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Muhammad Alif K. Sahide
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INDONESIA
Forest and Society
Published by Universitas Hasanuddin
ISSN : 25494724     EISSN : 25494333     DOI : -
Core Subject : Agriculture, Social,
Forest and Society is an international and interdisciplinary journal, which publishes peer-reviewed social, political and economic research relating to people, land, and forests. Forest and Society has main geographic focus on Southeast Asia but we do not limit research possibilities that compare between and across regions.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 6 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): APRIL" : 6 Documents clear
Corporate Spheres of Responsibility: Architects, Cowboys, and Eco-Warriors in Myanmar’s Oil & Gas Industry Hillary Strasser
Forest and Society Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): APRIL
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (531.382 KB) | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1322

Abstract

Myanmar's recently opened economy is flush with incoming investment and activity. World leaders advocate that all businesses entering the country must operate in a "socially responsible manner." However, the history of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Myanmar is undefined, contradictory, and complex. Thus, to get a handle around what it means to be “responsible,” this paper investigates the collective way in which actors in the petroleum industry in Myanmar enact CSR from 1990 to 2014. The oil and gas (O&G) industry is the most lucrative, and arguably powerful, national sector. The practice and philosophy of CSR, which originated in this industry, is now proclaimed to be the starting point for this newly charted course of responsible business in Myanmar. Yet, activists and critics maintain that CSR is an insincere PR measure of profit maximization whereby companies can conduct business as normal. I argue that CSR in the Myanmar petroleum industry is influenced by more complex factors than profit maximization or image management. CSR initiatives are sculpted by (1) the geography of petroleum extraction, (2) corporate philosophies and company national origins, and (3) type of company operations. The petroleum industry’s CSR activities to date, in terms of geographic span and development targets, all fit into a spectrum of assumed spheres of corporate responsibility that have been forged by the corporate ‘architects’ and tempered by geographic and global forces.
Forest and Society: Initiating a Southeast Asia Journal for Theoretical, Empirical, and Regional Scholarship Micah Fisher; Ahmad Maryudi; Muhammad Alif K. Sahide
Forest and Society Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): APRIL
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (317.365 KB) | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1369

Abstract

Welcome to our first edition. We are excited to provide a new, and what we believe, timely avenue for presenting research findings and publications in Southeast Asia, for scholars interested in Southeast Asia. Although Southeast Asia as a region of study has provided tremendous contributions to theory and practice regarding forests and society across the social and natural sciences, avenues for cultivating a scholarship of the region remain limited. We seek to engage on a broad set of themes through the application of targeted research related to timely issues affecting the human-environment interface in a diverse region that we have much to learn from. We take a broad understanding of the forest - as a politico-administrative unit, a geographic area, and as an ecological unit. We do not limit the forest to its boundaries but rather seek to engage on the dynamics of change in social and ecological processes. Under such an umbrella, new approaches and methods become possible. ‘Forest’ can be analyzed as land use, ecological process, divided across watersheds, as landscapes, mountains, and more. The lens of ‘society’ allows for opportunities to understand change, whether it is the interaction between a resource to be preserved, exploited, forgotten, or erased. Forests, therefore, operate as the clues of what once was, has become, and what can be. Particularly in the age of climate change, riddled by increasingly complex challenges, a new dimension also emerges for the forest. Different perspectives at different scales – from the local to the global – provide equally important dimensions, and are those which we seek to provide avenues to learn from, and communicate through this journal. As the reader will find in this inaugural issue, we have compiled an initial set of studies across multiple methods and geographies that help to set the terms of future editions. We examine: historical political ecologies of land use around opium cultivation in the uplands of Thailand; emerging governance regimes of corporate social responsibility in Myanmar; the capacity of new state institutions to manage land conflict in forest estate lands in Indonesia; a close analysis of forest harvesting and management in a mangrove forest in Malaysia; and, an economic valuation of non-timber forest products in a national park in Indonesia. There is much to choose from and much more to delve into. We hope that this issue serves as an impetus to engage on these timely themes and further encourages new ideas for submissions. 
Productivity and Cost Analysis of Forest Harvesting Operation in Matang Mangrove Forest, Perak, Malaysia Albert Empawi Tindit; Seca Gandaseca; Laurna Nyangon; Ahmad Mustapha Mohamad Pazi
Forest and Society Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): APRIL
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1529

Abstract

Matang Mangrove Forest is under systematic management since 1902 and still considered as the best managed mangrove forest in the world. This research was conducted to measure the time and productivity of forest harvesting operation and also to analyze the cost and revenue of mangrove forest harvesting operation at Matang mangrove forest. This project had been carried out in cooperation with Seri Sepetang Enterprise, one of the harvesting licenses in Kuala Sepetang, Perak.  Data collections were taken in every station starting from standing tree until to the Kiln-Drying jetty. The data then calculated by using the formulas of productivity and cost analysis. As the result, the productivity for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are 1.84 tan/hour, 3.82 tan/hour and 4.64 tan/hour respectively.  The cost for each operation of 9 tan log volume for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are RM 56.88, RM 10.80 and RM 36.72 respectively. As the revenue, the company paid RM 260 per 9 tan of log for the in-forest operation (felling, manual skidding and loading to the ship) and pay RM 80 per 9 tan for the water transportation, and they gained the net profit of RM 192.32 and RM 43.28 respectively. The average of forest harvesting operation is twice operation in a day (equal with 2 x 9-ton volume of log production a day), so they will gain a double profit.  In conclusion, the forest harvesting operation is sustainably managed for supplying the raw material of charcoal industries in Matang mangrove forest. Since, they work manually and spend much energy in this forest harvesting operation, so for further study it recommends to conduct the ergonomics evaluation during forest harvesting operation at Matang Mangrove Forest.
People, Land and Poppy: the Political Ecology of Opium and the Historical Impact of Alternative Development in Northwest Thailand Bobby Anderson
Forest and Society Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): APRIL
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (399.365 KB) | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1495

