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Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : 14104490     EISSN : 23549203     DOI : https://doi.org/10.7454/jki
Core Subject : Health,
Focus and Scope Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia (JKI, or Nursing Journal of Indonesia) contributes to the dissemination of information related to nursing research and evidence-based study on urban nursing issues in low-middle income countries. The scope of this journal is broadly multi-perspective in nursing areas such as Nursing Education, Clinical Practice, Community Health Care, Management and Health System, Health Informatics, and Transcultural Nursing, with a focus on urban nursing issues in low-middle income countries. JKI is committed to communicating and being open to the discussion of ideas, facts, and issues related to health across a wide range of disciplines. The journal accepts original research articles, synthesized literature, and best practice reports or case reports that use the quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method approach. JKI adheres to journalistic standards that require transparency of real and potential conflicts of interest that authors and editors may have. It follows publishing standards set by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Letters and commentaries about our published articles are welcome. All submitted contributions will undergo a blind peer-review process according to appropriate criteria.
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Search results for , issue "Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March" : 10 Documents clear
Terapi Komplementer Dalam Keperawatan Widyatuti Widyatuti
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.200

Abstract

AbstrakTerapi komplementer akhir-akhir ini menjadi isu di banyak negara. Masyarakat menggunakan terapi ini dengan alasan keyakinan, keuangan, reaksi obat kimia dan tingkat kesembuhan. Perawat mempunyai peluang terlibat dalam terapi ini, tetapi memerlukan dukungan hasil-hasil penelitian (evidence-based practice). Pada dasarnya terapi komplementer telah didukung berbagai teori, seperti teori Nightingale, Roger, Leininger, dan teori lainnya. Terapi komplementer dapat digunakan di berbagai level pencegahan. Perawat dapat berperan sesuai kebutuhan klien. AbstractComplementary therapy has emerged as a common health issue in the countries worldwide. People choose the complementary therapy based on many reasons such as belief, financial, avoiding the chemical reaction from medicine, and positive healing outcome. Nurse has great opportunity to deliver and develop complementary therapy supported by scientific evidences. Basically, the complementary therapy theoretical justification has been established by several nursing theory, as the Nightingale’s, Roger’s, Leininger’s and many others. Complementary therapy can be delivered in various prevention level. In accordance to the purpose, nurse should perform his/her role based on particular client’s needs.
Pengalaman Perempuan Bekerja Dalam Melaksanakan Tugas Kesehatan Keluarga di Wilayah Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi Henny Permatasari; Achir Yani S. Hamid; Setyowati Setyowati
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.195

Abstract

AbstrakPenelitian fenomenologi yang berperspektif perempuan ini bertujuan mendapatkan gambaran pengalaman perempuan bekerja berkeluarga dalam melaksanakan perawatan keluarga. Partisipan ditetapkan dengan metode purposif berjumlah enam orang. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam dan dianalisis dengan metode Collaizz’s. Hasil penelitian mengidentifikasi delapan tema utama dan satu tema tambahan yaitu alasan perempuan bekerja, kekhususan perempuan bekerja, kemampuan manajerial perempuan bekerja, dukungan sosial, kemampuan melaksanakan tugas kesehatan keluarga, kesenjangan antara harapan pekerja dan dukungan institusi kerja, diskriminasi gender, kebutuhan pekerja terhadap pelayanan kesehatan. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa perempuan bekerja mampu melaksanakan tugas kesehatan keluarga dengan dipengaruhi pengetahuan tentang masalah kesehatan, dukungan dari keluarga dan tenaga kesehatan profesional serta hak pekerja untuk mendapatkan jaminan pelayanan kesehatan. Perempuan bekerja juga memiliki kebutuhan khusus terhadap pelayanan kesehatan. Perawat kesehatan kerja diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pelayanan keperawatan yang bersifat promotif untuk memelihara dan meningkatkan derajat kesehatan perempuan bekerja. AbstractThere is evident that the working women experience numerous problems. The purpose of this feminine perspective phenomenological research was to describe the experience of married working women in carrying out family’s health tasks. There were six women purposively selected to participate in this study. Data was collected using in-depth-interview, exploring the experience of working women in carrying out family’s health tasks and issues related to the experience. Collaizz’s method was utilized to analyse the corrected qualitative data. The result of this study revealed nine themes were the reason for women to work, specification of social support, ability to carry out family health tasks, gap between expectation and insitution’s supporting, working women perception of gender discrimination, women’s need to health care. The research concluded that the working women were capable to carry family health taks which is influenced by their knowledge on health problems, the support of family and professional health providers and the right of providers to have health insurance. The working women also have the special needs of health care services. It is recommended that occupational health nurses should provide nursing care including health promotion and maintenance of health status of working women.
Terapi Hipnosis Terhadap Penurunan Sensasi Nyeri Pascabedah Ortopedi Paulus Subiyanto; Ratna Sitorus; Luknis Sabri
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.199

