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THE BURIAL PRACTICES OF THE GRAVETTIAN AND THE EPI-GRAVETTIAN PERIODS IN ITALY, CZECH REPUBLIC, AND RUSSIA Arif, Johan
Jurnal Sosioteknologi Vol. 20 No. 1 (2021): April
Publisher : Fakultas Seni Rupa dan Desain ITB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.5614/sostek.itbj.2021.20.1.1

Abstract

This paper describes the burial practice in the Gravettian (early Upper Paleolithic) and the Epi-Gravettian periods (late Upper Paleolithic) in Italy, and the Gravettian period (early Upper Paleolithic) in Czech and Russia. In Italy, the Gravettian and the Epi-Gravettian burial sites were mostly situated in caves because geologically Italy has extensive karstic systems throughout Alpine mountains. Meanwhile, the Gravettian single and multiple burial sites in Czech and Russia were found in an alluvial plain. The single burials are more numerous in the Epi-Gravettian than the Gravettian periods in Italy. Furthermore, Italy has the largest number of the Gravettian single and multiple burials compared to Czech and Russia. If the compass direction and the corpse placement (prosthesis) in the ground and the position of the head are considered, it apparently links to their origin. The ancestors of the Gravettian peoples in Italy, Czech, and Russia are supposed to have originated from the East or Southeast. The disparity of cultural behavior between the Gravettian and the Epi-Gravettian periods in Italy can be deduced by the number of single burial and the environmental condition where the Gravettian period developed during the last glacial maximum (LGM), while the Epi-Gravettian happened in warmer condition.
The mineralogy of gold-copper skarn related porphyry at the Batu Hijau deposit, Sumbawa, Indonesia Thwee Aye, May; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Idrus, Arifudin; Setijadji, Lucas Donny; Imai, Akira; Araki, Naoto; Arif, Johan
Journal of Applied Geology Vol 3, No 1
Publisher : Geological Engineering Department Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2275.214 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jag.7177

Abstract

Clacic gold-copper bearing skarn in the Batu Hijau porphyry deposit is located in the western part of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. Skarn mineralizations were found at the deep level of the deposit (-450m to -1050mL) by drilling program 2003. No evidence around Batu Hijau has limestone although most skarn are metasomatiz ed from carbonate-rich rock as limestone or marble. Most skarn-type metasomatic alteration and mineralization occurs at the contact of andesitic volcanic rock and intermediate tonalite porphyry intrusion and within intermediate tonalite in some. Although both endoskarn and exoskarn can be developed, it has no clear minerals to known the endoskarn. Exoskarn is more principle skarn zone. The formation of skarn occurred two min stages: (1) prograde and (2) retrograde. The prograde stage is temporally and spatially divided into two sub-stages as early prograde (sub-stage I) and prograde metasomatic (sub-stage II). Sub-stage I begin immediately after the intrusion of the tonalite stock into the calcium rich volcanic rocks. Then, sub-stage II originated with segregation and evolution of a fluid phase in the pluton and its invasion into fractures and micro-fractures of host rocks developed during sub-stage I. The introduction of considerable amount of Fe, Si and Mg led to the large amounts of medium- to coarse-grained anhydrous calc-silicates. From the texture and mineralogy, the retrograde metasomatic stage can be divided into two sub-stages: (a) early retrograde and (sub-stage III) and (b) late retrograde (sub-stage IV). During sub-stage III, the previously formed skarn zones were affected by intense multiple hydro-fracturing phases in the gold-copper bearing stocks. Therefore, the considerable amounts of hydrous calc-silicates (epidote), sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite), oxides (magnetite, hematite) and carbonates (calcite) replaced the anhydrous calc-silicates. Sub-stage IV was coexisting with the intrusion of relatively low temperature, more highly oxidizing fluids into skarn system, bringing about partial alteration of the early-formed calc-silicates and developing a series of very fine-grained aggregrates of chlorite, clay, hematite and calcite.