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Civil Engineering Dimension
ISSN : 14109530     EISSN : 1979570X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Engineering,
The Civil Engineering Dimension (Dimensi Teknik Sipil) is a refereed journal, published twice a year, in March and September.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 9 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION" : 9 Documents clear
Generalization of FEM Using Node-Based Shape Functions Kanok-Nukulchai Worsak; Wong F.T.; Sommanawat W.
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (704.162 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.152-157

Abstract

In standard FEM, the stiffness of an element is exclusively influenced by nodes associated with the element via its element-based shape functions. In this paper, the authors present a method that can be viewed as a generalization of FEM for which the influence of a node is not limited by a hat function around the node. Shape functions over an element can be interpolated over a predefined set of nodes around the element. These node-based shape functions employ Kriging Interpolations commonly found in geostatistical technique. In this study, a set of influencing nodes are covered by surrounding layers of elements defined as its domain of influence (DOI). Thus, the element stiffness is influenced by not only the element nodes, but also satellite nodes outside the element. In a special case with zero satellite nodes, the method is specialized to the conventional FEM. This method is referred to as Node-Based Kriging FEM or K-FEM. The K-FEM has been tested on 2D elastostatic, Reissner-Mindlin’s plate and shell problems. In all cases, exceptionally accurate displacement and stress fields can be achieved with relatively coarse meshes. In addition, the same set of Kringing shape functions can be used to interpolate the mesh geometry. This property is very useful for representing the curved geometry of shells. The distinctive advantage of the K-FEM is its inheritance of the computational procedure of FEM. Any existing FE code can be easily extended to K-FEM; thus, it has a higher chance to be accepted in practice.
Sustainable Concrete Technology Sim Jonsung; Lee K.H.
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1148.267 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.158-165

Abstract

The growing concern over global warming and significant ecological changes requires sustainable development in all fields of science and technology. Concrete not only consumes huge amount of energy and natural sources, but also emits large amount of CO2, mainly due to the production of cement. It is evident that such large amount of concrete production has put significant impact on the energy, resource, environment, and ecology of the society. Hence, how to develop the concrete technology in a sustainable way has become a significant issue. In this paper, some of Korean researches for sustainable development of concrete are presented. These are sustainable strengthening for deteriorated concrete structure, sustainable reinforcement of new concrete structure, sustainable concrete using recycled aggregate and supplementary cementing materials and finally application of each technique to precast concrete.
Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Improving Safety in Small Construction Organisations Riza Yosia Sunindijo
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (292.617 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.117-125

Abstract

The majority of organisations in the construction industry are small organisations, how ever their safety performance is still far behind their larger counterparts. Therefore, it is important to focus on improving safety performance of small organisations so that the overall industry performance may be improved. Using a questionnaire survey, this research collected data from construction organisations based in New South Wales, Australia. Data analysis results have identified key barriers faced by small organisations when implementing safety. These barriers include the use of lowest bid price to evaluate tender submissions, lack of safety commitment from construction clients, and fierce competition. The analysis results have also revealed potential strategies for overcoming the barriers, such as including safety as an indicator in tender evaluation, more effective safety regulation enforcement by inspection and linking safety performance with insurance premium and licencing system, and subsidising safety training for small organisations. Improving safety performance in this sector cannot be done in isolation. The government, clients, and large organisations have important roles to play to change the norms and culture in the industry so that small organisations are supported in their effort to improve their safety performance.
The Role of Systems Thinking in Systems Engineering, Design and Management Weng Tat Chan
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (255.323 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.126-132

Abstract

Systems thinking is a widely recognized and subscribed-to concept. Many benefits are ascribed to systems thinking and its result - the holistic solution. Yet, there is a wide range of opinion as to what systems thinking really is, and how its benefits can be realized in engineering practice. In fact, the concept of what constitutes a ‘system’ is wide and variable. The purpose of the paper is to draw together diverse perspectives of systems thinking useful in engineering, and to present a set of core concepts that are useful in the successful design and operation of engineered systems. These concepts will be illustrated with examples drawn from the author’s experience in teaching and research on engineered systems.
The Importance of Hydraulic Structures for Society: Quay Walls and Dikes in the Netherlands Jarit de Gijt
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1520.503 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.179-186