Abstract

AbstrakTerapi hipnosis belum banyak dikenal dan dikembangkan sebagai terapi keperawatan di Indonesia. Penelitian kuasi eksperimen ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi pengaruh hipnosis dalam menurunkan sensasi nyeri pasien pascabedah ortopedi. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 32 responden, terdiri dari 16 responden pada kelompok kontrol dan intervensi. Nyeri diukur dengan numeric pain intensity scale skala 0-5. Prosedur terapi hipnosis dikembangkan dalam bentuk rekaman pita kaset. Pengumpulan data dilakukan di dua rumah sakit. Hasil uji dengan independent t-test menunjukkan ada perbedaan signifikan rerata selisih tingkat sensasi nyeri sebelum dan setelah terapi baik pada kelompok kontrol dan intervensi (p = 0,020, = 0,05). Kelompok intervensi mempunyai rerata selisih tingkat sensasi nyeri yang lebih besar dari kelompok kontrol. Hasil yang sama juga ditunjukkan dengan paired sample t-test bahwa ada perbedaan signifikan rerata tingkat sensasi nyeri sebelum dan setelah terapi pada kelompok kontrol dan intervensi (p = 0,000, = 0,05). Kombinasi terapi analgesik dan hipnosis lebih efektif dibandingkan analgesik sebagai terapi tunggal untuk menurunkan tingkat sensasi nyeri pascabedah ortopedi. AbstractHypnotherapy has not been widely known and developed as a nursing therapy in Indonesia. The research was aimed to identify the effect of hypnosis in reducing the pain sensation of orthopedic post-operative patients. This quasy-experimental study involved 32 respondents, 16 respondents for each control and intervention group. The pain was measured by numeric pain intensity scale of 0 to 5. The hypnotherapy procedure was conducted using a cassette-recorder. The data were undertaken directly by the researcher at two hospitals. Independent t-test showed that there was a significant average deviation of the pain sensation level in the pre and post therapy from both groups (P = 0.020, = 0.05). However, the average deviation of pain sensation level of the intervention group was greater than the control group. The same result was obtained with paired t-test sample. There was a significant average deviation of pain sensation levels in the pre and post therapy for both groups (p = 0.000, = 0.05). The combination therapy between analgesic and hypnotherapy was more effective in reducing the level of orthopedic postoperative pain sensation than the single therapy.
Efek Cold Pressor Test Terhadap Pasokan dan Kebutuhan Oksigen Miokard Pada Perokok Aktif di Kecamatan Ungaran Kabupaten Semarang Gipta Galih Widodo; Elly Nurachmah; Budiharto Budiharto
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.194

Abstract

AbstrakPenelitian kuasi eksperimen ini bertujuan menguji pengaruh cold pressor test (CPT) terhadap pasokan dan kebutuhan oksigen miokard pada perokok aktif dengan pengukuran tekanan darah dan segmen ST di Kecamatan Ungaran Kabupaten Semarang. Jumlah sampel dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 76 perokok aktif di Kecamatan Ungaran Kabupaten Semarang dan ditentukan dengan cluster sampling. Pengaruh CPT terhadap tekanan darah dan segmen ST pada perokok aktif diuji dengan dependent sample t test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rerata tekanan darah setelah intervensi CPT mengalami penurunan. Hasil analisis dengan uji t test menunjukkan bahwa CPT menurunkan tekanan darah setelah intervensi CPT (p=0,000). Rata-rata segmen ST sebelum dan setelah intervensi CPT tidak jauh berbeda. Hasil uji t test menunjukkan bahwa CPT tidak berpengaruh dalam menurunkan segmen ST pada perokok aktif (p = 0,895). Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa CPT berpengaruh terhadap perubahan tekanan darah pada perokok aktif tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap perubahan segmen ST. Selama CPT terjadi peningkatan tekanan darah dan berangsur menurun setelah dilakukan CPT. Segmen ST tidak mengalami perubahan. CPT dapat digunakan oleh perawat untuk memprediksi kejadian peningkatan tekanan darah. Untuk penelitian selanjutnya sebaiknya digunakan alat ukur yang lebih sensitif dan menggunakan determinan pasokan dan kebutuhan oksigen miokard yang lain seperti preload dan denyut jantung. AbstractThis quasy-experimental research was aimed to examine the effect of cold pressor test (CPT) to the myocardial oxygen demand and supply among active smokers in the Ungaran district, Semarang by measuring blood pressure and ST segment. There were 76 active smoker males involved as the cluster sampling in the research. To examine the CPT effect on the blood pressure and ST segment among the active smokers, dependent sample t test was conducted. The result of the research showed that average blood pressure is decreased after CPT. Furthermore, CPT showed its effects on decreasing blood pressure after the intervention (p = 0,000). The averages of ST segment before and after intervention of CPT were slightly different. Thus, CPT indicated no significant impact in decreasing ST segment among active smokers (p = 0,895). The research concluded that CPT caused blood pressure changes among active smokers but do not have effect in ST segment changes. On the other hand, it was observed that the initial blood pressure were increase during CPT but then gradually decreased immediately after the end of CPT. In addition, ST segment remained unchanged. Therefore, the CPT is still beneficial for predicting high blood pressure in patient compared to other cardiac stress test. Nevertheless, it is recommended to use more sensitive device and to consider other determinants of the myocardial oxygen demand and supply such as preload and heart beat for further research.
Perilaku Caring Perawat Pelaksana di Sebuah Rumah Sakit di Bandung: Studi Grounded Theory Blacius Dedi; Setyowati Setyowati; Yati Afiyanti
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.198

