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Utilization Possibility of Cacao Fruit Shell (Theobroma cacao, L) as A Source of Natural Pigment (- Carotene) Wulan, Siti Narsito
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 2, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

The possibility to utilize cacao fruit shell as a source of natural pigment was studied.  The study included quantitative and qualitative aspects. Quantitative   analysis to determine the optimum condition of pigment extraction was done by varying the materials (fresh and dried cacao fruit shell), the concentrations of ethanol as a solvent (75%, 85% and 95%) and the ratios between cacao fruit shell and ethanol (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3).  The highest concentration pigment extract (as mg b carotene/g material) was given by these conditions:  fresh cacao fruit shell, ethanol concentration 95% and the ratio 1:3. Qualitative analysis to determine the heat stability of the pigment extract was done by heat treatment in vary temperatures and time exposures (70°C, 80°C, 90°C and 100°C  for  15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes).  Pigment degradation was detected by measuring the absorbance in l 435 nm with spectrophotometer analysis.  Pigment degradation was detected in all temperatures during 30 minutes heat treatment.  Pigment was also unstable in acid and basic conditions (pH 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9) but stable in neutral condition (pH 7).  Degradation was occurred when H2O2 (oxidator) and  Na2S2O3 (reductor) were added to the pigment extract. Keywords: cacao fruit shell, natural pigment, b- Carotene
Karakterisasi Fisik, Kimia dan Fraksi Protein 7S dan 11S Sepuluh Varietas Kedelai Produksi Indonesia Yuwono, Sudarminto Setyo; Hayati, Kartika Ken; Wulan, Siti Narsito
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 4, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Efforts to develop new varieties of soybeans had been carried out to produce a better quality of yield. Variety of soybeans would affect on properties of products. Besides the chemical compositition, properties of the product may be caused by content of protein globulin fraction such as 7S and 11S. Results showed that some soybean varieties have a higher chemical properties such as protein content compared to imported soybean from USA. Fat, protein, ash and carbohydrate content were 18,539-22,57%; 30,32-35,35%; 5,53-5,96%; 36,83-43,93% respectively, whereas imported soybean contained 22,97%, 31,06%, 5,62%, 40,35% respectively. Globulin 7S and 11S of the samples ranged from 4, 48-14, 05%, and 7,32 - 56,82% respectively. Imported soybean contained  globulin 7S  10,44% dan 11S 53,45%. Variey of Lompobatang and Davros contained globulin 11S higher than that imported soybean.   Keywords : soybean, fractionation, globulin protein
Hypoglycemic Effect Determination of Soybean, Soybean Protein Fraction and Tempe in Diabetic Rats Wulan, Siti Narsito; Astuti, Mary; Marsono, Y.; Noor, Zuheid
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 3, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Hypoglicemic effect of soybean, soybean protein fraction and tempe was determined in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  Blood glucose and urinary glucose level were measured to determine this effect.Soybean protein fraction had the highest hypoglicemic property.  It lowered blood glucose level from 37.35 to 5.48 mg/dl/day/g carbohydrate consumed (85%).  Tempe showed lower hypoglycemic effect than soybean  protein fraction.  Blood glucose level decreased 51%, from 31.57 to 15.59 mg/dl/day/g carbohydrate consumed.  Soybean had the lowest hypoglycemic effect.  It lowered blood glucose level from 47.47 to 27.70 mg/dl/day/g carbohydrate consumed (42%).  Urinary glucose level had the same pattern as blood glucose level.Keywords :  Hypoglicemic effect, blood glucose level, soybean, tempe
Native and Debranched Rice Starch Modification Using Physical or Chemical Treatment to Increase the Level of Resistant Starch Wulan, Siti Narsito; Widyaningsih, Tri Dewanti; Kasseri, Dian
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Resistant starch, dietary fibres compound, is carbohydrate that escape from human digestion system, therefore it has potential health benefits. A study on resistance starch of the native and debranched starches, obtained from rice, which were further treated with physical or chemical treatment has been conducted. The extracted rice starch was first enzymatic debranched by means of bacterial pullulanase. The debranched starch was then treated further either by autoclaving, extrusion cooking or chemically cross-linking. The native starch was also undergone similar physical or chemical treatments.  The results showed that the treated debranched-starch contained a higher level of resistant starch than that of the native starch treated with the similar treatment. The cross linked debranched-starch was the best one and it contained 8.45% moisture, 3.19% ash, 85.44% starch and 3.67% resistant starch. The respective initial gelatinization temperature, gelatinization temperature and maximum viscosity of the modified starch were 79.3oC, 89.6oC and 1478 AU.Key word: resistant starch, enzymatic debranching, physical or chemical modification
Native and Debranched Starch Modification Using Physico-Chemical Treatment to Increase Resistant Starch Content in Rice Wulan, Siti Narsito; Widyaningsih, Tri Dewanti; Ekasari, Dian
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 8, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Besides dietary fiber, resistant starch is carbohydrate that escape human digestion system, therefore it has potential health benefits.  A study on native and debranched starch from rice using physico-chemical treatment has been conducted. Physico chemical treatment used were autoclaving, extrusion and crosslinking.  The result showed that debranched starch which was treated with autoclaving, extrusion and crosslinking had higher resistant starch content than native starch treated with the same physico chemical treatment.  The best treatment with the highest resistant starch content was obtained from debranched starch treated with crosslinking.   The physicochemical properties of the product were as follows: moisture content of 8,45%, ash content of 3,19%, starch content of 85,44%, resistant starch content of 3,67%, initial gelatinization temperature of 79,3oC, gelatinization temperature of 89,6oC, and maximum viscosity of 1478 AU.Key word: resistant starch, debranching, autoclaving, extrusion, crosslinking
Simple Starch Modification Using Physical, Chemical and Combined Physical and Chemical Methods to Produce Pre-cooked Flour Rich in Resistant Starch Made of Corn, Potato and Cassava Wulan, Siti Narsito; Saparianti, Ella; Widjanarko, Simon B.; Kurnaeni, Nina
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 7, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

