cover
Contact Name
Hadi kuncoro
Contact Email
kuncoro_hadi82@yahoo.com
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
kuncoro_hadi82@yahoo.com
Editorial Address
-
Location
Kota samarinda,
Kalimantan timur
INDONESIA
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Published by Universitas Mulawarman
ISSN : 20877099     EISSN : 24076090     DOI : -
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry is a Biannual, international, open access (Indexed in DOAJ, Crossref, SINTA, PKP Index, BASE, Moraref, Google Scholar), journal dedicated to various disciplines of pharmaceutical and allied sciences. Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry (ISSN-p: 2087-7099, ISSN-e: 2407-6090), The journal had been established in 2010, and online publication was begun in 2014. Since 2018, the journal has been published in English by Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman (UNMUL) Samarinda, Indonesia in and only receives manuscripts in English.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 16 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry" : 16 Documents clear
Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein as The Key Target in the Development of Antiviral Candidates for COVID-19 through Computational Study Fakih, Taufik Muhammad; Dewi, Mentari Luthfika
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.254

Abstract

The recent public health crisis is threatening the world with the emergence of the spread of the new coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus originates from bats and is transmitted to humans through unknown intermediate animals in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Advances in technology have opened opportunities to find candidates for natural compounds capable of preventing and controlling COVID-19 infection through inhibition of spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. This research aims to identify, evaluate, and explore the structure of spike protein macromolecules from three coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) and their effects on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) using computational studies. Based on the identification of the three spike protein macromolecules, it was found that there was a similarity between the active binding sites of ACE-2. These observations were then confirmed using a protein-docking simulation to observe the interaction of the protein spike to the active site of ACE-2. SARS-COV-2 spike protein has the strongest bond to ACE-2, with an ACE score of ?1341.85 kJ/mol. Therefore, some of this information from the results of this research can be used as a reference in the development of competitive inhibitor candidates for SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins for the treatment of COVID-19 infectious diseases.
Antioxidant Activity Test of Effervescent Granules Morinda citrifolia L Leaf Extract with DPPH Free Radical Absorption Method Tuldjanah, Muthmainah; Dewi, Niluh Puspita; Rahmawati, Dian
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.285

Abstract

Morinda citrifolia. L leaf is a plant that has the potential as an antioxidant due to the presence of compounds in the form of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds that can function as natural antioxidants. In connection with this, research was carried out to Morinda citrifolia. L formulate leaf extract in the form of effervescent granules. Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was macerated with ethanol 96% as solvent. Phytochemical screening showsthat the extract contains flavonoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract was formulated with various concentrations of F1 (20%), F2 (25%), F3 (4%). Determination of antioxidant activity using the DPPH free radical immersion method. The results showed that the concentration in the granules influenced antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 109.05 ppm, 101.33 ppm and 73.28 ppm, respectively
Test of the Aphrodisiac Effect of Ethanol Extract of Roots, Stems and Leaves of Packaged Plants (Smilax rotundifolia) on Male White Rats (Sprague Dawley) Handayani, Kiki Rizki; Wulandari, Ayu
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.286

Abstract

Developing countries use medicinal plants for aphrodisiac treatment, one of which is a pack plant (Smilax rotundifolia) which is commonly used to enlarge male genitalia in Papua Indonesia. Because these claims are not scientifically tested and proven, at this time This study aims to determine the effect of the ethanol extract of S. rotundifolia stem and leaf tubers on the parameters of sexual behavior in male Sprague Dawley rats. As well as fear the most effective plant parts have aphrodisiac activity. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups (A-E) consisting of group A given 0.5% Na CMC colloid solution (normal control), group B given X-gra® suspension dosage 51.37 mg / kgBW (control positive), group C was given root ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB, group D was given stem ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB and group E was given leaf ethanol extract dosage 200mg / kgBB. The aphrodisiac test was observed on the 31st day with a ratio of male and female rats (1: 2). All parameters tested in the extract group showed significant differences with the normal group. This showed an aphrodisiac effect in all extract groups. The 200 mg / KgBB stem extract group reduced latent rates and intromission mounts as well as increased copulation rates, showing a marked increase in the number of intromissions, reduced ejaculatory latency and inter-intromission interval, and increased ejaculation frequency. which was not significant in the X-gra group (positive control) (p
Quality Test of Extemporaneously Prepared Tramadol and Paracetamol Capsules Combination Derived From a Private Hospital in Semarang Prabandono, Paulus Unggul Wikan; Gani, Michael Raharja; Yuliani, Sri Hartati
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.287