Abstract

AbstrakPerilaku caring belum diaplikasikan optimal dalam pelayanan keperawatan. Studi grounded theory ini bertujuan memperoleh gambaran perilaku caring perawat pelaksana sebuah RS di Bandung. Enam perawat pelaksana dari enam ruangan rawat inap di rumah sakit tersebut diobservasi dan diwawancara mendalam. Data dianalisis secara tematik. Penelitian menemukan tujuh tema yaitu sikap peduli terhadap pemenuhan kebutuhan klien, bertanggung jawab memenuhi kebutuhan klien, ramah dalam melayani, sikap tenang dan sabar dalam melayani klien, selalu siap sedia memenuhi kebutuhan klien, memberikan motivasi kepada klien, dan sikap empati dengan klien dan keluarganya. Penelitian ini merekomendasikan perlunya membudayakan perilaku caring melalui pendidikan berkelanjutan, supervisi, dan pengarahan intensif. AbstractThe caring behavior is still partially performed by nurses. This grounded theory study examined the caring behavior of the nurses. Six nurse staffs from the six different wards at a hospital in Bandung were observed and deeply interviewed. The data was analyzed thematically. The result identified seven themes namely concern on fulfilling client’s need, responsibility on fulfilling client’s need, friendly and hospitality, calm and patient in helping client, readiness and willing to help client, give motivation to client, and empathy to the client and the family. This research suggested the importance of continuing education, effective direction and supervision to establish the culture of caring behavior among nurses.
Bladder Training Modifikasi Cara Kozier Pada Pasien Pasca Bedah Ortopedi yang Terpasang Kateter Urin Bayhakki Bayhakki; Krisna Yetti; Mustikasari Mustikasari
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.193

Abstract

AbstrakPenelitian kuasi-eksperimen dengan post-test only with control group ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak bladder training menggunakan metode konvensional dan menggunakan modifikasi cara Kozier, dilihat dari pola, keluhan, dan lama waktu berkemih kembali seperti sebelum operasi ortopedi. Pengambilan sampel pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode probability sampling dengan cara simple random sampling pasien pascabedah ortopedi yang terpasang kateter urin di sebuah rumah sakit di Jakarta. Uji chi square digunakan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pola berkemih dan keluhan berkemih antara kelompok intervensi dan kelompok kontrol. Independent t test untuk mengetahui perbedaan lama waktu pada kelompok intervensi dan kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan pola berkemih (p = 1,00) dan keluhan berkemih (p =1,00) antara kelompok intervensi dan kelompok kontrol. Namun, ada perbedaan signifikan antara lama waktu untuk berkemih kembali normal pada kelompok intervensi dan kelompok kontrol (p = 0,05) dengan α = 0,05. Institusi pelayanan perlu membuat prosedur tetap untuk tindakan bladder training dan perawat perlu melakukan bladder training dengan modifikasi cara Kozier sebelum kateter urin pasien dilepaskan. AbstractThis quasy-experimental post-test only with control group study was aimed to examine the effect of bladder training using conventional method and modification of Kozier’s method which was viewed from pattern of voiding, complaint of voiding and the time needed to make voiding back to normal. The participants were taken randomly from the patients with urinary catheter that hospitalized in orthopaedic surgery ward in a hospital in Jakarta. Probability sampling with simple random sampling was used in this study. Chi-square test was employed to examine the different between pattern of voiding and complaint of voiding of treatment group and control group. Independent t test was used to examine the different of time needed in order to void back normally between treatment and control group. With alpha 0,01 for pattern of voiding and 1,00 for complaint of voiding, the result showed that there was no difference of voiding pattern and complaint between treatment and control group. However, there was a significant difference of time needed in order to void back normally between treatment group and control group, with α = 0,05. Therefore, health care institution should have a standard procedure of bladder training and nurses should conduct Kozier modified bladder training method before removing the urinary catheter.
Perbandingan Penyembuhan Luka Terbuka Menggunakan Balutan Madu atau Balutan Normal Salin-Povidone Iodine Zulfa Zulfa; Elly Nurachmah; Dewi Gayatri
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.197

