A study on genetic variation of the high mountain fruit bat (Chironax melanocephalus) was conducted in Gunung Halimun National Park. DNA total from liver tissues were extracted and fragment of the 12SrRNA gene region of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Nucleotide sequence of the PCR products were determined by automated sequencer. Seven haplotype were found among 20 individuals from 6 localities, namely: South Halimun Mountain, Kendeng Mountain, Botol Mountain, Pasir Cangkuang Mountain, Kencana Mountain, and Buligir Putih Mountain. Haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.76 and 0.0222. DNA distances values ranged from 0.0028 to 0.0202.
ABSTRACTProfile of Small mammals from Gunung Slamet, Central Jawa. Research of small mammals atGunung Slamet, Central Jawa was conducted. Three types of habitats as representation ofprimary forest, secondary forest and plantation were examined at Kalipagu, Kaliwadas andBambangan in order to record its small mammals biodiversity. Combination of trapping anddirect observation recorded 31 species of small mammals from the areas observed. Shannon-Wiener index was the highest in secondary forest (3.8) compared to primary forest (3.6) andplantation (3.4). The results indicated that most small mammals of Gunung Slamet use secondaryforest for their home range. However data on microchiropterans that were more frequentlyrecorded in plantations indicated that agricultural plants were their primary foraging areas. Onthe other hand, most of small mammals species were rely on both secondary forest and primaryforest as an important food resources. The dendogram resulting from cluster analysis wasconcordant with this view. Primary forest and secondary forest clustered closely together,while plantation was recognized as a distinct group.Key words: Small mammals, Gunung Slamet, biodiversity, habitat.
The study of morphological variation of the plantain squirrel Callosciurusnotatus was done based on MZB (Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense) collections. A total of 160 adult specimens from Sumatra, Bangka, Serutu, Siantan-Anamba, Kalimantan, Jawa, Madura, Bali and Selayar Islands. Indonesia were examined. Thirty four skulls, dental and dentary characters were measured. Univariate and multivariate statisticalanalyses were applied to asses morphological variation.The results show that the population of plantain squirrel from Sumatra,Kalimantan and Jawa overlaps in discriminant function space indicating low variation in skull, dentary and dental size. The Maduran was suggested as an intermediate form between Kalimantan and Jawa; Bangka, Belitung, Batam cluster together with Sumatra; Natuna with Jawa; Serutu with Kalimantan; and Siantan appears to be betweenSumatra, Kalimantan and Jawa. There are two subspecies in Sumatera (C. n. vittatus and C. n. tapanulius) and one in Jawa (e. notatus notatus) and Kalimantan (C. n. dulitensis). The colour differences detected between populations within an island of Sumatra is not sufficient to justify that they subspecifically distinct within an island, except for the Tapanuli populations.Keyword: Squirrel, Callosciurus notatus, Morphology, Indonesia
Thirty specimens of Rattus collected from Gag Island, Papua were compareddirectly with two specimens from Gebe Island, one from Salawati Island and sixspecimens from mainland of Papua. All cranial, dental, dentary and external characterswere measured and analysed using multiple regression and discriminant function.The multiple regression showed that only incisive foramina length was influenced bysexual dimorphism. Discriminant function analysis indicated that the form from Gagisland was different from the other populations collected from mainland of Papua,Gebe and Salawati, and thus was described as Rattus nikenii sp. nov.
Morphological variation in the fruit bat Megaerops spp. from five islands in Indonesia were examined. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses based on 19 skull characters and 12 external body chcracrers from 32 adult specimens were conducted to examine morphological variation.Multiple regression analysis on the three species examined indicated that there were not sexually dimorphic in both skull and external body characters. Between these species examined showed a marked distinction, as detected by using discriminant function analysis, Specimens of Megaerops from Bali and Lombok were not morphologically distinct from M. kusnotoi, while our additional Sumatran Megaerops were morphologically similar to M. w. albicollis.This is the first report of M. kusnotoi from Bali and Lombok, and for M. w.albicollis from Sumatra.Keywords: Taxonomic, morphology, distribution, Indonesia.
Morphological variation in the cave fruit bat, Eonycteris spelaea from Indonesia and the Philippines was examined using both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses based on measurements of 22 skull characters and 15 external body characters from 270 adult specimens. Other non-meristic characters were also examined.Multiple regression analyses indicated strong sexual dimorphism in both skull and external body characters. Almost all measured characters differed significantly between islands. Thirteen of the 37 characters were also influenced ~t:he age of adults.Four distinct morphological groups of E. spelaea.were recognised using discriminant function analysis following the removal of the effects of,age and sex on the measurements considered. These were: Jawa/Sumatera Group, Lesser Sunda/Philippines Group, Sulawesi Group and Kalimantan Group. These morphological groups were considered subspecifically distinct; the Kalimantan Group is herein described as a new subspecies.
Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara dengan kekayaan keanekaragaman hayati yang melimpah. Untuk menjamin kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati Indonesia berbagai upaya telah ditempuh, antara lain dengan ditetapkannya berbagai kawasan konservasi. Salah satunya adalah Cagar Alam Leuweung Sancang yang secara administrasi termasuk dalam wilayah Kecamatan Cibalong, Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat. Untuk mengelola kawasan Cagar Alam Leuweung Sancang diperlukan berbagai informasi, termasuk data akurat tentang komunitas mamalia di berbagai habitat di dalamnya. Oleh karena itu telah dilakukan penelitian untuk melengkapi kebutuhan akan data dasar sebaran mamalia di berbagai habitat dalam cagar alam ini. Kombinasi antara pengamatan langsung dan penangkapan di hutan primer Sancang Timur, hutan sekunder Cijeruk dan belukar Mas Sigit berhasil mencatat sebanyak 21 jenis mamalia. Indeks keanekaragaman Shannon-Wiener untuk ketiga plot pengamatan adalah 2,02 (Mas Sigit), 2,66 (Sancang Timur) dan 3,04 (Cijeruk). Rata-rata indeks similaritas Jaccard adalah 32% menunjukkan tingkat similaritas yang rendah di antara ketiga plot pengamatan. Analisis kluster berdasarkan keberadaan jenis mamalia pada setiap plot pengamatan dan sebaran jenis mamalia menunjukkan konsistensi adanya
ÃÂ A study was conducted by a combination of collecting the animals and direct observation in order to define small mammals community in surrounding buffer zone of Mount Slamet at Curug Cipendok and Banjarsari. The small mammals community at the surveyed areas was described by using Shannon- Wiener index of diversity and Simpson index of dominance. Results indicating that Curug Cipendok had higher small mammals diversity and lower level of dominance of certain species compare to Banjarsari.
Effect of habitat and altitudinal changes on the distribution of bats in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Jawa. We investigated the bat community in its density and diversity between primary forest, secondary forest, shrub and pines in Gunung Ciremai National Park. This paper discuss the impact of these nature changes on the bat community along this national park. Our data showed a relationship between distribution of each bat species with habitat changes andaltitudinal gradients between 500-600 and 1100-2100 m above sea level. The distribution of bats according to their habitat and altitude in this study is parallel with some other previous studies. The results indicated that both habitat and altitidinal differences are important factors in influencing the distribution of each bat species. Although forest and disturbed areas provide food and shelter for support many of these bats species, it is urgent to maintain and improve the quality of the forests in this important national park.Keywords: Gunung Ciremai, bats, forests, disturbed areas, altitudinal.
ABSTRACTSmall mammal community in various habitats at Apuy track and Linggarjati trackof Gunung Ciremai National Park. Distribution of small mammals at Apuy track(west slope) and Linggarjati track (east slope) of Gunung Ciremai National Park arecorrelated with their habitats. Traps, mist nets and observational methods were conductedto record small mammals from seven different habitats. To interpret such patterns, weconducted cluster analysis based on Jaccard index of similarity resulting five distinctgroups. Species diversity for each habitat differs significantly indicating great diversitydifferences between habitats. Common species appear to occupy disturbed area alongthe habitats examined, where as rare species tend to associate with more distinctivehabitat types. The results seem to suggest that forest may still consitute an substantialcomponent for the preservation of small mammals.Key words: ciremai, small mammals, habitat, distribution, zoning.