Abstract

Tramadol and paracetamol are analgesic drugs that are often combined and made in the form of extemporaneously prepared capsules dosage form to treat moderate to severe pain management. This study aims to determine the quality of prescribed medication of extemporaneously prepared tramadol and paracetamol capsules combination taken from a private hospital in Semarang covering weight uniformity, moisture content, disintegration, and content uniformity. This type of research is a descriptive observational cross-sectional design. Samples were taken using simple random sampling at a pharmaceutical installation in a private hospital in Semarang. The observation result from four types of testing was compared against the standard values of each test’s parameter listed in the Indonesian Pharmacopoeia V. The results are, samples meet the weight uniformity test with an acceptance value of 7.34%; meet the moisture content test with an average moisture content of 2.647% for the first day and 3.04% for the seventh day; meet the disintegration test with a breakdown time of fewer than 15 minutes; and did not meet the uniformity test with acceptance value of 34.06% for paracetamol and 34.30% for tramadol. It can be concluded that the prescribed medication of extemporaneously prepared capsule samples derived from a private hospital in Semarang can fulfill the standard values listed in the Indonesian Pharmacopoeia V except for the content uniformity test.
Proximate Composition, In vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Adansonia digitata and Belanites aegyptiaca Seeds Badu, Mercy; Pedavoah, Mary-Magdalene; Boadi, Nathaniel O; Dzaye, Irene Y
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.296

Abstract

This study evaluated the nutritional and medicinal properties of seeds from Adansonia digitata (BSF) and Balanite aegyptiaca (DDSF) plant. Proximate chemical composition, mineral elements composition, flavonoids, phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and anti-inflammatory properties were studied. Results obtained revealed that DDSF had the highest moisture, crude fat and crude protein content of 7.66 %, 42.80 %, 20.37 % respectively, whilst BSF gave the highest ash, crude fibre and carbohydrate content. Elemental analysis revealed BSF had the highest Mg content (313.65 mg/100g) and DDSF gave the highest Ca content (118.62 mg/100g). Additionally, DDSF gave the highest total phenolics (18.89 mg TAE/ 100 g), total flavonoids (8.80 mg QE/ 100 g) as well as the highest total antioxidant capacity of (19.62 mg AAE/ 100 g) dry of extract. Based on results obtained in this study, seeds obtained from the Adansonia digitata and Balanite aegyptiaca could be a potential source of functional food and antioxidant agents.
Physical Evaluation of Transfersome that Contains Pandan Leaves Extract (Pandanus amaryllifolius R.) Ambarwati, Rini; Yulianita, Yulianita
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.307

Abstract

Pandan leaves have been researched and have effectiveness in the treatment of burns. The process of healing burns takes a long time and cause a hard tissue because it loses its elasticity, making it difficult to penetrate. In this study, pandanus leaves were formulated into the nanovesicle carrier system, namely trasfersom. Transfersomes have the ability to deform, namely the ability to reduce the particle size 5-10 times from the original size when passing through the gaps between cells so that transfersom can increase the penetration of active substances. The three formulas used are based on the ratio of concentrations of trasfersome vesicles, namely phospholipids and span 80. Formula 1 is (90:10), Formula 2 (85:15) and Formula 3 (80:20). The best formula is determined based on transfersom characterization, including particle size and PDI (solidispersity index), zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, deformability, and TEM particle morphology. The results showed that Formula 3 (80:20) is the most stable formula with an average particle size of 730.1 ± 4.9 nm, PDI value <0.7, zeta potential - 9.94 ± 1.02 mV, efficiency absorption 80.23%, and the deformability value 6.225.
Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Caffeine in Beverages Use Solvent Extraction Techniques and Adsorption of Activated Carbon Yazid, Edy Agustian; Wafi, Abdul; Wulandari, Agustin Eka
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.308

