Kusmardi Kusmardi
Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta 10430

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Serum cell-free DNA concentration in BALB/c mice with azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal cancer Novianry, Virhan; Yulhasri, Yulhasri; Kusmardi, Kusmardi
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 24, No 1 (2015): March
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (475.073 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v24i1.730

Abstract

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States with a mortality rate ranked second in 2012. Early diagnosis such as detection of DNA in serum or faeces at the polyp stage, will reduce colorectal cancer mortality. This study was conducted to analyze the concentration of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a tumor marker in colorectal carcinogenesis by using blood serum samples from BALB/c mice previously induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and promoted by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS).Methods: This experimental animal study used 6 BALB/c mice which had serial intervention in a certain time frame. The first serum samples were taken before induction of carcinogenesis (week-0); then AOM induction of carcinogenesis followed and the second sampling one week after AOM intervention (week-1). Subsequently, promotion of carcinogenesis followed with DSS and the third sampling one week after this intervention (week-2). The fourth sampling was 5 weeks after AOM-DSS intervention (week-6). Quantification of the serum cfDNA was performed with SYBR-Green II fluorescence using Rotor Gene 6000 as a reference. Histopathological examination verified induction of carcinogenesis. For statistical analysis paired T-test was used.Results: Concentration of serum cfDNA showed significant difference between sampling group at week-0 (1238.49 ± 674.84 pg/µL) and sampling group at week-6 (2244.04 ± 726.57 pg/µL) the latter group showing pre-cancerous histopathology. Slightly increased cfDNA at week-1 with AOM induction (1358.57 ± 803.81 pg/µL) and week-2 after DSS promotion (1317.23 ± 735.92 pg/µL) were not significantly different from week-0 samples.Conclusion: The concentration of cfDNA in the serum of BALB/c mice 5 weeks after AOM induction of carcinogenesis and DSS promotion is significantly higher than before induction.
Characterization of Adenocarcinoma’s Autofluorescence Properties Using Multiexcitation Analysis Method Hamdani Zain; Aryo Tedjo; Kusmardi Kusmardi
Makara Journal of Health Research Vol 11, No 2 (2007): December
Publisher : Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

General purpose of this research is to get an early cancer detection method based on the properties of optical analysis between normal and adenocarsinoma tissue using the multiexcitation autofluorescence method. Observation of autofluorescence properties was done on the biopsy sample of adenocarcinoma tissues, GR mice transplanted by adenocarsinoma, and cell culture SM 1. Excitation on tissue was done by using the lamp Light Emitting Diode (LED) at some visible light wavelength range. This research obtained that the value of Intensity Auto fluorescence (IAF) at range red wavelength of cells and adenocarsinoma tissues tend to lower compared to the cells normal tissues if its were excited by blue LED. On the contrary, the value of IAF at infra red wavelength from cells and carcinoma tissues tend to higher compared to the cells and normal tissues if its were excited by red LED.
The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Ketepeng Cina (Cassia alata L.) on the Macropages Activities and Capacities Kusmardi Kusmardi; Shirly Kumala; Enif Esti Triana
Makara Journal of Health Research Vol 11, No 2 (2007): December
Publisher : Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Ketepeng cina (KC) (Cassia alata L.) has already been reported to stimulate the immune response. The current study investigates the role of KC on mice macrophages activities and capacyties. Twenty four Swiss mice were divided into 6 equal groups. The first control group (Group I), received phytohemaglutinin. The second control group (Group II), was given CMC Na 0,5%. The third control group (Group III), was given aquadest. The cases group: group IV received 42 mg ethanol extract of KC/20 g BW, group V received 84 mg/20 BW, and group VI received 168 mg/20 g BW. These were admonished orally on day 1 until 7. On day 8, Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were injected intraperitoneally. The macrophages activities and capacyties were counted on slide smears of mice peritoneal fluid. According to enhancement of dose, either the macrophages activities or capacyties were found. The lowest activity encounter on the negative control (group II and III) followed by Group IV, V, positive control (group I) and group VI.
The Effect of Ethanol Extract of Daun Johar (Cassia siamea Lamk.) on the Macropages Activities and Capacities Kusmardi Kusmardi; Shirly Kumala; Dwitia Wulandari
Makara Journal of Health Research Vol 10, No 2 (2006): December
Publisher : Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Daun Johar (DJ) (Cassia siamea Lamk.) has already been reported to stimulate the immune response. The current study investigates the role of DJ on mice macrophages activities and capacyties. Twenty four Swiss mice were divided into 6 equal groups. The first control group (Group I), re­ceived aquadest. The second con­trol group (Group II), was given CMC Na 0,5% . The third con­trol group (Group III), was given phytohemaglutinin. The case group: group IV received 23,78 mg ethanol extract of DJ/20 g BW, group V received 47,56 mg/20 BW, and group VI received 95,13 mg/20 g BW. These were injected orally on day 1 until 7. On day 8, Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were injected intraperitoneally. The macrophages activities and capacyties were counted on slide smears of mice peritoneal fluid. According to enhancement of dose, either the macrophages activities or capacyties were found. The lowest activity encounter on the negative control (369,5±18,1384) followed by CMC Na 0,5% (378,5±13,1783), doses of 23,78 mg/20gBW (466,75±9,4296), doses of 47,56 mg/20 g BW (557±30,2324), positive control/PHA (670,5±10,0830) and doses of 95,13 mg/20 g BW (683,5±12,1244).
Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Detection Using Immunohistochemistry and Giemsa and Its Association with Morphological Changes in Active Chronic Gastritis Nurdin, Wildawati; Krisnuhoni, Ening; Kusmardi, Kusmardi
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy Vol 17, No 1 (2016): VOLUME 17, NUMBER 1, April 2016
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (217.502 KB) | DOI: 10.24871/171201621-27

