikasikan untuk mengetahui kerusakan struktur protein selama geseran. Shear rate dengan pola menurun dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah strukturprotein kembali ke struktur awal setelah mengalami kerusakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suspensi SPI yang tidak dipanaskan memiliki perilaku aliran Newtonian; sementara larutan WPI yang tidak dipanaskan bersifat sedikit shear thickening. Pemanasan protein pada 80ºC selama 4, 8, 12, dan 16 jam mengubah perilaku aliran suspensi SPI dan larutan WPI. Kurva aliran suspense SPI yang dipanaskan selama 12 jam dan 16 jam sesuai dengan model Ostwald dengan indeks perilaku aliran (n) masing-masing 0.625 dan 0.264. Indeks ini mengindikasikan perilaku aliran bersifat pseudoplastic (shear thinning), yang juga teramati pada larutan WPI yang dipanaskan. Perubahan perilaku aliran disebabkan oleh perubahan struktur protein dimana SPI dan WPI awalnya memiliki struktur globular lalu menjadi struktur fibrillar akibat pemanasan yang lama pada kondisi asam. Perubahan struktur juga meningkatkan nilai apparent viskositas, dimana viskositas fibril SPI lebih tinggi daripada fibril WPI. Perbedaan ini diakibatkan oleh perbedaan struktur fibril protein dimana SPI berbentuk fibril yang bercabang dan melengkung sedangkan WPI berbentuk fibril yang lurus dan panjang.
DESAIN DAN EVALUASI KINERJA MESIN PENCACAH NILAM Andriani Lubis; Tineke Mandang; Wawan Hermawan; Sutrisno Mardjan
Jurnal Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian Vol 24, No 1 (2021): Maret 2021
Publisher : Balai Besar Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Teknologi Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpptp.v24n1.2021.p13-25

Abstract

 Design and Performance Evaluation of Patchouli Chopping Machine. Aceh is one of the largest patchouli producing regions in Indonesia with an average contribution of patchouli production for the last 6 years of 415 tons/year. Patchouli oil is one of Indonesia's mainstay commodities compared to other essential oils. The demand of essential oils for raw materials of cosmetics, perfumes and pharmaceutical products industries continues to increase. The research objective was to design a patchouli chopper machine with the right type of cutting knife. This research was conducted using engineering methods including: problem identification, formulation of patchouli chopper machine design, prototyping, functional testing, and performance testing. The prototype of this chopper machine used an electric motor as its driving force. The machine was divided into 4 major parts, namely hopper, chopper cylinder, chopper knife and outer.  The transmission section used a belt and pulley. The patchouli chopper machine used two types of cutting knife which were the circular knife and the double blade to produce a chopping size of  7-10 cm. The results of the performance test and giving weight scaled values on the patchouli chopper machine showed that double blade performa was better compared to the circular knife type to use because it had the highest score of 3.375 and could be combined in the patchouli harvester. This performance can be seen from the actual engine capacity of 255.74 kg/h, the power needed to chop patchouli stem of 528.55 W with the energy requirement of 7.44 kj/kg, percentage of chopped length of 95.5 % and the efficiency of the electric motor was 98.1% at a blade rotational speed of 745 rpm. Keywords: patchouli oil, chopping, cutting knife, machine capacity ABSTRAK Aceh merupakan salah satu daerah penghasil nilam terbesar di Indonesia dengan kontribusi produksi nilamnya selama 6 tahun terakhir rata-rata mencapai 415 ton/tahun. Minyak nilam merupakan salah satu komoditas andalan Indonesia dibandingkan minyak atsiri lainnya. Kebutuhan minyak atsiri untuk bahan baku industri produk kosmetik, parfum dan farmasi terus meningkat. Tujuan penelitian adalah merancang mesin pencacah batang nilam dengan tipe pisau pemotong yang tepat. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode rekayasa meliputi: identifikasi masalah, perumusan desain mesin pencacah nilam, pembuatan prototipe, uji fungsional, dan uji kinerja. Prototipe mesin pencacah menggunakan tenaga motor listrik sebagai penggeraknya terbagi menjadi 4 bagian yaitu hopper, silinder pencacah, pisau pencacah dan outer. Pada bagian transmisi menggunakan sabuk dan puli. Mesin pencacah nilam dibedakan menjadi dua jenis berdasarkan tipe pisau pemotong yaitu tipe circular knife dan tipe double blade untuk menghasilkan cacahan batang nilam dengan panjang ukuran cacahan  7-10 cm. Hasil uji kinerja dan penggunaan nilai bobot berskala pada mesin pencacah nilam menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan pisau pencacah tipe double blade merupakan pisau terbaik dibandingkan dengan tipe circular knife karena memiliki skor tertinggi 3,375 dan dapat digabungkan pada mesin pemanen nilam nantinya. Kinerjanya dapat dilihat dari kapasitas aktual mesin 255,74 kg/jam, daya terbesar yang dibutuhkan untuk mencacah batang nilam 528,55 W dengan kebutuhan energi pencacahan 7,44 kj/kg, persentase panjang hasil pencacahan 95,5% dan efisiensi motor listrik 98,1% pada kecepatan putar poros pisau 745 rpm.Kata kunci: batang nilam, pencacahan, pisau pemotong, kapasitas mesin
Evaluasi Kinerja Pemisahan Tangkai dan Daun Teh Layu Berdasarkan Prinsip Perontokan dan Penghisapan Agus Sutejo; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan; Wawan Hermawan; Desrial Desrial; Diang Sagita
Jurnal Riset Teknologi Industri Vol.14 No.2 Desember 2020
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Samarinda

