Aksin Wijaya
IAIN Ponorogo

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NALAR EPISTEMOLOGI AGAMA: Argumen Pluralisme Religius Epistemologis Abdul Karim Sorosh Wijaya, Aksin
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman Vol 11, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : IAIN Tulungagung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21274/epis.2016.11.2.201-224

Abstract

Menurut Abdul Karim Sorosh, agama terdiri dari dua unsur: pengalaman seseorang bertemu dengan Yang Sakral dan kitab suci yang merupakan manifestasi dari pengalaman Yang Sakral itu. Tafsir terhadap agama diarahkan kepada dua unsur tersebut. Yang penting dicatat dalam konteks penafsiran bahwa di satu sisi, pengalaman keagamaan seorang nabi bervariasi dan kitab suci agama mengandung pesan beragam. Sedangkan di sisi lain, seorang mufassir agama melalui luar kerangka agama sehingga terselip asumsi-asumsi, harapan-harapan dan teori-teori ilmu pengetahuan sesuai dinamika hidup sang mufassir. Karena itu, tafsir terhadap agama yang disebut dengan istilah pemikiran keagamaan menurut Sorosh tidak hanya beragam, tetapi juga dinamis. Keragaman dan dinamika pemikiran keagamaan bisa dilihat dari banyaknya aliran pemikiran keagamaan yang berkembang di dunia, baik aliran keagamaan yang menjadi mainstream maupun non-mainstream. Contohnya, Sorosh melansir tiga kategori aliran pemikiran keagamaan yang berkembang saat ini: pertama, pemikiran keagamaan yang menekankan agama agar bermanfaat bagi manusia dalam menjalani hidupnya di dunia (maslahi). Kedua, pemikiran keagamaan yang menekankan agar agama bisa menjawab persoalan-persoalan epistemologis yang dihadapi manusia (ma’rifati). Ketiga, pemikiran keagamaan yang menekankan agar agama menjadi bagian dari pengalaman seseorang dalam bertemu dengan Tuhan (tajribati). Masing-masing aliran itu menurut Sorosh mempunyai variasi gerakan sendiri-sendiri, namun aliran keagamaan yang ketiga (tajribati) lebih bervariasi daripada dua aliran lainnya.According to Abdul Karim Sorosh, the religion consists of two components namely a person’s meeting experience to the Sacred and the holy books which is concreted from its Sacred experience. Interpretation of the religion is directed to these two elements. Meanwhile, prophets had varied religious experiences as well as religion’s holy books contain diverse messages. However, mufassir interprets religion through the outside framework of religion itself; as a result, assumptions, expectations and theories of science are which in accordance with the life of the mufassir start to emerge eventually. For that reason, the interpretation of religious according to Sorosh is not only diverse but also dynamic. The diversity and dynamics of religious thought can be seen from variability of sect developed around the world in the form of mainstream and non-mainstream. The example is that Sorosh divided three categories of religious thought sect nowdays. Firstly, it emphasizes that religion is beneficial for living in the world (maslahi). Secondly, it highlight that religion can solve epistemological problems faced by mankind (ma’rifati). Thirdly, it put emphasison the concept that religion as a part of one’s experience in meeting the Lord (tajribati). Each type of religious schools of thought proposed by Sorosh hasits own movement, however the movements for the third types (tajribati) is more various than the other two types.
Observing Islam With Ethics: From Hatred Theology to Religious Ethics Wijaya, Aksin; Suwendi, Suwendi; Syamsuddin, Sahiron
QIJIS Vol 9, No 1 (2021)
Publisher : IAIN Kudus

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21043/qijis.v9i1.9538

Abstract

The emergence of religious phenomena that lead certain Muslim groups in Indonesia to spread hatred (religious hate speech) became the primary rationale of this article. This phenomenon occurred because some Muslim groups consider their religious understanding to be the only actual theological truth while ignoring religious ethics in a religiously plural society. Therefore, some questions were raised: Firstly, what is the conceptual structure of Islam? Secondly, what does Islam teach its believers in regards to living together within the Islamic community and living among believers of other different religions? The method of ethics was employed to analyze the two research questions by describing, analyzing, and criticizing the attitude of the Islamic movement, which spreads hatred. From this article, it is expected that Muslims should emphasize not only religious theological but also ethical truth. The findings are as follows: firstly, the conceptual structure of Islam comprises of threefold: Islam, Iman, and Ihsan, which culminate in Ihsan, Sufism, and ethics. Secondly, in regards to becoming a Muslim and embracing it among believers of other religions, Islam essentially relates its religious and theological truth to the religious ethic (the ethic of al-Qur’an), which combines three elements of ethics: God’s, religious, and social ethics. The two latter ethics should always refer to God’s affirmative ethics, for instance, with His Divine attributes of The Most Merciful and Just. God has mercy on human beings and treats all of them justly. Likewise, human beings essentially should do the same in relation to God and fellow human beings.