Abstract

AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi perbedaan keefektifan penyembuhan luka menggunakan balutan madu dan balutan normal salin-povidone iodine pada pasien trauma dengan luka terbuka yang dirawat di salah satu RS di Bukittinggi. Desain penelitian ini adalah kuasi eksperimen, non-equivalent control group dengan pre dan post-test. Sampel berjumlah 6 responden (3 responden untuk masing-masing kelompok intervensi madu serta normal salin-povidone iodine). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan bermakna pada rerata skor perkembangan proses penyembuhan luka antara sebelum dan sesudah intervensi perawatan luka dengan madu (P = 0.076) dan dengan normal salin-povidone iodine (P = 0,057). Rerata skor perkembangan penyembuhan luka terbuka setelah intervensi tidak berbeda secara signifikan (P = 0,797) antara kelompok intervensi dengan madu dengan kelompok kontrol. Namun, penurunan skor perkembangan proses penyembuhan luka pada balutan madu (11,52%) lebih besar 6,67% dibandingkan balutan normal salin-povidone iodine (4,85%). Perawatan luka dengan madu membuat responden tidak merasa nyeri, tidak terjadi perlengketan serta perdarahan saat membuka balutan ketika dibersihkan, sedangkan dengan normal salin-povidone iodine, responden merasakan sebaliknya. Hasil penelitian ini merekomendasikan penggunaan balutan madu untuk pasien dengan luka terbuka. AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of honey dressing and normal salin-povidone iodine dressing in the open wound healing process at a hospital in Bukittinggi. This was a non-equivalent control group quasi experimental study with pre & post test. The samples of this study were 6 respondents (3 respondents in each intervention and control group). The finding from this study showed that there was no significant difference on the mean score of wound healing process before and after wound care intervention using honey dressing (P = 0.076), and normal saline-povidone iodine dressing (P = 0.057). There was also no significant difference on the mean score of wound healing process on traumatic open wound patient after intervention on the control group using normal saline-povidone iodine dressing and intervention group using honey dressing (P = 0,797) However, the wound healing score on the honey intervention group was 6,67% higher (11,52%) than on the wound using normal saline-povidone iodine dressing (4,85%). Unlike patients in the control group, patients using honey dressing were not complaining about pain and bleeding when change dressing. Therefore, the study recommended the honey application for open wound.
Analisis Fenomenologi Tantang Pengalaman Perawat Dalam Memberikan Asuhan Keperawatan Pada Pasien dengan Avian Influenza Sri Yona; Astuti Yuni Nursasi
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.192