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.26578/jrti.v14i2.6431

Abstract

Salah satu kelemahan pada proses pengolahan teh adalah tercampurnya tangkai dan daun teh sehingga proses grading dan sorting dilakukan pada produk akhir teh. Pada penelitian ini, dikembangkan suatu pendekatan baru pemisahan tangkai dan daun teh yaitu pada awal proses. Prinsip yang digunakan adalah dengan merontokan daun dari tangkai teh dan memisahkannya dengan berdasarkan perbedaan kecepatan terminal. Sebuah paket teknologi diperlukan untuk memisahkan tangkai dan daun teh sehingga keduanya dapat diproses secara terpisah untuk menghasilkan teh dengan kualitas terbaik (kelas satu) dalam pengolahan sistem teh ortodoks. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan dan mengevaluasi paket teknologi pemisah daun dan tangkai teh yang telah dilayukan. Metode penelitian terdiri dari pembuatan desain mesin, pembuatan prototipe, uji fungsional mesin dan uji kinerja mesin. Paket teknologi yang telah dibangun terdiri dari tiga unit mesin yaitu mesin perontok, mesin pengayak getar dan mesin penghisap daun teh. Hasil pengujian kinerja terbaik diperoleh pada kecepatan putar silinder perontok 480 rpm yang menghasilkan persentase daun terhisap tertinggi (91,43%) dan persentase tangkai tidak terhisap paling tinggi (86,05%). Rata-rata kecepatan udara hisap pada permukaan tray saat pengujian berada pada kecepatan terminal daun teh, yaitu 1,78-2,98 m s-1 dan kapasitas rata-rata perontokan adalah 156,71 kg jam-1. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat dilihat bahwa pemisahan dengan metode perontok sangat cocok untuk proses pembuatan teh hijau karena dengan prinsip ini dapat meminimalisir kerusakan pada daun teh.
Integrasi Metode Gravitasi dan Metode Perbandingan Eksponensial untuk Penentuan Pusat Distribusi Pangan di Kabupaten Halmahera Selatan Syamsul Bahri; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan; Emmy Darmawati; Bambang Pramudya
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 8 No. 2 (2020): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19028/jtep.08.2.63-70

Abstract

AbstractThis study aims to determine the location of distribution centers in each islandgroup in South Halmahera Regency. Data sources were obtained from survey resultsand literature studies. Integration of Gravity Models and Exponential ComparisonMethods are used to determine the best location. Subdistrict of Kayoa as the locationof distribution centers for Kayoa-Makian islands group, Subdistrict of West Gane forGane islands group, Subdistrict of Bacan for Bacan-Kasiruta islands group, and theObi Subdistrict for Obi Islands group. The location chosen as the distribution centerin each island group is a main subdistrict which physically has better resourcecarrying capacity.
Evaluasi Mutu Beras dengan Kesesuaian Good Handling Practices dan Good Manufacturing Practices di Kabupaten Bogor Dwi Zuwarman; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan; Rokhani Hasbullah
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 8 No. 1 (2020): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19028/jtep.08.1.1-8

