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Civil Engineering Dimension
ISSN : 14109530     EISSN : 1979570X     DOI : -
Core Subject : Engineering,
The Civil Engineering Dimension (Dimensi Teknik Sipil) is a refereed journal, published twice a year, in March and September.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 8 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004" : 8 Documents clear
Keandalan Analisa Pushover Untuk Meramal Prilaku Seismik Nonlinier Struktur Portal Terbuka Dengan Reentrant Corner Benjamin Lumantarna; Iksan Gunawan; Eka Wijaya
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (187.605 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 1-6

Abstract

This study is part of an ongoing study on the reliability of static pushover analysis at Petra Christian University. In this study two open frame buildings, five and ten story with re-entrant corner, are designed in accordance with the proposed Indonesian Earthquake Code (SNI 1726-1999, 3rd concept). The seismic performance of these buildings is evaluated using three dimensional static pushover and dynamic nonlinear time history analysis. The ground motions used in the dynamic analysis are spectrum consistent ground motions scaled to maximum acceleration of various return periods. The resulting Capacity Curves (Base Shears vs. Top Floor Displacement) are then compared. It is shown that although the static pushover analysis gives a conservative performance prediction, the predicted capacity curve is getting worse with the higher modes influence. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini merupakan kelanjutan dari serangkaian penelitian yang dilakukan terhadap keandalan analisa beban dorong statik (static pushover analysis) di Universitas Kristen Petra. Dalam penelitian ini dua buah struktur portal terbuka terdiri dari struktur lima, dan sepuluh lantai, dengan re-entrant corner sebesar setengah dari intinya, direncanakan sesuai dengan konsep ke-3, SNI 1726-1999. Prilaku seismik ke dua struktur ini dievaluasi menggunakan analisa static pushover dan analisa dinamik nonlinier riwayat waktu. Untuk analisa riwayat waktu digunakan percepatan gempa sintesis yang telah disesuaikan dengan respons spektrum gempa Indonesia dengan menggunakan bermacam-macam percepatan tanah maksimum. Kurva kapasitas yang didapatkan dari analisa static pushover kemudian dibandingkan dengan kurva kapasitas yang didapatkan dengan analisa riwayat waktu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa analisa static pushover masih memberikan prediksi kapasitas struktur yang konservatif dan cukup memadai. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa keandalan analisa pushover menurun sejalan dengan bertambahnya pengaruh ragam yang lebih tinggi.
APPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF CONTINGENCY USING RISK ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY Andi Andi
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (237.933 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 40-48

Abstract

Many cost overruns in the world of construction are attributable to either unforeseen events or foreseen events for which uncertainty was not appropriately accommodated. It is argued that a significant improvement to project management performance may result from greater attention to the process of analyzing project risks. The objective of this paper is to propose a risk analysis methodology for appropriate allocation of contingency in project cost estimation. In the first step, project risks will be identified. Influence diagramming technique is employed to identify and to show how the risks affect the project cost elements and also the relationships among the risks themselves. The second step is to assess the project costs with regards to the risks under consideration. Using a linguistic approach, the degree of uncertainty of identified project risks is assessed and quantified. The problem of dependency between risks is taken into consideration during this analysis. For the final step, as the main purpose of this paper, a method for allocating appropriate contingency is presented. Two types of contingencies, i.e. project contingency and management reserve are proposed to accommodate the risks. An illustrative example is presented at the end to show the application of the methodology.
EFEK PENGEKANGAN KOLOM BERLUBANG BETON MUTU NORMAL TERHADAP DAKTILITAS KURVATUR Bambang Sabariman; Rachmat Purwono; Priyosulistyo Priyosulistyo
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (261.286 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 7-14