Abstract

Kafein memiliki kegunaan terapeutik yang luas, banyak digunakan di bidang farmasi sebagai analgesik, dan mengurangi demam. Kafein juga banyak ditambahkan sebagai zat penyedap pada minuman ringan seperti coca cola dan minuman energi. Konsumsi kafein yang berlebihan atau dalam jangka panjang dapat berdampak negatif bagi kesehatan. Kandungan kafein dalam minuman bervariasi menurut mereknya, dari 10 hingga 50 mg per porsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah kafein dalam minuman berkarbonasi dan minuman energi dengan menggunakan teknik ekstraksi pelarut kloroform dan teknik adsorpsi karbon aktif. Kadar kafein dalam minuman dianalisis dengan metode spektrofotometri menggunakan panjang gelombang maksimum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah kafein dengan teknik ekstraksi pada minuman coca cola adalah (31,39 ± 0,528 mg / saji), pepsi biru (27,93 ± 0,159 mg / sajian), banteng merah (39. 79 ± 0,233 mg / porsi), dan macan kumbang (43,37 ± 0,860 mg / porsi). Teknik adsorpsi yang diperoleh pada minuman coca cola adalah (32,07 ± 0,164 mg / saji), pepsi biru (27,42 ± 0,174 mg / saji), banteng merah (31,35 ± 0,132 mg / saji), dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / saji) . Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi. dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / porsi). Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi. dan macan kumbang (33,83 ± 0,205 mg / porsi). Pada minuman coca cola, diperoleh hasil terbaik mendekati nilai sebenarnya seperti yang tertera pada label. Sedangkan untuk ketiga jenis minuman lainnya, jumlah kafein yang didapat lebih rendah dari yang diharapkan, dan masih di bawah batas maksimal yang diperbolehkan. Dari dua teknik yang diteliti, teknik ekstraksi masih memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan teknik adsorpsi. Kata kunci : Kafein, Minuman, Ekstraksi, Adsorpsi, Spektrofotometri
Quality Control and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Stem Bark of Chlorophora regia A. Chev. (Moraceae): Quality Control of Herbal Products Amoo, Isaiah; Oppong-Kyekyeku, James; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Asare-Nkansah, Samuel; Adu, Joseph Kwasi
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.311

Abstract

This study sought to develop a validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quality control of the stem bark ingredients and its finished products and investigate the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of the phytochemical constituents of C. regia stem bark. Fractionation and isolation of biomarkers were carried out by column chromatography on silica gel and monitored by thin-layer chromatography. The isolated biomarkers were characterized based on their melting points and extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR). The chromatographic separation was investigated and developed for the analysis of the biomarkers using µBondapakTM C18 (3.9×300 mm, 5 µm) as stationary phase. The mobile phase composition of 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid as solvent A, and methanol as solvent B with gradient elution was finally selected. The carrageenan-induced edema in a 7-day-old chick model was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of the stem bark extract and compared to diclofenac sodium as a reference drug. Two compounds were successfully isolated and identified, as Regiafuran A (1) and 3,5,7,4’-Tetrahydroxy-2’-methoxyflavonol (2). The compounds were employed as biomarkers in the RP-HPLC method development. The developed method was validated and was successfully used to quantify the amount of 1 and 2 in the stem bark to be 0.224% ± 0.056%w/w and 0.354% ± 0.041%w/w respectively. The crude extract showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity compared to the reference drug, diclofenac. The method demonstrated acceptable levels of accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness hence can be successfully adopted for routine quality control and standardization of the stem bark of C. regia. The stem bark of the plant exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity.
Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Herbs Used in Treatment of Diabetes, Malaria and Pneumonia in Kisii and Nyamira Counties Region, Kenya Maobe, Moses A. Guto; Gitu, Leonard; Gatebe, Erastus
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.314

Abstract

The herbs Carissa spinarum, Physalis minima and Toddalia asiatica have traditionally been used in healing diabetes, malaria and pneumonia by the communities around the Kisii region, Kenya. However in the available literature, there is scanty information on effectiveness of different plant parts of the herbs in healing the ailments. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential antimicrobial and antifungal activity of methanolic extract of whole plant Physalis minima, leaf and root of Carissa spinarum and Toddalia asiatica against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and fungus Candida albicans (ATCC14053). Antibiotic disc methicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ampicillin, nalidixic and nitrofurantoin were used in the study. In each herb, plant part was extracted by soaking in methanol/dichloromethane in ratio 1:1 for a week, filtered, concentrated by rotary vapor and cooled. The same process was repeated three times for all samples. The study was conducted by agar well diffusion method. Methanolic root extract of Toddalia asiatica showed highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), root extract of Carissa spinarum had highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) while root extract of Toddalia asiatica showed highest antifungal activity. It was concluded that root extract of Toddalia asiatica showed highest antibacterial activity 16.7mm against Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC 25923), root extract of Carissa spinarum had highest antibacterial activity 10 mm against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) while root extract of Toddalia asiatica had highest antifungal activity 18 mm against Candida albicans.
Analysis of Ethyl p-Methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga L. Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Winingsih, Wiwin; Husein, Sri Gustini; Ramdhani, Rozalia Putri Neno
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117, Gedung Administrasi Fakultas Farmasi Jl. Penajam, Kampus UNMUL Gunung Kelua, Samarinda, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25026/jtpc.v5i4.331

Abstract

Ethyl para-methoxycinamate (EPMS) is a major compound of Kaempferia galanga L that has anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study was to determine of EPMS in Kaempferiae galanga L rhizome extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and evaluated the performance of the analysis. This study included determination of system suitability, accuracy, precision, linearity and range, limit of detection (LOD) and Limit of quantitation (LOQ) and selectivity. The results of system suitability test HPLC System for EPMS analysis were as follows isocratic elution system of a mobile phase mixture of methanol: water (70:30) containing 0.1% TFA, uv detector at a wavelength of 308 nm using column C18 (150 × 4, 6mm, 5?m) flow rate 1 ml / min. From the analysis, it was found that the average EPMS content was 78.74%. Then method had linear concentration range from 5-360 ppm, with R ² = 0.9999. The LOD and LOQ were 7.0722 ppm and 21.4311 ppm respectively. The accuracy of this method that represented by % recovery was 98.02% - 101.26%. The precision of this method that expressed by Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was 1.57%. The selectivity of this method that showed by resolution value was 2.6. Based on the results of the system suitability test and analysis performance evaluation,all parameters met the requirements.

Page 1 of 2 | Total Record : 16


Filter by Year

2021 2021


Filter By Issues
All Issue Vol. 5 No. 4 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 3 (2021): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 2 (2020): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 5 No. 1 (2020): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 6 (2019): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 5 (2019): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 4 (2018): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 4 No 4 (2018): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 4 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 2 (2017): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 4 No. 1 (2017): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 4 No 2 (2017): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 3 No. 4 (2016): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 3 No 4 (2016): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 3 No 3 (2016): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 3 No. 2 (2015): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 3 No. 1 (2015): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 3 No 2 (2015): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 3 No 1 (2015): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 2 No. 5 (2014): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 2 No. 4 (2014): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 2 No 5 (2014): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 2 No 4 (2014): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 2 No. 3 (2013): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 2 No. 2 (2013): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 2 No. 1 (2012): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 1 No. 4 (2012): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 1 No. 3 (2011): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 1 No. 2 (2011): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol. 1 No. 1 (2010): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry More Issue