Terminalia is the second largest genus of Combretaceae family, consists of 200 species distributed in the tropics and subtropics. Many species of Terminalia are well kown in traditional medicine Â in several countries of Africa and Asia. In this study, bark extracts of four species of Terminalia (T. catappa, T. citrina, T. bellirica and T. macadamii) were evaluated for their in-vitro anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Determination of the anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using red blood cell membrane stabilization assay and the antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power assay. Estimation of total phenolic Â content was carried out using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, while Â total flavonoid content using alumminium trichloride reagent. The results showed that extract of T. catappa has the most potent anti-inflammatory activity (IC50= 97,83Â±0,0100 ?g/mL) and the most powerful Â antioxidant activity of DPPH free radical scavenging (IC50= 21,8900 Â± 0,0264 ?g/mL) and ferric reducing power (IC50= 87,1533 Â± 0,04163 ?g/ mL). The weakest anti-inflammatory activity was T. citrina extract (IC50= 159,35Â±0,0200 ?g/mL), whereas T. bellirica extract demonstrated the weakest antioxidant activity of Â DPPH free radical scavenging (IC50= 44,4867 Â± 0,0153 ?g/mL) and ferric reducing Â power (IC50= 140,89Â±0,04 ?g/mL). The extract of T. citrina has the highest content of total phenolic (84,8167 Â± 0,53407 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (23,1200 Â± 1,7149 mg RE/g) while the T. macadamii extract has the lowest content of total phenolic (24,3700 Â± 0,0173 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (13,2667 Â± 0,3386 mg RE/g).
Isolation of two essential oils of Baeckea frutescens L. leaves from different locations (Yogyakarta and Semarang) was done by hydrodistilation. The chemical composition of the oils were analysed by GC-MS. The oils were found to possess chemical compositional differences and considerable variation in the levels of each chemical components, suggesting the existence of chemical varieties.The oils were dominated by monoterpene i.e 8-cineole (22,08-22.67%) and P-pinene (17,98-29.22%).Comparison of chemical composition of the oils analyzed in this study and oils from literatures was conducted to study the effect of environmental factor on the essential oil composition.The result showed that temperature, irradiance, photoperiod and altitute factors influence the chemical composition of essential oils. Tasmanone, a non-terpenic triketone only appears in the essential oils from Quang Binh province (north Vietnam), that have extreme environmental condition.
The antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of T. copelandii Elmer bark have been evaluated by using free radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reduction power and Ã-caroten bleaching assay. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and âbutylated hydroxytolueneâ (BHT) were used as positive control or antioxidant standard. Total phenolic content was estimated by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and expressed in gallic acid (Gallic Acid Equivalent), while total flavonoid content was estimated by using aluminium chloride reagent and expressed in routine (Routine Equivalent). The result shows antiradical activity of extract on concentration 40 Âµg/ml was 89.96%, lower than vitamin C (95.61%) but higher than BHT ((52.25%). The reducing power of extract on concentration 50 Âµg/ml has absorbance value 0.644 lower than vitamin C (0.769), but higher than BHT (0.475). During 2 hours incubation, extract on concentration 50 Âµg/ml inhibited Ã-caroten bleaching 69.46% higher than control negative (35.81%), but lower than BHT (85.99%). Estimation of total phenolic and total flavonoid content showed that extract contained 350.40 Âµg (GAE)/g extract and 277.50 Âµg (RE)/g extract respectively. The antioxidant properties may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extract.
The development of method to explore natural chemical product initially from plants were started from the beginning and generously from time to time from the conventional ones until sophisticated equipments.The value of plants as food,cosmetic and medicines resources needs specific instruments and methods for determining the quantity as well as quality of the materials in plants.This paper describe in detail one of the sophisticated equipments commonly used for analyzing and isolating bioactive compounds the so called High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
The essential oils of the fresh leaves of Melaleuca spp. (M. alternifolia Cheel, M. ericifolia Sm., M. squarrosa Donn, and M.genistifolia Sm.) from Cibodas Botanical Garden, Indonesia were isolated by a hydrodistillation method and analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. The various Melaleuca species showed differences within their relative essential oil compositions. The oils from all samples were of the methyl eugenol (10.30-71.25%) chemotype. The others major constituent were terpinen-4-ol (38.49%), linalool (19.65%) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phtalate (66.09%) in the M. alternifolia, M. ericifolia, and M. genistifolia respectively.