Abstract

Conduit (pipes) in reinforced concrete columns is still used to date. ACI 318M-95 code limits the hole up to maximum 4% of the column cross sectional area. If the percentage is more than 4%, its effect toward its strength should be considered. But the Code does not mention the effect of the hollow cross section on the ductility. This study was done by testing hollow and solid columns with variation as follows: single stirrup ratio = 0.0184, double stirrup ratio = 0.0276, longitudinal steel ratio = 0.0252, concrete compression strength f’c = 26 MPa, column cross-section b = h = 200 mm, column length L = 1100 mm, hole-ratio (0%, 4.53%, 7.07%). Both ends of the column are loaded by constant axial compression load of 0.12f’cAg = 12,5 ton, lateral loads are applied at 1/3 and 2/3 points to produce moments. The observed variables are moment and curvature ductility. The result of the study shows that the 4% hollow column still has the same moment strength as the solid one. This experiment also indicates that its curvature ductility is within the range of 6.14    8.49, thus showing that the columns should be considered as limited ductile structure. If the hole-ratio is more than 4%, however, a decrease in the curvature ductility will be found. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sampai saat ini masih ditemui pemakaian konduit (pipa-pipa) pada kolom beton bertulang, sehingga penampang kolom menjadi berlubang. Peraturan ACI 318M-95 membatasi besarnya lubang maksimum 4%, apabila persentase lubang  4%, maka besarnya lubang harus diperhitungkan terhadap pengaruh kekuatannya. Peraturan tersebut tidak menyinggung pengaruh lubang terhadap daktilitas kolom berlubang. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan membuat benda uji kolom berlubang dan tak berlubang dengan variasi: rasio sengkang tunggal = 0,0184; rasio sengkang rangkap = 0,0276; rasio tulangan memanjang = 0,0252; f’c = 26 MPa, penampang kolom = b x h = 200 mm x 200 mm, panjang kolom = L = 1100 mm, rasio lubang (0%; 4,53%; 7,07%), pada kedua ujung kolom diberikan Paksial-tekan konstan 0,12f’cAg = 12,5 ton, diberikan pula beban lateral terletak 1/3 & 2/3 bentang kolom untuk menimbulkan momen. Variabel yang diamati berupa momen dan daktilitas kurvatur. Hasil penelitian tentang kekuatan momen kolom berlubang 4% masih menunjukkan kekuatan yang sama dengan kolom tak berlubang. Eksperimen ini juga mendapatkan daktilitas kurvatur rentang 6,14,8,49 (termasuk daktilitas terbatas). Jika rasio lubang melebihi 4%, maka akan menurunkan daktilitas kurvatur
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN OPTIMIZED APPROACH George Ilinoiu
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (205.015 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 49-56

Abstract

Perencanaan campuran beton (mix design) adalah suatu langkah yang sangat penting dalam pengendalian mutu beton. Campuran yang salah akan mempengaruhi kemudahan pelaksanaan maupun performa beton dalam pemakaian. Makalah yang menarik ini mengungkapkan pengalaman dan praktek yang dilakukan di Romania dalam merencanakan campuran beton untuk berbagai kepentingan.
DAYA DUKUNG ULTIMIT PONDASI DANGKAL DI ATAS TANAH PASIR YANG DIPERKUAT GEOGRID Pontjo Utomo
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (260.358 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 15-20

Abstract

This research was conducted to compare the ultimate bearing capacity of square footing and strip footing rested on geogrid-reinforced sand via model test in the laboratory. The parameters studied were the top layer depth of geogrid below the footing (u), vertical spacings of geogrid layers (z) and the depth of the deepest geogrid layer (d) below the footing. For both square and strip footing, the value of u/B = 0.25-0.5 (B = width of footing) can give benefit to the ultimate bearing capacity of sand up to 2.5-3.5 times greater than unreinforced sand. On the value of z/B = 0.5, on the square footing case, could increase the bearing capacity up to 3.5 times bigger than unreinforced sand, while on the strip footing, z/B = 0.25 increase the ultimate bearing capacity up to 2.5 times greater than unreinforced case. At the value of d/B = 1.5, both square and strip footing could give benefits which amplified the ultimate bearing capacity up to 5 times and 3 times bigger than unreinforced sand respectively. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membandingkan kapasitas daya dukung ultimit pondasi bujur sangkar dan pondasi lajur yang berada di atas tanah pasir yang diperkuat geogrid melalui uji model di laboratorium. Parameter yang diteliti meliputi efek letak lapisan geogrid teratas (u), efek spasi geogrid (z) dan efek letak lapisan terbawah (d) dari geogrid terhadap kenaikan daya dukung ultimit pondasi. Untuk model pondasi baik bujur sangkar maupun lajur, nilai u/B = 0.25-0.5 (B = lebar pondasi) mampu meningkatkan daya dukung ultimit hingga 2.5-3.5 kali daya dukung ultimit tanah pondasi tanpa perkuatan. Nilai z/B = 0.5 pada pondasi bujur sangkar memberikan kenaikan daya dukung hingga 3.5 kali lipat dan pondasi lajur, nilai z/B = 0.25 memberikan kenaikan daya dukung hingga 2.5 kali lipat. Nilai d/B = 1.5, pada pondasi bujur sangkar dan lajur mampu menaikkan daya dukung tanah pondasi hingga 5 kali lipat dan 3 kali lipat dibanding tanah tanpa perkuatan.
KOEFISIEN GESEK TANAH KELEMPUNGAN BERDASARKAN INDEX PLASTISITASNYA Johanes Suwono
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (203.829 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 21-25

