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Analisis Energi Panas Pada Proses Pengeringan Manisan Pepaya (Carica papaya l.) Menggunakan Alat Pengering Tipe Rak (Analysis of Thermal Energy in Candied Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Drying Process using Shelf Type Dryer) Yulita, Dwi; Murad, Murad; Sukmawaty, Sukmawaty
Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem Vol 4 No 1 (2016): Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pangan & Agroindustri (Fatepa) Universitas Mataram dan Perhimpunan Teknik Pertanian (PERTETA)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (535.864 KB)

Abstract

Conventional drying still has many deficiencies; weather dependence is one of the problems. Therefore, alternative treatment needed to be conducted by using mechanical dryer that use heat and require additional energy for heating the material and vaporized the water, such as a shelf type dryer. This study aims to analyze thermal energy and studying energy balance in candied papaya drying process at shelf-type. This research was conducted at Laboratory of Bioprocess Engineering and Laboratory of Power and Machinery, in Studies Program of Agriculture Engineering, Faculty of Food and Agroindustrial Technology, University of Mataram. This study was performed using experimental design and energy equilibrium approach, with variable of air flowrates which varies at 3.43 m/sec and 4.55 m/sec. Amount of the outcoming energy obtained at 3.43 m/sec was 4477.12 to 4821.52 kJ/h and at 4.55 m/sec was 5437.80 kJ/h to 6797.25 kJ/h. While useful energy at 3.43 m/sec decreasing from 3675.37-1336.83 kJ/h and useful energy at 4.55 m/sec decreasing from 3891.71 kJ/h to 1082.45 kJ/h. The outcoming energy decreasing from 4926.06 kJ/h to 2292.07 kJ/h at3.43 m/sec and 5247.75 kJ/h to 2155.51 kJ/h at 4.55 m/sec.
ANALISIS TEKNIS DAN EKONOMI RICE MILLING UNIT ONE PHASE (STUDI KASUS DI UD. BELEKE MAJU KABUPATEN LOMBOK BARAT NTB) Hulfita Ariani; Murad Murad; Sirajuddin Haji Abdullah
FLYWHEEL : Jurnal Teknik Mesin Untirta Volume III Nomor 2, Oktober 2017
Publisher : Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (587.939 KB) | DOI: 10.36055/fwl.v2i1.2369

Abstract

Penggilingan padi yang banyak diusahakan oleh masyarakat sekarang ini salah satunya adalah Rice Milling Unit Phase. Proses penggilingan padi menggunakan Mesin penggilingan ini hanya menggunakan satu langkah dimana pecah kulit dan penyosohan dilakukan dalam satu kali proses untuk menghasilkan beras sosoh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kelayakan dari aspek teknis dan ekonomi Rice Milling Unit One Phase di UD. Beleke Maju Kabupaten Lombok Barat NTB. Aspek teknis yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini meliputi Kapasitas kerja efektif, Rendemen, efisiensi penggilingan, dan pemakaian bahan bakar, sedangkan aspek ekonomi meliputi B/C Ratio, NPV, IRR dan BEP. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu metode deskriptif dengan melakukan analisis menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh dari industri, dan data primer dari hasil wawancara. Hasil analisis teknis menunjukkan kapasistas efektif Rice Milling Unit One Phase sebesar 456 kg/jam, rendemen 60%, efisiensi alat 91,2%, pemakaian bahan-bakar 2,5 liter/jam. Dan hasil analisis ekonomi menunjukkan kelayakan yaitu B/C Ratio 4,7, NPV’ 193.070.500, NPV’’ 476.815.578 , IRR 25,20% , dan titik impas/Break Event Point terjadi pada jam kerja 42.12529 jam pertahun dengan jumlah produksi 76836,52 kg pertahun.
Pengeringan Biji Kemiri pada Alat Pengering Tipe Batch Model Tungku Berbasis Bahan Bakar Cangkang Kemiri (Drying of pecan seed using Batch Type dryer with pecan sheel fuel) Murad, Murad; Sabani, Rahmat; Mahardhian Dwi Putra, Guyup
Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem Vol 3 No 1 (2015): Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pangan & Agroindustri (Fatepa) Universitas Mataram dan Perhimpunan Teknik Pertanian (PERTETA)