Ethanol 95% and water extracts of Kaempferia spp. (K. galanga, K. angustifolia, K. pandurata and K. rotunda) were tested for their influences in in-vitro phagocytosis activity and phagocytosis capacity of mouse peritoneum macrophage cells induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts were tested at a series concentration in logarithmic order (0.1-1000) ug/ml. Imboost and distilled water were employed as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results shows that almost all extracts were capable to increase on phagocytosis activity (SPA - Screening for Phagocytosis Activity) and phagocytosis capacity (IP â¢ Index Phagocytosis) of macrophage cells compared to positive and negative controls significantly (p<0.05).The phagocytosis activity and capacity macrophage cells were increased by increasing extract concentration. K.rotunda extracts shows reveal better on above activities in low concentration (0.1-100) ug/ml then other species.
Extraction of Jungrahab (Baeckea frutescens L.) leaves was done by using organic solvent (ether). The antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated using l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was employed as a positif control. By virtue of their hydrogen donating ability, the extract and ascorbic acid exhibited reducing power.The extract was found has activity in free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The antioxidant activity was supposed to be due to the composition of certain constituens e.g. 2,6-di(/-buthyl)-4-hidroxybenzoie acid (BHT-acid), 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methylflavanone and a-tocopherol (vitamin E) within the extract.
This study was done to determine the chemical compounds and antibacterial activity of ki cengkeh (Urophyllum arboreum (Reinw.ex. Bl.) Korth.) essential oil. Ki cengkeh has already known as medicinal plant in some places in Indonesia. This might be correlated with its chemical compounds. The analysis of chemical compounds of ki cengkeh essential oil was done by GC-MS, while antibacterial test was done by paper disc method against 3 bacteria isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Eschericia coli). The result of GC-MS analysis showed that there were 25 compounds with the concentration more than 1% and carryophylen oxide as the highest compound (12.03%). The highest antibacterial activity was found against S. epidermidis.
Cempirit [Ervatamia svhaerocarva Burck.(Apocynaceae)] is a sticky plant found in Indonesia. This species had long been used as traditional medicine for skin diseases and ulceration of nose.Major biologically active compound was isolated from bark of E.sphaerocarDa by using combination of chromatography techniques (Thin Layer Chromatography,Colum Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography).The structure of this compound was elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly by NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectral. This compound was determined as indole alkaloide called Tabernaemontanine.
Toona sinensisis a plant species included in Meliaceae family.In China, the leaves of T. sinensis are used in Chinese traditional and herbal drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, urethritis,gastric ulcer, enteritis, diarrhea, chronic dysentery,itching, andcancer. Barkis the part of plant that contains phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds have redox properties that can act as a reducing agent or hydrogen donor so its have antioxidant properties. In this study, four types of solvent were used for partition of T. sinensis bark extract.The fractions were used to examine the effects of solvents on total phenolic content sand antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content of fractions was determined using Folin-ciocalteu reagent while antioxidant activity was carried out using phosphomolybdenum, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing power and ß-carotene bleaching assay. Results showed that ethyl acetate fraction has the highest content of total phenolic compound (36,42 ± 0,05 mg GAE/g) and the stronggest of antioxidant activity on total antioxidant (34,44 ± 0,03mg AAE/g), DPPH radical scavenging (IC50= 35,23 µg/mL), ferric reducing power (IC50=128,55 µg/mL) and ß-carotene bleaching assay (IC50 fraksi (125,62 µg/mL). Instead of n-hexane fraction has the lowest content of total phenolic compound and the weakest of antioxidant activity of all antioxidant activity assay. It can be concluded that the difference in the polarity of the solvent partitioning lead to differences in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity.