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DAMPAK KEBIJAKAN MAKROEKONOMI DAN FAKTOR EKSTERNAL EKONOMI TERHADAP LAJU DEFORESTASI DAN DEGRADASI HUTAN ALAM: STUDI KASUS DEFORESTASI UNTUK PERLUASAN AREAL TANAMAN PANGAN DAN PERKEBUNAN SERTA HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI DAN DEGRADASI HUTAN ALAM AREAL KONSESI Astana, Satria; Sinaga, Bonar M.; Soedomo, Sudarsono; Simangunsong, Bintang C.H.
ISSN 0216-0897
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perubahan Iklim dan Kebijakan

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Abstract

Di subsektor kehutanan, pengurangan emisi CO2 dapat diwujudkan dengan mempertahankan dan mengkonservasi hutan alam yang tersisa dan/atau meningkatkan hutan tanaman yang ada dengan mereboisasi kawasan hutan yang terdegradasi. Efektivitas kebijakan tersebut dipengaruhi oleh faktor eksternal hutan. Dalam penelitian ini, faktor eksternal hutan yang dianalisis dibatasi pada: (1) kebijakan makroekonomi dan (2) faktor eksternal ekonomi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak kebijakan makroekonomi dan faktor eksternal ekonomi terhadap laju deforestasi dan degradasi hutan alam. Menggunakan model ekonometrika, hasil analisis mengindikasikan bahwa laju deforestasi dan degradasi hutan alam dipengaruhi oleh kebijakan makroekonomi dan faktor eksternal ekonomi. Dalam hal ini, suku bunga merupakan saluran transmisi kebijakan dan faktor eksternal ekonomi yang signifikan dan karenanya dapat digunakan sebagai instrumen kebijakan insentif-disinsentif yang efektif untuk mengendalikan laju deforestasi dan degradasi hutan alam.
Development of Private Forests on Java Island: What Can We Learn? Soedomo, Sudarsono
Journal of Rural Indonesia [JORI] Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Journal of Rural Indonesia [JORI]

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Abstract

In this paper I report the results of my observations about the development of small-scale private forests on Java Island. During my travels to various villages on the Island of Java, I observed a lot of small-scale private forests. I also interviewed several forest owners. Clarity of land rights, the high demand for timber leading to attractive prices, adequate road network, changes in demographic structure in rural areas, forestry extension, and other sources of income are the six factors that support the development of small-scale private forests. Difficult situation that is often faced by the farmers is the need for quick cash that had to be met from selling the trees that have not reached optimal growth. Farmers from Kulonprogo District - Yogyakarta overcome the difficulty by forming cooperatives in cooperation with the credit union, while the farmers from District of Blora received microcredit from the government to combat the difficulty. Another impediment to the development of small-scale private forest is the government rule, like the SKAU, which is actually perverse incentive. © 2014 Journal of Rural Indonesia [JoRI] IPB. All rights reserved.Keywords: small-scale private forest, secure tenure right, market demand, infrastructure, microcredit, spare time, complicated rule/regulation
Penggunaan Konsep Rules-In-Use Ostrom Dalam Analisis Peraturan Pembentukan Organisasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Suwarno, Eno; Kartodihardjo, Hariadi; Kolopaking, Lala M; Soedomo, Sudarsono
ISSN 0216-0897
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perubahan Iklim dan Kebijakan

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Abstract

Setelah penetapan wilayah KPHL/KPHP oleh Menteri Kehutanan, tahap selanjutnya adalah pembentukan dan operasionalisasi organisasi KPHL/KPHP oleh pemerintah daerah. Pelaksanaan kewajiban tersebut berjalan tersendat dkarenakan terkendala oleh sejumlah hambatan, antara lain oleh peraturan yang kurang memiliki daya dorong dan menyulitkan daerah pada saat implementasinya. Dalam Kerangka Kerja Analisis dan Pengembangan Kelembagaan (IAD-Framework) Ostrom, terdapat konsep aturan-aturan yang digunakan (rules in use) yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isi peraturan dalam hubungannya dengan struktur situasi aksi yang terbentuk pada saat peraturan diimplementasikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas penggunaan konsep rules in use untuk menemukan kelemahan-kelemahan substansial dari peraturan pembentukan organisasi KPHL/KPHP pada tingkat provinsi. Analisis dilakukan terhadap PP No. 6/2007 jo. PP No. 3/2008, Permendagri No. 61/2010, dan PP No. 41/2007, dengan metode analisis substansi peraturan dan umpan balik dari proses implementasinya. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa penggunaan konsep rules in use Ostrom cukup efektif untuk menemukan kelemahan-kelemahan isi suatu peraturan.
Double Dividend from Tariff Differentiation of Reforestation Fund Sudarsono Soedomo
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 19 No. 2 (2013)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

Distortionary levy applied uniformly to all diameter classes of logs from logging natural forest can lead to inefficiencies; certain diameter should be left in the field because it is not economical to be used. Win-win or Pareto improving solution can be achieved if the government is more flexible. Social welfare is higher because of the waste that can be utilized to create employment, production and additional benefits for employers, as well as revenue for the state. Even if the levy rates are forced to zero for small-diameter timber, governments is actually not harmed at all because from the beginning the government does not get any revenue from small timber that is left in the field as waste. In scarcity situations of timber from natural forests, it is desirable if the government is considering differentiating charges in order to reduce or possibly eliminate the volume of waste generated by the levy. In general, tariff differentiation done in the form of higher tariffs for higher diameter logs. If possible, the lowest diameter limit of logs is forced down to its technical limits. That is, the processing tool that will determine how the minimum diameter logs can be processed profitably.Keywords: tariff differentiation, efficiency, timber utilization, government revenue, win-win solutionDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.163
Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services Sudarsono Soedomo
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 18 No. 2 (2012)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.
Effect of Corrupt Behavior of the Forestry Bureaucrats on the Forest Sustainability Sudarsono Soedomo
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 11 No. 1 (2005)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