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Abstract

Generally, this research aimed to study drying characteristic of pecan seed on a Batch type (stove) dryer using pecan shell as fuel. Specifically, this research aimed to determine moisture content reduction, temperature change, drying rate, mass transfer rate, air dryer flow rate, energy requirement, drying efficiency, and drying capacity. This research used experimental method in order to determine drying characteristic of pecan on thin layer method using oven, which was conducted in laboratorium by temperature varied of 40oC, 50oC, 60oC, 70oC, dan 80oC. Thick layer method was conducted by trial mathematical model, i.e. collected data from drying stage on batch stove dryer then analyzed using software based on mathematical model, actual data were also collected from on field experiments. Measurement of pecan geometric characteristic also had been conducted. Result showed that pecan had sphericity number of 0.79. Characteristic curve of thin layer drying obtained from analytical result showed the drying rate was decreasing and correlation between ln MR (%db) with t (hours) on drying temperature of 40 oC to 80 oC showed decreasing moisture content and drying rate towards drying time. General equation for moisture content ratio, MR = exp (-0,0141.T – 0,2583)*t. Graphic of correlation between fuel (kg) and moisture content equilibrium (%) showed decreasing moisture content equilibrium at every fuel addition.
Pengeringan Lapis Tipis Kopra Putih Menggunakan Oven Pengering Murad, Murad; Sabani, Rahmat; Mahardhian Dwi Putra, Guyup
Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem Vol 3 No 2 (2015): Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pangan & Agroindustri (Fatepa) Universitas Mataram dan Perhimpunan Teknik Pertanian (PERTETA)

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Abstract

West Nusa Tenggara has enormous potential as coconut producer in Indonesia. With total area 64.297,10 ha, it can produced coconuts in amount of 49670.93 tons (NTB in Figures, 2010). Most of the coconut was sent to Java Island, whereas some local communities process the coconuts into copra and traditional coconut oil. However, NTB as producer of copra has not been able to produce good quality copra because the traditional process is conducted using simple processing equipment, requires large human power, and long processing time. Due to these limitiation, it is necessary to implement appropriate technology by using shelf-type dryer (tray dryer) tool that utilizes solar energy as a source of thermal energy. Using solar collectors panel, the dryer produce heat higher than using direct drying and the temperature can be controlled. Purpose of this study was to determine characteristics of copra drying processes (temperature, relative humidity, effective drying rate, and relation between effective drying rate and water content) using oven as ideal drying tool, for further application on solar-energy tray-dryer type. Drying was conducted until water content achieved 9%, the observed and calculations data were plotted into graphic then studied descriptively. Calculated variables are reduction in weight material, moisture content, drying air temperature, ambient air temperature, outflow air temperature, material temperature, air humidity, drying efficiency, air flow rate, and intensity of solar radiation. Constant value indicates that the higher the drying air temperature, the more rapid time were needed to decrease moisture content of the material, therefore the obtained general equation for water content ratio becomes MR = exp (-0,0141.T - 0.2583) * t.Keywords: drying, white copra, tray dryer, solar energy ABSTRAK Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) termasuk daerah penghasil buah kelapa yang potensial di Indonesia. Dengan luas areal 64.297,10 ha, dihasilkan buah kelapa yang dapat mencapai jumlah 49.670,93 ton (NTB dalam Angka, 2010). Sebagian buah kelapa tersebut (dalam keadaan utuh) dikirim ke luar daerah yaitu ke pulau Jawa, sebagian masyarakat mengolah buah kelapa menjadi kopra dan sebagian lagi dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat setempat untuk pembuatan minyak kelapa tradisional. Di lain pihak, NTB sebagai penghasil kopra belum dapat menghasilkan kopra dengan mutu yang baik. Hal ini disebabkan karena pengolahan secara tradisional dengan peralatan pengolahan yang masih sederhana, memerlukan tenaga manusia yang besar, dan waktu pengolahan yang lama. Pengeringan kopra yang dilakukan secara tradisional memiliki kelemahan dan kekurangan maka perlu penerapan teknologi tepat guna dengan menggunakan alat pengering tipe rak (tray dryer) yang memanfaatkan energi matahari sebagai sumber energi panas. Penggunaan energi surya sebagai sumber energi panas pada alat pengering dengan menggunakan kolektor surya menghasilkan panas lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan penjemuran secara langsung serta suhunya dapat dikontrol. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan karakteristik pengeringan kopra menggunakan oven sebagai alat pengering ideal yang kemudian akan diaplikasikan ke alat pengering surya tipe rak. Data yang diambil meliputi perubahan suhu, kelembaban relatif, laju pengeringan efektif terhadap waktu, hubungan laju pengeringan efektif terhadap kadar air. Pengeringan dilakukan sampai kadar air 9%, data hasil pengamatan dan perhitungan diplot ke dalam grafik kemudian dikaji secara deskritif. Variabel yang dihitung adalah penurunan berat bahan, kadar air, suhu udara pengering, suhu udara lingkungan, suhu udara keluar, suhu bahan, kelembaban udara, efisensi pengeringan, kecepatan aliran udara, dan intensitas radiasi matahari. Nilai konstanta menunjukkan bahwa dengan semakin tinggi suhu udara pengering, maka waktu yang diperlukan untuk menurunkan kadar air bahan akan semakin cepat, sehingga diperoleh persamaan umum untuk rasio kadar air menjadi MR = exp (-0,0141.T – 0,2583)*t. Kata kunci : pengeringan, kopra putih, tray dryer, energi surya
Kajian Pengeringan Jahe (Zingiber Officinale Rosc) berdasarkan Perubahan Geometrik dan Warna menggunakan Metode Image Analysis (Study of Dried Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Rosc) based on Changes in Geometric and Color using Image Analysis) Risdianti, Devi; Murad, Murad; Mahardhian Dwi Putra, Guyup
Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem Vol 4 No 2 (2016): Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pangan & Agroindustri (Fatepa) Universitas Mataram dan Perhimpunan Teknik Pertanian (PERTETA)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (559.082 KB) | DOI: 10.29303/jrpb.v4i2.35