The research was conducted to evaluate a resistant starch formation in pre-cooked flour made of various native starches using different method of precooking. The raw materials used as the source of native starches were corn, potato and cassava. The types of respective treatment were the physical method, i.e. boiling the raw materials followed by cooling at 4˚C; the chemical modification was carried out by boiling the raw materials in Ca(OH)2 solution; and the combined method of physical and chemical which was performed by boiling the raw materials in Ca(OH)2 solution then cooling at 4˚C.  Each treatment was aimed to produce a specific effect on the starch, i.e.  To promote retro gradation (the physical method), cross-linking (the chemical modification), and the both of them (the combined method). The treated samples were then dried and milled to obtain the pre-cooked flour. The results showed that the method of pre-cooking affected the chemical composition of the individual corn, potato, and cassava flours. The degree of resistant starch formed varied with the raw materials as well as the method of pre-cooking. The combined method of physical and chemical pre-cooking applied on the corn starch produced the highest level of resistant starch (9.98%). Key words:  resistant starch, starch modification, pre-cooking treatment, cross-linking
Studi Kadar Nikotin dan Tar Sembilan Merk Rokok Kretek Filter yang Beredar di Wilayah Kabupaten Nganjuk Kusuma, Dani Ali; Yuwono, Sudarminto S.; Wulan, Siti Narsito
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 5, No 3 (2004)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

Tar and nicotine are subtances contained in cigaretes. Nicotine is adictive, while tar is carcinogenic and causing some diseases. Aim of this research was to know the tar and nicotine content of kretek filter cigaretes sold in Nganjuk district. Multiple sampling method was used to collect data. The data obtained were analyzed using Randomized Block Design. Results showed that nicotine content range from 1,10-2,17% and 2 brands contained nicotine more than the standard (maximum 2,0%). The tar content ranged from 0,05-0,175% and all brands contained the tar under the standard (1,5%).   Key words : Kretek filter cigaretes, tar, nicotine
Synergistic Hydrolysis of Arrowroot (Marantha arundinaceae L.) Starch by -Amylase, Glucoamylase, and Pullulanase for Glucose Syrup Production Yunianta, Yunianta; Sulistyo, Tri; Apriliastuti, Apriliastuti; Estiasih, Teti; Wulan, Siti Narsito
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Vol 11, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

The purified -amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase were used for hydrolysis of arrowroot starch (Marantha arundinaceae L.) a local tuber from Indonesia. This arrowroot starch is a potential source for glucose syrup production. The amylolytic activities of α-amylase, glucoamylase (from Aspergillus niger) and pullulanase (from Bacillus licheneformis) were 90 KNU/g, 260 GAU/g and 390 ASPU/g, respectively. These enzymes were used to study their synergistic effects on the hydrolysis of arrowroot starch to glucose syrup. We have studied the effect of α-amylase concentration (0.025%, 0.045%, and 0.065% (w/w)) and incubation time (1 hour, 1,5 hours, and 2 hours) during liquefaction process that was combined with 24 hours of saccharification process using 0.08% (w/w) dextrozyme (mixture of glucoamylase and pullulanase) in the glucose  syrup production.  This experiment showed that 1.5 hours of liquefaction process using 0.045% (w/w) of -amylase produced 24.64% of reducing sugar and 91.80 of dextrose equivalent.  The second experiment was focused on the determination of saccharification process, where 1 hour liquefaction process using 0.045% (w/w) of -amylase was combined with saccharification process using dextrozyme. In the saccharification process,  a various dextrozyme concentrations (0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 % (w/w)) and incubation times (24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours) were studied in relation to glucose syrup production.  It was showed that 0.08% (w/w) of dextrozyme and 24 hours of incubation time gave the best result on glucose syrup with 24.88% of reducing sugar and 92.14 of dextrose equivalent.Keywords: arrowroot, -amylase, dextrozyme, liquefaction, saccharification, glucose syrup
Perbaikan Respon Glisemik dan Profil Lipid Setelah Mengkonsumsi Tepung Pisang Mentah Termodifikasi Yusrina, Firda; Puspitasari, Rani; Widyaningsih, Tri Dewanti; Wulan, Siti Narsito
Indonesian Journal of Human Nutrition Vol 7, No 2 (2020)
Publisher : Jurusan Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Brawijaya Malang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21776/ub.ijhn.2020.007.02.2