Abstract

Milled rice is one of the most important agricultural commodities for Indonesian people as staple food. Consumers tend to not know how to differentiate good or low quality of rice. Rice mill (RMU) in Bogor Regency mostly do not have quality standard comply with Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The purpose of this study was to identify the quality of rice and milled rice produced by RMU in Bogor Regency and evaluate the suitability of the application of rice and milled rice handling in RMU to Good Handling Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The parameters measured were analysis of rice and milled rice quality and data analysis. The data resulted from measuring the quality of grain and rice was obtained from interview and observation. The results showed that four RMU rice samples not included in the class category SNI 6128: 2015 and two samples included in Medium III (M-3). On the postharvest handling conformity level was 44.92 percent for GHP and 60.25 percent for GMP. GHP and GMP guidelines were not yet fully applied by rice milling unit (RMU).
Pengaruh Amplitudo Ultrasonik dan Waktu Ekstraksi Terhadap Rendemen dan Mutu Oleoresin Pala I Wayan Budiastra; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan; Ahmuhardi Abdul Azis
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 8 No. 2 (2020): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19028/jtep.08.2.45-52

Abstract

Nutmeg oleoresin is one of the nutmeg derivative products with high values produced from the extraction process. The conventional extraction process using maceration takes a long time so that it is less suitable for industries needs. This study aims to examine the UAE direct sonication method for increasing yield and quality of nutmeg eleoresin. Nutmeg with optimal maturity level were harvested, dried and milled into 60 mesh particle size. Nutmeg powder of 200 g was placed in beaker glass filled with etanol 800 ml (material and solvent ratio 1:4) and UAE was carried out using a sonicator with a frequency of 20 kHz and power of 700 W. Four ultrasound amplitude levels (45, 60, 75, 90%) and four levels of extraction time (30, 45, 60, 75 minutes) were taken as UAE treatments. Extraction using maceration at room temperature for 7 hours was done as control.  The results showed that the greater the amplitude of the ultrasound, the higher the yield of nutmeg oleoresin. The longer the extraction time, the higher the yield of nutmeg oleoresin. Ultrasonic assisted extraction can increase nutmeg oleoresin yield by 11 to 52% and faster time (<= 1,25 hour) than maceration extraction method (7 hours).
Models of Moisture Sorption Isotherm and The Estimation of Red Ginger Powder Shelf Life in Various Packaging Materials Riska Juliana; Rokhani Hasbullah; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol. 8 No. 1 (2020): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.19028/jtep.08.1.23-28

Abstract

Abstract In the processing, the red ginger powder was dried at 50°C. Red ginger powder is hygroscopic, so it is easy to absorb moisture. This research aims to determine (i) the isothermic absorption curve model in red ginger powder with different fineness modulus and (ii) the expiration date using the critical moisture content method in various types of packaging materials. Moisture sorption isotherm of red ginger powder was determined by the static gravimetric method at 300C. The relationship equilibrium moisture content between relative humidity (RH) is described by the Hasley, Chen-Clayton, Henderson, Caurie, and Oswin Models. The Estimated shelf life is determined using the ASLT (accelerated shelf-life testing) method and calculated using the Labuza model with a critical water content approach. The results obtained that moisture sorption isotherm red ginger powder has sigmoid shape a type II. Henderson is the model that illustrates the accuracy of the ISA curve of red ginger powder of 60 mesh particle size while the Chen-Clayton Model illustrates the accuracy of the ISA curve of red ginger powder of particle size of 80 mesh. The shelf life of red ginger powder is 60 mesh particle size and using HDPE, PP, and aluminum foil packaging which is stored at 75% RH and 300C temperature is 118.85 days, 467.63, and 609.26 days, respectively. The shelf life of red ginger powder 80 particle size is 148.17 days, 582.98 days and 759.54 days.
POST-HARVEST HANDLING EVALUATION OF RED CHILI ALONG THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN SUKABUMI Laras Putri Wigati; Sutrisno Suro Mardjan; Emmy Darmawati
AGROINTEK Vol 14, No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Agroindustrial Technology, University of Trunojoyo Madura

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21107/agrointek.v14i2.5992

Abstract

Red chili is a horticultural product commonly used by people in their daily lives. Horticulture products have a long handling process until they reach consumers. The postharvest handling generally must be carried out are collecting, sorting, grading, packaging, transporting, distributing. This study was conducted to analyze the suitability of postharvest handling from each actor in the supply chain according to the standard operational procedure (SOP) of postharvest handling in red chili. This study used purposive and snowball sampling as the methods of selecting respondents. The percentage of the suitability of postharvest toward SOP was obtained with a simple data calculation. This study found that the supply chain of red chili in the Perbawati village of Sukabumi has two types of chains. Postharvest handling of red chili had done were sorting and packaging while another postharvest handling such as collecting, grading, cleaning had not done by the farmers. For the farmers and middleman handling practices compare to the standard operational procedure of postharvest red chili, was 45.56% of post-harvest handling that suitable with the SOP.