Abstract

Purpose of this study was to determine change in geometric and color during the drying process using image analysis method. Method used in this study was experimental method. Tools and materials used were ginger, image acquisition box, digital cameras, and computers. Measured parameters included temperature, moisture content, mass of material, geometry and color changes. Results from this study showed that the lowest value of material mass was 1.91 gr of the lowest shelf and 3.21 gr of the upper shelf which directly proportional to the reduction of material moisture content at lowest shelf by 5.66%, due to the heating source placed near the shelf, therefore it will directly heat the material. While the highest value was showed by the highest shelf material of 13.93% moisture content. Actual measurement of surface shrinkage showed declining during 8-hour drying and result from image analysis ranged from 37,548 to 17,201 pixels, 27.77 cm2 to 10.07 cm2by using trapezoidal numerical integration of the highest shelf, and 27.3 cm2 to 10.37 cm2 by using Simpson methods. Based on this study, image analysis can be used to measure ginger color changes from yellowish white to brownish yellow and measure surfaces shrinkage.
KARAKTERISTIK PENGERINGAN SAWUT MOCAF MENGGUNAKAN ALAT PENGERING TENAGA SURYA TIPE GREENHOUSE Murad, Murad; Sabani, Rahmat; Kurniawan, Hary; Muttalib, Surya Abdul; Khalil, Fakhrul Irfan
Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem Vol 7 No 1 (2019): Jurnal Ilmiah Rekayasa Pertanian dan Biosistem
Publisher : Fakultas Teknologi Pangan & Agroindustri (Fatepa) Universitas Mataram dan Perhimpunan Teknik Pertanian (PERTETA)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (535.637 KB) | DOI: 10.29303/jrpb.v7i1.103

Abstract

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari karakterisitik Pengeringan Sawut Mocaf menggunakan alat pengering tenaga surya tipe greenhouse. Metodologi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimental dengan mengukur beberapa parameter, yaitu penurunan berat bahan, kadar air, suhu pengering, suhu lingkungan, kelembaban udara dan laju pengeringan. Alat yang digunakan adalah pengering tenaga surya tipe greenhouse, termokopel CA tipe CC (Cooper Constanta), timbangan digital, timbangan analitis, anemometer, rekam data, luxmeter, stopwatch, termometer batang dan alat tulis. Pengambilan data dilakukan setiap 30 menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik suhu di dalam ruang pengering ERK yang diukur pada setiap rak dan pada bagian saluran udara keluar melalui exhaust fan. Peningkatan radiasi surya pada umumnya terjadi pada tengah hari yaitu sekitar pukul 12.00 wita sampai pukul 13.00 wita, sedangkan pada saat pemantauan ERK kondisi cuaca cukup berawan sehingga terjadi penurunan radiasi surya. Didapatkan rata-rata temperatur ruang pengering selama pengeringan adalah 39oC, kelembaban udara relatif rata-rata 63%, penurunan berat bahan tiap jam rata-rata 0,95 gram/jam, laju penurunan kadar air rata-rata 55,25% db/jam dari kadar air awal sebesar 67% db sampai kada air mencapai 10%db dan rata-rata Me diperoleh sebesar 14,22%. Dari hasil penelitian pengeringan sawut mocaf yang diperoleh, maka disimpulkan bahwa laju perubahan kadar air MOCAF memiliki karakteristik laju menurun terhadap waktu.
Sistem Pendeteksi Kerusakan Buah Mangga Menggunakan Sensor Gas Dengan Metode DCS - LCA Murad Murad; Sukmawaty Sukmawaty; Ansar Ansar; Rahmat Sabani; Syahroni Hidayat
JTIM : Jurnal Teknologi Informasi dan Multimedia Vol 3 No 4 (2022): February
Publisher : Puslitbang Sekawan Institute Nusa Tenggara