Abstract

AbstrakPerawat adalah tenaga kesehatan yang paling sering kontak dengan pasien. Ketakutan akan tertular penyakit dalam merawat pasien dengan penyakit yang mudah menular, dapat melahirkan sikap dan perilaku perawat yang tidak profesional dalam memberikan asuhan keperawatan kepada pasien. Penelitian fenomenologi ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi pengalaman perawat selama merawat pasien dengan Avian Influenza. Data kualitatif yang diperoleh melalui wawancara mendalam pada tujuh perawat di sebuah rumah sakit di Jakarta. Hasil penelitian menemukan empat tema utama yaitu pengetahuan tentang AI yang minimal, profesionalisme yang tinggi, perasaan merawat pasien, serta upaya mencegah penularan. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa perlunya pelatihan mengenai Avian Influenza dengan menggunakan pendekatan keperawatan. AbstractNurse is the only health team member in the hospital who always contact intensively with the patient. Fear of getting infection from patient can create negative perception and attitude which will influence the way nurse perform nursing care to the patient. This is important to assess what nurse perception in caring for infectious patiens, such as Avian Influenza (AI) patients. A Phenomenology study was carried out to identify the experience of nurses in taking care patient with Avian Influenza. The purpose of the study was to identify the experience of nurses in taking care patients with Avian Influenza. The participants were seven nurses who work at a hospital in Jakarta. Data was collected by the in-depth interview. The major themes revealed in this study were: inadequate knowledge about Avian Influeza, highly prefessional nurses, feeling when caring for patient, way in preventing AI transmission. In conclusion, there is a need to conduct additional training about Avian Influenza in the context of nursing care approach.
Focus Group Discussion (Diskusi Kelompok Terfokus) sebagai Metode Pengumpulan Data Penelitian Kualitatif Yati Afiyanti
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.201

Abstract

AbstrakMetode Focus Group Discussion (FGD) merupakan pendekatan yang umum digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data/informasi pada penelitian kualitatif, tidak terkecuali penelitian keperawatan yang saat ini semakin populer menggunakan metode FGD sebagai metode pengumpulan data. Metode ini memiliki karakteristik utama yaitu menggunakan data interaksi yang dihasilkan dari diskusi diantara para partisipannya. Kekuatan utama metode FGD terbukti dapat memberikan data yang lebih mendalam, lebih informatif, dan lebih bernilai dibanding metode lainnya. Namun, pelaksanaan yang optimal dari metode ini masih menjadi perdebatan yang dilaporkan pada banyak literatur dan konsensus metode FGD sebagai metode yang ideal untuk pengumpulan data belum disepakati oleh banyak ahli penelitian. AbstractFocus Group Discussions (FGD) method is a common approach for data collection in qualitative research projects, without exception in nursing research in recent years. The primary characteristic of this method is to use interaction data resulting from discussion among participants. The primary strength of the FGD method is that it can provide rich data, more informative, and valuable insight which can not be discovered through other methods. However, the optimal execution of the FGD method has been debated in the literatures, and consensus related to ideal methodology has not been achieved by researchers.
Pengaruh Breathing Retraining Terhadap Peningkatan Fungsi Ventilasi Paru Pada Asuhan Keperawatan Pasien PPOK Faridah Aini; Ratna Sitorus; Budiharto Budiharto
Jurnal Keperawatan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2008): March
Publisher : Faculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.7454/jki.v12i1.196

Abstract

AbstrakPenelitian kuasi eksperimen dengan rancangan control group pretest-posttest ini bertujuan menjelaskan pengaruh breathing retraining terhadap peningkatan fungsi ventilasi paru pada pasien Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronik (PPOK) di sebuah rumah sakit di Jakarta. Sampel berjumlah 34 pasien yang diambil secara simple random sampling (masing-masing 17 pasien untuk kelompok intervensi dan kontrol). Rerata nilai fungsi ventilasi paru pasien PPOK berbeda bermakna antara sebelum dan sesudah intervensi breathing retraining selama enam hari (p value = 0.000). Rerata nilai fungsi ventilasi paru pasien PPOK setelah intervensi antara kelompok intervensi dengan kelompok kontrol berbeda secara signifikan (p value = 0.012). Peningkatan nilai fungsi ventilasi paru berhubungan dengan usia (p value = 0.001), tetapi tidak ditemukan berhubungan dengan tinggi badan (p value = 0.091) dan jenis kelamin (p value = 0.346). Breathing retraining dapat diterapkan pada pasien PPOK untuk meningkatkan fungsi ventilasi paru. AbstractThe aim of the research was to explain about the influence of breathing retraining to the increasing of lung ventilation function for nursing care of theCOPD patients at a Hospital in Jakarta. The reseach design was quasi experiment with control group pretest-postest design. Total 34 patients (17 subjects for each group, intervention and control group) were included by a simple random sampling method. A breathing retraining was given to the intervention group for 6 days. The finding showed that the average of the COPD patient’s lung ventilation was significantly different before and after breathing retraining (p value = 0.000). The average score of the COPD patient’s lung ventilation after breathing retraining between intervention group and control group was also significantly different (p value = 0.012). There was significant relationship between age and increased lung ventilation function (p value = 0.001). However, no relationship found between body height and increased lung fuction (p value = 0.091) and between gender and lung ventilation function (p value = 0.346). The research suggested to implement the breathing retraining to increase the lung ventilation function of the CPOD patients.

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