Jurnal Teknik Kimia dan Lingkungan
Vol 3, No 1 (2019): April 2019

Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Plastik Biodegradable dari Umbi Talas (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) dengan Penambahan Filler Kitosan dan Kalsium Silikat

S. Sigit Udjiana (Politeknik Negeri Malang)
Sigit Hadiantoro (Politeknik Negeri Malang)
Muchammad Syarwani (Politeknik Negeri Malang)
Profiyanti Hermien Suharti (Politeknik Negeri Malang)



Article Info

Publish Date
23 Apr 2019

Abstract

Permasalahan tentang sampah plastik di Indonesia berdampak pada ketidakstabilan ekosistem lingkungan dan peningkatan pencemaran lingkungan. Hal ini dikarenakan sampah plastik tidak dapat terurai oleh mikroorganisme di dalam tanah. Inovasi untuk mengatasi masalah ini terus dilakukan, salah satunya adalah pengembangan plastik biodegradable. Plastik biodegradable dalam penelitian ini dikembangkan dengan pati umbi talas sebagai bahan utama, sorbitol sebagai plasticizer serta kitosan dan kalsium silikat sebagai filler. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan filler kitosan dan kalsium silikat terhadap sifat mekanik, kemampuan biodegradasi, maupun water absorption. Selain itu, juga dilakukan analisa Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) untuk mengetahui morfologi dari plastik biodegradable. Variabel berubah yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 2%,4%,6% dan 8% dari berat pati yang digunakan. Plastik biodegradable dibuat menggunakan metode casting, di mana pati didispersikan ke dalam campuran air dan plasticizer. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan degradasi paling tinggi sebesar 42,86% untuk plastik biodegradable dengan filler kalsium silikat 6%. Sedang hasil uji water absorption menunjukkan nilai terendah 11,76% dengan filler kitosan 8%. Uji kuat tarik diperoleh nilai paling besar 9,56 MPa pada filler kalsium silikat 6%.Plastic waste in Indonesia became a national problematic that has an impact on the instability of environmental ecosystems and increased environmental pollution. This happens because plastic waste cannot be decomposed by microorganisms in the soil. Innovation has been carried out continuously to overcome this problem. the development of biodegradable plastic became one solution to this problem. Biodegradable plastic in this study was developed with taro tuber starch as the main ingredient, sorbitol as plasticizer and chitosan and calcium silicate as filler. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of chitosan and calcium acetate as fillers on mechanical properties, biodegradability, and water absorption. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was also analyzed in this study to determine the morphology of biodegradable plastic. The variables used in this study were the amount of fillers as much as 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% of the weight of the starch used. Biodegradable plastic has been made using the casting method, in which starch is dispersed into a mixture of water and plasticizer. The results showed that the highest biodegradation ability was 42.86% for biodegradable plastic with 6% calcium silicate filler. While the water absorption results showed the lowest value of 11.76% for biodegradable plastic with 8% chitosan filler. Tensile strength test obtained the highest value of 9.56 MPa for biodegradable plastic with 6% calcium silicate filler.

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Journal Info

Abbrev

jtkl

Publisher

Subject

Chemical Engineering, Chemistry & Bioengineering Energy Engineering Environmental Science Materials Science & Nanotechnology

Description

This journal is an open access journal with the frequency of 2 (two) times a year, published by Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Malang (State Polytechnic of Malang). The journal publishes original research results, literature reviews and short communications relevant to the ...