Abstract

ABSTRAKPrevalensi diabetes militus meningkat setiap tahunnya. Pisang mentah berpotensi sebagai pangan pengontrol gula darah karena mengandung  pektin dan pati resisten (RS2). Kandungan pati resisten pada pisang dapat ditingkatkan dengan metode modifikasi fisik melalui proses perebusan dan pendinginan berulang untuk meningkatkan sifat resistensi pati termodifikasi (RS3) yang tahan terhadap suhu tinggi selama pemasakan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh efek konsumsi tepung pisang mentah termodifikasi secara fisik (RS3) dibanding dengan tepung tanpa modifikasi tepung pisang mentah (RS2) dan pati jagung sebagai pati kontrol. Tikus dikelompokkan secara acak menjadi 3 group: kelompok 1 adalah kelompok pakan standart berdasarkan rekomendasi AIN-93 M yang mengandung pati jagung (kontrol).  Tetapi kasein diganti menggunakan susu skim; kelompok 2 adalah kelompok  pakan  tepung pisang tidak dimodifikasi (RS2) dan kelompok 3 adalah kelompok pakan  tepung pisang mentah modifikasi (RS3) sebagai pengganti pati jagung. Semua pakan diformulasi secara isokalori dan isoprotein. Pakan diberikan selama 15 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, pemberian pakan menggunakan tepung pisang modifikasi (RS3) cenderung menghasilkan kadar glukosa darah yang lebih rendah (P<0,05), kadar HDL lebih tinggi (P,0.05), kadar trigliserida darah lebih rendah (P,0.05).  Nilai  respon glikemik lebih rendah (P<0.05) dengan nilai  AUC (daerah dibawah kurva) yang lebih rendah setelah meal tolerance test. Kata kunci:Diabetes Militus, Pati Resisten, Pengendalian Glukosa Darah, Pisang MentahABSTRACT The prevalence of diabetes mellitus increases every year. Unripe plantains have a potential as food that controls blood sugar due to their pectin and resistant starch (RS2) content. The content of resistant starch in plantains can be elevated by a physical modification method through a repeated boiling-cooling process to produce a more heat-stable resistant starch (RS3). The study aimed to determine the effect of consuming physically modified unripe plantain flour (RS3) compared with unmodified unripe plantain flour (RS2) and standard corn starch as control. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups; group 1 given a standard diet based on AIN-93M diet recommendation containing corn starch but the casein was replaced by skim milk powder, group 2 given unmodified unripe plantain flour (RS2), and group 3 given physically modified unripe plantain flour (RS3) as a substitute for corn starch. All diets were formulated as isocaloric and isoprotein. Diet interventions were provided for 15 days. The results showed that modified banana flour (RS3) feed tended to have lower blood glucose level (P <0.05), higher HDL level (P <0.05), lower blood triglyceride level (P <0.05), and lower glycemic response (P<0.05) indicated by a lower score of the area under the curve (AUC) following the meal tolerance test. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, resistant starch, blood glucose control, unripe plantain  
PERAN XANTHON KULIT BUAH MANGGIS (Garcinia mangostana L.) SEBAGAI AGEN ANTIHIPERGLIKEMIK Jaya Mahar Maligan; Fitri Chairunnisa; Siti Narsito Wulan
Jurnal Ilmu Pangan dan Hasil Pertanian Vol 2, No 2 (2018)
Publisher : Program Studi Teknologi Pangan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.26877/jiphp.v2i2.2813

Abstract

Diabetes Melitus (DM) adalah suatu penyakit yang dicirikan dengan meningkatnya kadar glukosa darah dalam tubuh (kondisi hiperglikemik). DM terjadi karena adanya ketidakseimbangan antara transportasi glukosa ke dalam sel dengan produksi insulin oleh pankreas. Penyakit ini umumnya diinisiasi oleh paparan radikal bebas terhadap tubuh. Radikal bebas dapat menyebabkan kerusakan sel-sel penghasil insulin pada pankreas sehingga tubuh kekurangan insulin. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi DM adalah dengan mengkonsumsi bahan pangan yang memiliki senyawa bioaktif yang dapat bersinergi dalam menekan efek buruk DM. Senyawa  bioaktif tersebut salah satunya yang terdapat dalam kulit manggis, yaitu xanthon dan turunannya. Xanthon pada kulit manggis ini termasuk kedalam golongan senyawa polifenol. Xanthon dipercaya mampu menurunkan kadar glukosa darah atau sebagai antihiperglikemik. Kata kunci: Antihiperglikemik, Kulit manggis, Xanthon