Abstract

Since mankind exists, men have undertaken engineering activities to make their life more pleasant and secure. However this has not been an easy task, especially in the past. The knowledge of mathematics and physics to describe engineering problems became available only since 1400-1500. Nevertheless, great achievements have been made by man before that time, e.g. the pyramids in Egypt, the first sluice in China, the Borobudur temple in Indonesia, and the design and building activities of the Inca’s in South America. To illustrate this development, also the world economy, world ecology will be shortly mentioned. The structures that are briefly discussed in this paper are: soil and concrete dams for generating electricity, reservoirs for irrigation and drinking water, dikes, sluices, inland and sea, tunnels, and quay walls. This paper presents an overview of hydraulic structures in general with the emphasis on quay walls and dikes in the Netherlands. Examples of these structures will be discussed illustrating present state of the art and also with a view to the future. Conclusions and recommendations are given to enhance the knowledge of hydraulic structures.
Structural Behaviour and Design of Geopolymer Concrete Members Prabir Kumar Sarker
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (499.525 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.133-139

Abstract

The worldwide production of concrete is on the increase in order to meet the increasing rate of construction. Since cement production contributes to the greenhouse gas emission, it is vital to develop alternative low-emission binders to reduce the carbon footprint of concrete. Fly ash based geopolymer is an alternative binder that has potential to reduce the CO2 emission of concrete production. It has been shown in different studies that the mechanical properties of geopolymer concrete are comparable to those of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. This paper describes the behaviour and design aspects of geopolymer concrete structural members. The design aspects presented in this paper are bond of reinforcing steel in pull-out and spliced bars in beams, beams in shear and flexure, and columns in uniaxial and biaxial bending. It is shown that the current provisions for OPC concrete can be conservatively used for design of reinforced geopolymer concrete members.
Self-healing of Micro-cracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites Benny Suryanto; S.A. Wilson; W.J. McCarter
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (475.076 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.187-194

Abstract

The performance of an Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) to self-heal micro-cracks under a controlled laboratory environment is presented. Ten dog-bone shaped samples were prepared; five of them were preloaded to known strains and then left to heal in water in a temperature-controlled laboratory. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurements were undertaken to monitor the crack-healing process. It was found that all samples exhibited recoveries in UPV and were able to recover to between 96.6% and 98% of their pre-test UPV values over a period of four weeks. An accelerated rate of healing was observed in the initial two-day period immediately following the preloading test.
Architecture and Structure – Just a Simple Love Affair Manfred Grohmann
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1464.686 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.140-151

Abstract

Behind challenging architecture there is always a challenging structure. To achieve the optimal result in a design process, architecture and structure have to be developed together. Starting from the first planning phases, the cooperation has to be a fruitful dialog involving complex geometry programs and structural calculation tools. The result of such planning processes is exemplified in this paper presenting just 2 projects Bollinger+Grohmann realized together with two different architects, i.e. The Rolex Learning Center for Ecole Polytechnique Federate de Lausanne (EPFL) in Lausanne with SANAA, Tokyo, and the new building for the European Central Bank (ECB) in Frankfurt with COOP Himme (1) blau Vienna. The aim is to prove that there is no contradiction between new architecture and structure, but just a simple love affair.
Settlement of Thick Clay Deposits under Piled-Raft Foundation and Design Considerations (Pile Dimensions) Lee Kwang Yeol
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 17 No. 3 (2015): SPECIAL EDITION
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (703.452 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.17.3.166-178

Abstract

Characteristics and histories of the deltaic deposits in geotechnical perspective are studied. Geotechnical issues of clay deposits under floating foundation systems also analyzed. Theoretical expressions and parameters were examined by an experimental study and numerical analysis on the laboratory scales and field measurement in this study. Also, piled raft foundation on thick clay deposits is designated to optimize pile configuration. The predictions of settlements of piled rafts foundation are proposed based on pile dimensions by utilizing a normalized Ap/nL and Bg/Br. Practical design of piled raft foundations is made for the light bridges and five story buildings on thick clay deposits to discuss the long-term settlement, and it is found that the piled raft is well applicable and effective on thick clay deposits, and that differential settlements of the foundation should be managed by designing the configuration of pile lengths and spacing.

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