Abstract

Background: Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa as a response to infection or irritation of the gaster. The most common aetiology of chronic gastritis is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Presence of H. pylori is associated with the occurrence of inflammation, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia. In terms of morphology, H. pylori is known in 2 forms, which are rod-shaped and coccoid-shaped. Coccoid-shaped bacteria are difficult to detect using Giemsa staining. Therefore, immunohistochemistry staining of H. pylori and evaluation of the sensitivity of coccoid-shaped of H. pylori are needed.Method: Cross-sectional study on 90 biopsy tissues of chronic gastritis patients in year 2015 and 2014, which included 30 Giemsa cases with positive H. pylori, 30 cases of active chronic gastritis with negative H. pylori but coccoid-shaped was found, and 30 non-active chronic gastritis, were subsequently stained with immunohistochemistry staining of H. pylori.Results: Expression of coccoid-shaped H. pylori in active chronic gastritis was significantly different (p < 0.05) in immunohistochemistry staining. There was a significant difference between active chronic gastritis with positive H. pylori and negative H. pylori in immunohistochemistry staining with degree of inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity test between Giemsa and immunohistochemistry staining showed sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 100%.Conclusion: Immunohistochemistry staining in active chronic gastritis was more sensitive compared to Giemsa staining in detecting H. pylori, particularly the coccoid-shaped bacteria.
Photoelectrochemical Detection of Dengue-Related Oligonucleotide Sequence using Anthocyanin as an Intercalating Agent and Electrochromic Material Aryo Tedjo; Anwar S. Ibrahim; Kusmardi Kusmardi
Makara Journal of Health Research Vol 14, No 2 (2010): December
Publisher : Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

World Health Organization (WHO) presupposes a confirmation of dengue virus infection diagnosis with two criteria, i.e. clinical and laboratory criteria. One of the basic methods used by most laboratories to diagnose dengue virus is to detect oligonucleotide sequence using a DNA amplification technique. In this research, the measurement of denguerelated oligonucleotide was conducted by photoelectrochemical method. The presence of oligonucleotide sequence in target DNA can be detected by DNA probe that is immobilized on TiO2 electrode. The DNA hybrid is then bound to electrochromic substance like anthocyanin that generates current when it is subjected to light. The photocurrent is directly proportional to the number of target DNA. The aim of this research is to obtain photoelectrochemical system that has sensitivity and high responsiveness toward the change in oligonucleotide concentration, especially the applicability of anthocyanin as a electrochromic substance and intercalating agent. Linearity (R2) generated from the change of current in response to concentration changes of target DNA (in the concentration range of 0.75&ndash;3.00 nM) is 0.9611. Thus, this method has the potential to be developed to detect the presence of dengue virus in biological sample.
Classification of Several Skin Cancer Types based on Autofluorescence Intensity of Visible Light to Near Infrared Ratio Aryo Tedjo; Surya Dwira; Anwar S. Ibrahim; Rino Patiatta; Kusmardi Kusmardi
Makara Journal of Health Research Vol 13, No 2 (2009): December
Publisher : Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin caused by many factors. The most common skin cancers are Basal Cell Cancer (BCC) and Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC). This research uses a discriminant analysis to classify some tissues of skin cancer based on criterion number of independent variables. An independent variable is variation of excitation light sources (LED lamp), filters, and sensors to measure autofluorescence intensity (IAF) of visible light to near infrared (VIS/NIR) ratio of paraffin embedded tissue biopsy from BCC, SCC, and Lipoma. From the result of discriminant analysis, it is known that the discriminant function is determined by 4 (four) independent variables i.e., blue LED-red filter, blue LED-yellow filter, UV LED-blue filter, and UV LED-yellow filter. The accuracy of discriminant in classifying the analysis of three skin cancer tissues is 100%.
The Potentiality of ß- Carotene as Free Radical Scavenger: A Study of the Raise of Superoxide Production in Mitochondrial Lymphocyte Peni K. Samsuria Mutalib; Kusmardi Kusmardi; Aryo Tedjo
Makara Journal of Health Research Vol 13, No 1 (2009): June
Publisher : Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