Abstract

The plasticity index of clayey soils has been known as a good indicator for many soil parameters. This paper describes how the plasticity index of clays correlates well with the friction coefficient on certain concrete interfaces. Interface direct shear tests were carried out on undisturbed clay samples. The test specimens were normally loaded to simulate the lateral stress at its field condition, and later sheared along a concrete interface. The ratio between the shear stress and the normal stress is termed as the friction coefficient. It appeared that for a certain interface a unique relation between plasticity index and the friction coefficient could be established. Thus, knowing the plasticity index of a clay layer we could determine its adhesion or skin resistance to an embedded pile surface. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Index plastisitas tanah kelempungan mempunyai pengaruh terhadap sifat-sifat tanah tersebut, dan telah dipakai untuk menentukan beberapa parameter tanah. Penelitian dalam tulisan ini berupaya mengetahui pengaruh index plastisitas tanah kelempungan terhadap koefisien geseknya ke permukaan suatu bahan beton. Percobaan dilakukan dalam alat geser langsung (direct shear). Spesimen uji tanah digeserkan ke atas permukaan suatu bahan beton setelah dibebani sesuai dengan tegangan lateral yang pernah diterimanya. Koefisien gesek didefinisikan sebagai rasio antara tegangan geser serta tegangan lateral ini. Ternyata untuk sesuatu macam permukaan bahan didapat hubungan yang cukup unik antara koefisien gesek dengan index plastisitas tanah. Untuk sesuatu lapisan tanah kelempungan dengan index plastisitas tertentu dapat ditentukan besarnya hambatan lekat tanahnya pada permukaan suatu tiang pondasi yang ditahannya.
BINDER DRAINAGE TEST FOR POROUS MIXTURES MADE BY VARYING THE MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZES Hardiman Hardiman; M.O. Hamzah; A.A. Mohammed
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.434 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 26-31

Abstract

Binder drainage occurs with mixes of small aggregate surface area particularly porous asphalt. The binder drainage test, developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, UK, is commonly used to set an upper limit on the acceptable binder content for a porous mix. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of different binder types on the binder drainage characteristics of porous mix made of various maximum aggregate sizes 20, 14 and 10 mm. Two types of binder were used, conventional 60/70 pen bitumen, and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) modified bitumen. The amount of binder lost through drainage after three hours at the maximum mixing temperature were measured in duplicate for mixes of different maximum sizes and binder contents. The maximum mixing temperature adopted depends on the types of binder used. The retained binder is plotted against the initial mixed binder content, together with the line of equality where the retained binder equals the mixed binder content. The results indicate the significant contribution of using SBS modified bitumen to increase the target bitumen binder content. Their significance is discussed in terms of target binder content, the critical binder content, the maximum mixed binder content and the maximum retained binder content values obtained from the binder drainage test. It was concluded that increasing maximum aggregate sizes decrease the maximum retained binder content, critical binder content, target binder content, maximum mixed binder content, and mixed content for both binders, but however for all mixtures, SBS is the highest.
BASIC ACTUAL AND EFFECTIVENESS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGERS IN SURABAYA Andi Andi; Wahyu Kurniawan Santoso; Ronald Chandra Tali
Civil Engineering Dimension Vol. 6 No. 1 (2004): MARCH 2004
Publisher : Institute of Research and Community Outreach - Petra Christian University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (217.89 KB) | DOI: 10.9744/ced.6.1.pp. 32-39

Abstract

Leading is one of the most important facets in managing construction projects, and behaving as an effective leader is a vital project manager’s responsibility to ensure that work efforts of other persons are directed toward the accomplishment of organizational objectives. This paper aims to determine basic and actual leadership styles of construction project managers in Surabaya. The effectiveness of the actual leadership style is also examined. To accomplish the objective, the paper first briefly reviews the ways in which leadership is approached. Data were then collected through an empirical survey to 46 project managers, taking Fiedler and Hersey-Blanchard’s models as the point of departure. The results indicate that the basic leadership of project managers in Surabaya falls slightly on task-oriented behavior. Meanwhile selling is the most common style used as actual leadership in practice. The paper discusses the effectiveness of the styles adopted and situational variables affecting.

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