This article show that corrupt bureaucrats do not always result in a negative effect on the forest sustainability. Even under a certain condition, a corrupt behavior may result in a positive effect on the forest sustainability. An inappropriate policy is more important a cause of the forest sustainability than a corrupt behavior. Therefore, fixing this structural mistake needs to be prioritized in combating the forest destruction, for this structural mistake is the real primary cause of the forest destruction in Indonesia. Fixing this structural mistake is much more effective in combating the forest destruction than finding honest bureaucrats. 
Types of Forestry Charges from Natural Resource Economics Perspective Sudarsono Soedomo
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 18 No. 1 (2012)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

Capturing economic rent from natural resources, particularly forests, frequently still creates disagreement between the government and businesses. The charges imposed by the government in the forms of reboisation fund (DR) and forest resource provision (PSDH) have been in place for very long time, accepted by all stakeholders, and supported by laws. Government policy regarding compensation for forest stand value (GRNT) creates controvercies. This paper intends to clarify problem of forest charges by returning it to its fundamental theories, e.g. economic theory of natural resouces. Economic rent of forests that are controlled by the government is the right of all Indonesia people. Henece, the government has responsibility for capturing the rent as much as possible in the most efficient way. If the stumpage is too low then it potentially promotes overcutting, whereas if it is too high then it makes forest business less attractive that potentially promotes illegal activities. In forestry, economic rent of forest has a special name, it is stumpage price. There are some difficulties in estimating a competitive stumpage price, wheter the one obtained through a direct competitive auction of standing timber or through calculation of residual price. Partly, the difficulties were generated by the government’s own policies that strongly distorted log prices. Log export ban and vertical integration are the two most influential policies in distorting log prices. Actually, the government is able to design and implement a single charge to capture PSDH, DR, and GRNT so that their administration becomes much simpler and more efficient.
REDD+, Conservation, and Conversion Sudarsono Soedomo
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 24 No. 3 (2018)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

The effectiveness of periodical payment for forested lands as an incentive system to stop a conversion of forested lands is analyzed. Four simple models are outlined and analyzed to investigate behavior of the land manager whether to maintain the lands remain forested or to convert them to other uses. The analysis is pure theoretical employing the optimal control theory. A key element to induce the land manager to adopt forest conservation rather than forest conversion is a combination of periodical payments for the forested lands and the desirable scrap value. Without the desirable scrap value, periodical payments of carbon stock, regardless of the tariff, cannot stop the conversion; the tariff affects only the time when the conversion will be conducted but it is not sufficient to induce the land manager not to convert the forested lands. On the basis of this analysis, then policy implication is outlined. In order to provide the desirable scrap value, then a policy change is required. However, its implementation very likely encounters serious challenges from the land manager. 
Total Economic Value in Investment Analysis Sudarsono Soedomo
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 19 No. 3 (2013)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

Forest ecosystems are often defeated in decisions about investment and economic development.  There is a very wide gap between policy makers and development investment on the one hand and environmentalists on the other hand, who see the forest ecosystem from the perspective of ecology and environment.  The first party considers that forest ecosystems have a low value, while the second party often shows very fantastic figures about the economic value of forests. From the second party's point of view, the first party could be ignorant or having a short-term interest; while from the first party's point of view, the second party loves to produce the figures that are too good to be true.  As a result, the total economic value of ecosystems is not only ignored as a consideration in investment decisions, but the total economic value of ecosystems has been seen as a boring scientific joke.  Why did the gap occur and how to close the gap will be discussed in this paper.  Economic valuation of ecosystem needs to be done more realistically so that the results are more plausible before policy makers. On the contrary, policy makers need to be aware that once a species vanished it never goes back.Keywords: ecosystem, goods and services, value, trade-off, double counting DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.201
Political Economy of Land Use in Indonesia: Trap and Curse of Natural Forests Sudarsono Soedomo
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 27 (2021): Thematics Edition: Forestry Land Reform in Indonesia: The Paradoxes
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.27.te.42

Abstract

The allocation of land use in Indonesia is very inefficient, while the distribution of tenure is unequal. Half of the land for cultivation is held by forestry, and the other half is used by various other sectors. Most Indonesian farmers are small- scale farmers who do not meet economies of scale. Agrarian reforms aimed at overcoming inefficiency in land use, eliminating inequality in land tenure, and promoting rural areas’ prosperity need to involve land for cultivation allocated for forestry. This paper is written based on the author’s experience of interacting with various parties related to land issues, forest areas and agrarian reform through various forums, such as official meetings, focus group discussions, seminars, workshops, symposiums, one-on-one discussions (interviews), and interactions through social media. Agrarian reform, which has been launched since 1960, has not been able to be realized until today. The fight seems to involve two large groups, namely environmentalists and developmentalists, but this kind of grouping is likely to be misleading. Environmental issues may only be used as an instrument to obtain economic benefits as well, not for the environment itself.