This is a study on carotenoid extracted from &lsquo;Minyak Buah Merah&rsquo; (Pandanus conoideus) in therapy simulation using high dose of &beta;-carotene on two lymphocytes&mdash;that of a healthy subject and a leukemia patient. Superoxide production in mithocondrial lymphocyte as a result of &beta;-carotene exposure was examined using a flow cytometer. The test finds that superoxide (a specific mitochondrial free radical) increases easier and faster in leukemic lymphocytes than in normal lymphocytes. The results of the study support previous meta-analysis studies that high dosages of &beta;-carotene and vitamin E supplements as antioxidant should be discouraged because it increases all-cause mortality.
Potential Deleterious Effects of L-Citrulline Supplementation in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction: Focus on Nitrosative Stress Wikanendra, Gregorius Bhaskara; Arozal, Wawaimuli; Kusmardi, Kusmardi; Juniantito, Vetnizah; Laurentius, Andrea
Indonesian Journal of Pharmacy Vol 30 No 4, 2019
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm30iss4pp269

Abstract

L-Citrulline shows potential activity as a supplement to prevent myocardial infarction through vasodilative and possible antioxidative effects but may be deleterious by causing nitrosative stress. This study determined the potentially deleterious effects of L-citrulline supplementation in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction with a focus on nitrosative stress. L-Citrulline supplementation was given orally at dosages of 300 or 600mg/kg body weight daily for 6 days. Myocardial infarction was induced in Wistar rats via subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight (BW)) on day 4 and 5. Blood pressure was measured at the end of the study (day 6) and rats were sacrificed to collect heart tissue samples for a histopathological evaluation. The histopathological evaluation was done using hematoxylin and eosin staining for the myocardial damage evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of arginase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 3-nitrotyrosine to evaluate nitrosative stress. L-Citrulline supplementation failed to show a significant protective effect on blood pressure and exacerbated the decrease of diastolic blood pressure. Both low and high dose L-citrulline supplementation had a significant protective effect on myocardial damage compared to the isoproterenol group (p<0.01). L-Citrulline also caused increased nitrosative stress as shown by increased expression of arginase-2 and 3-nitrotyrosine on IHC staining but tended to show an ameliorative effect on iNOS expression. A significant increase in arginase-2 expression was detected between the high dose group and the other groups (p<0.01 vs. normal and isoproterenol groups; p<0.05 vs. low dose group). L-Citrulline supplementation increased 3-nitrotyrosine expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was significantly different compared to the normal group (low dose: p<0.013; high dose: p<0.003). L-Citrulline increased the production of nitrosative stress but resulted in less myocardial damage through its other effects.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes dan Peranannya pada Karsinoma Payudara Ditha Diana; Kusmardi
Majalah Patologi Indonesia Vol 29 No 1 (2020): MPI
Publisher : Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Patologi Indonesia (IAPI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1159.889 KB) | DOI: 10.55816/mpi.v29i1.405

Abstract

Infiltration of T lymphocyte cells in tumor tissue is a good prognosis in cancer patients. The infiltrating lymphocyte(TIL) tumor is the phenotype of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes that infiltrate tumors. TIL can have abeneficial effect as well as a detrimental effect on breast carcinoma. There are three subtypes of T lymphocytes thatinfiltrate tumors which are T-helper (Th), T-citotoxic (Tc) and T-regulators (Treg). The role of Th lymphocytes in tumorimmunity can be divided into three phases, that are the initial induction phase, the phase maintaining the Tc responseas an effector and the memory formation phase. Th lymphocytes will secrete cytokines that can stimulate tumor cellsto increase the expression of MHC class I molecules, so that it will further optimize the function of Tc lymphocyticcytotoxicity which has the most dominant role in cytolytic tumor cells. Treg lymphocytes effectively suppressantitumor responses from Tc lymphocytes and other immune cells so that they can facilitate tumor development. Inbreast carcinoma, Treg lymphocytes have a different influence on each of the cancer subtypes.