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35746/jtim.v3i4.169

Abstract

Fruits, including mangoes, produce a wide variety of volatile organic compounds that give them their distinct aroma. Characteristics of fruit aroma is one of the important keys in determining consumer acceptance in the commercial fruit market based on individual preferences. So a possible way to determine the level of ripeness/damage is to feel the distinctive aroma presented by the fruit using a gas sensor. This study aims to build a system that can detect mango damage based on its aroma. The sensors used are TGS 2600, MQ3, MQ4, MQ2, and MQ8 which are connected to the Arduino Mega 2560. The learning model used is an ensemble learning model of Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) with Local Class Accuracy (LCA)/DCS-LCA. This algorithm combines Logistic Regression, Selection Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naïve Bayes, Random Forest, and Neural Networks. The model was then tested with a comparison of the amount of test data and training data of 70%:30%. The test results showed that the overall system Accuracy was 75% and the ability to detect mango fruit damage was 71%. The DCS-LCA classifier model outperforms each of its constituent base classifiers.
Penentuan Konstanta Laju Pengeringan Coconut Chips Hary Kurniawan; Sukmawaty Sukmawaty; Ansar Ansar; Kurniawan Yuniarto; Murad Murad; Rahmat Sabani
JURNAL SAINS TEKNOLOGI & LINGKUNGAN Vol. 7 No. 1 (2021): JURNAL SAINS TEKNOLOGI & LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : LPPM Universitas Mataram

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29303/jstl.v7i1.205

Abstract

This study aims to determine the drying rate constant of coconut chips using an oven. Coconut chips drying is carried out at drying temperatures of 50 ° C, 60 ° C and 70 ° C. Drying coconut chips has been conducted at an initial water content of 40-50% wb until it reached ± 10% wb. The change of moisture content was measured every 15 minutes, and the measurement of the water content was determined by the thermogravimetric method. Newton's model was used in determining the observation drying rate constant. Furthermore, the observation drying rate constant was applied to predict the drying rate constant as a function of temperature using the Arrhenius equation. The results showed that the predicted drying rate constants ranged from 0.0090 - 0.0130 minute-1. 
Efek Daya Lampu Sinar UV C dan Lama Penyinaran Terhadap Perubahan pH dan Total Padatan Terlarut Nira Aren Selama Penyimpanan Hary Kurniawan; Sukmawaty Sukmawaty; Murad Murad; Ansar Ansar; Rahmat Sabani; Kurniawan Yuniarto
Jurnal BETA (Biosistem dan Teknik Pertanian) Vol 8 No 2 (2020): September
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Udayana, Badung, Bali, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/JBETA.2020.v08.i02.p20

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek daya lampu sinar ultraviolet (UV C) dan lama penyinaran terhadap perubahan pH dan total padatan terlarut pada nira aren selama penyimpanan. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan dua faktor yaitu perlakuan daya lampu UV C dan lama penyinaran. Parameter yang diukur yaitu pH dan brix dan pengukuran diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nira aren yang diberi perlakuan sinar UV C memiliki laju perubahan pH yang lebih rendah dibandingkan kontrol. Semakin tinggi daya lampu UV C yang digunakan mampu memperlambat laju perubahan pH nira aren. Faktor kekeruhan, buih, kandungan asam organik maupun zat yang tersuspensi pada nira aren diketahui menjadi faktor lama penyinaran tidak berjalan efektif dikarenakan transmisi sinar UV yang rendah. Efek daya lampu UV C dan lama penyinaran diketahui mampu menjaga kestabilan kandungan total padatan terlarut pada nira aren.
Karakteristik Fisik Briket Tempurung Kelapa Menggunakan Perekat Tepung Tapioka Ansar Ansar; Diah Ajeng Setiawati; Murad Murad; Baiq Sulasi Muliani
Jurnal Agritechno Jurnal Agritechno, Vol. 13, Number 1, April 2020
Publisher : Depertemen Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (270.276 KB) | DOI: 10.20956/at.v13i1.227

Abstract

Briquette is one of the alternative biomass fuels as a substitute for fossil energy. To produce high-quality briquettes is requires printing equipment effectively and efficiently. Therefore, this study aims to obtain the best treatment to make briquettes from coconut shells. Briquetting is made by using 4 pumping variations, namely 4, 6, 8, and 12 times. The parameters observed were hardness, percentage of destruction, moisture content, and the flame of briquettes. The results showed that the best coconut shell briquettes were found in pumping treatment 12 times with an average hardness of 27.7 kg / cm2, percentage of destruction 18.50%, moisture content of 4.55% and the flame of 112.61 minutes. While the worst quality was obtained at pumping 4 times with an average hardness of 16.5 kg / cm2, the percentage of destruction was 43.36%, moisture content was 7.92%, and flame 111.34 minutes.