Abstract

Thailand’s near-total elimination of opium poppy cultivation is attributed to “alternative development” programming, which replaces illicit crops with licit ones. However, opium poppy cultivation was not drastically reduced because substitute crops earned the same income as opium: nothing can equal the price of opium to smallholder farmers, especially those without land tenure. Thailand’s reduction in poppy cultivation was achieved by the increased presence and surveillance capability of state security actors, who, year by year, were able to locate and destroy fields, and arrest cultivators, with increasing accuracy. This coercion was also accompanied by benefits to cultivators, including the provision of health and education services and the extension of roads; both stick and carrot constituted the encroachment of the Thai state. The provision of citizenship to hill tribe members also gave them a vested interest in the state, through their ability to hold land, access health care, education and work opportunities, amongst others. These initiatives did not occur without costs to hill tribe cultures for whom a symbiotic relationship with the land was and remains disrupted. These findings indicate that alternative development programming unlinked to broader state-building initiatives in Afghanistan, Myanmar and other opium poppy-producing areas will fail, because short-term, high-yield, high value, imperishable opium will remain the most logical choice for poor farmers, especially given the lack of a farmer’s vested interest in the state which compels them to reduce their income whilst offering them no other protections or services. 
Potential Economic and Development Prospects of Non Timber Forest Products in Community Agroforestry Land around Sibolangit Tourism Park Oding Affandi; Anita Zaitunah; Ridwanti Batubara
Forest and Society Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): APRIL
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.1096

Abstract

The communities who live around Sibolangit Tourism Park have developed nontimber forest products (NTFP) in their own agroforestry lands. This research evaluates the potential economic and development prospects from NTFP development in the Park by examining: (1) type of NTFP and economic value from community agrofrestry land, (2) contribution of NTFPs on household income, (3) development prospects of NTFP-based agroforestry around Sibolangit Tourism Park. The research was conducted in two selected villages around Sibolangit Tourism Park: Sembahe Village and Batu Mbelin Village. The research took place over a period between June and August 2016. Research data was obtained from in-depth interviews and observations. A descriptive method was used to analyze and describe facts related to the research aims. The type of NTFPs cultivated by communities at the research sites include mangosteen, durian, garcinia, candlenut, lanzones, lansium, bitter bean, and areca nut (as their forestry component) and ginger, turmeric, chili, papaya, etlingera, and banana (as the agriculture component). Most NTFPs are cultivated as a comercial product. The economic value of NTFPs in Batu Mbelin Village has reached Rp. 547,275,000/year or contribute 80.07% of total family income. Meanwhile, the economic value of NTFPs in Sembahe Village has reached Rp 682,100,000/year, contributing to 78.75% of total household income.  Therefore, the prospects for supporting and expanding NTFP in agroforestry plots in and around Sibolangit Tourism Park has high potential for supporting household income
Managing Forest Conflicts: Perspectives of Indonesia’s Forest Management Unit Directors Larry A. Fisher; Yeon-Su Kim; Sitti Latifah; Madani Mukarom
Forest and Society Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017): APRIL
Publisher : Forestry Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24259/fs.v1i1.772

Abstract

Recent expansion of the forestry and plantation sectors in Indonesia has intensified agrarian and natural resource conflicts, and created increased awareness of the social, economic and environmental impacts of these disputes. Addressing these disputes is a critical issue in advancing Indonesia’s commitment to sustainable forest management.  The Forest Management Units (Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan, or KPH), have become the pivotal structural element for managing all state forests at the local level, with responsibility for conventional forest management and policy implementation (establishing management boundaries, conducting forest inventory, and developing forest management plans), as well as the legal mandate to communicate and work with indigenous people and local communities.  This paper presents the results of a national survey of all currently functioning KPH units, the first of its kind ever conducted with KPH leadership, to obtain a system-wide perspective of the KPHs’ role, mandate, and capacity for serving as effective intermediaries in managing forest conflicts in Indonesia. The survey results show that the KPHs are still in a very initial stage of development, and are struggling with a complex and rapidly evolving policy and institutional framework. The most common conflicts noted by respondents included forest encroachment, tenure disputes, boundary conflicts, and illegal logging and land clearing.  KPH leadership views conflict resolution as among their primary duties and functions, and underscored the importance of more proactive and collaborative approaches for addressing conflict, many seeing themselves as capable facilitators and mediators. Overall, these results juxtapose a generally constructive view by KPH leadership over their role and responsibility in addressing forest management conflicts, with an extremely challenging social, institutional, and political setting. The KPHs can certainly play an important role as local intermediaries, and in some cases, as facilitative mediators in resolving local conflicts, but only with a more concerted effort from central and provincial government authorities to provide greater consistency in policies and regulations, improved policy communication, and a sustained commitment to strengthening the capacity of individual KPHs. 

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