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INDONESIA
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan
Published by Kementerian Pertanian
ISSN : 01259318     EISSN : 18583768     DOI : -
Core Subject : Agriculture,
Menara Perkebunan as a communication medium for research in estate crops published articles covering original research result on the pre- and post-harvest biotechnology of estate crops. The contents of the articles should be directed for solving the problems of production and/or processing of estate crops of smallholder, private plantations and state-owned estates, based on the three dedications of plantation. Analyses of innovative research methods and techniques in biotechnology, which are important for advancing agricultural research. Critical scientific reviews of research result in agricultural and estate biotechnology.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 251 Documents
Pengaruh TDZ terhadap induksi embrio somatik sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) pada tiga metode kultur berbeda (Effect of TDZ on the somatic embryo induction of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) in three different culture methods) Imron Riyadi; Darda EFENDI; Bambang S PURWOKO; Djoko SANTOSO
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (890.376 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v1i1.258

Abstract

AbstractA right combination of cytokinin is able to support the process of callus differentiation to somatic embryo formation in plant somatic embryogenesis. Liquid culture application could increase the efficiency of in vitro culture process on plants. This research aimed to determine the best concentration of TDZ combined with kinetin for callus differentiation to  somatic embryo of sago palm on three culture methods. Plant material used was embryogenic callus derived from tips meristem culture from sucker of Alitir sago palm. Callus was cultured on modified MS media added with: 0.0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L TDZ combined with 0.5 mg/L kinetin for 12 weeks with subcultures every 6 weeks. Three culture methods used were suspension, temporary immersion system (TIS), and solid media. There were 12 treatments with 4 replicates. The results showed that the highest number of somatic embryos was achieved on TIS culture with 1.0 mg/L TDZ and 0.5 mg/L kinetin in 6 weeks (167.3 embryos/flask) and 12 weeks (389.2 embryos/flask) with its fresh weight of 18.4 g and 29.1 g, respectively. The highset survival rate in final culture (12 weeks) was achieved on TIS culture with 1.0 mg/L TDZ and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (100%). The shortest time for somatic embryos expression was achieved on TIS culture with 1.0 mg/L TDZ and 0.5 mg/L kinetin in two weeks after culture. Histological analysis of early-stage somatic embryos showed the presence of dense and compact cellular arrangements which formed growth spot axis for shoot or SAM (shoot apical meristem) and root or RAM (root apical meristem) that connected each other. [Key words: culture method, embryogenic callus, Metroxylon sagu Rottb., kinetin, sago palm, TDZ]   AbstrakAplikasi kombinasi sitokinin yang tepat dapat mendorong proses diferensiasi kalus membentuk embrio somatik pada proses embriogenesis somatik tanaman. Penggunaan metode kultur cair dapat meningkatkan efisiensi proses kultur in vitro tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan konsentrasi TDZ terbaik dikombinasikan dengan kinetin dalam proses diferensiasi kalus membentuk embrio somatik tanaman sagu pada tiga metode kultur. Bahan tanam penelitian  berupa kalus embriogenik tanaman sagu asal kultur meristem pucuk dari anakan sagu jenis Alitir. Kalus dikulturkan pada media modifikasi dengan penambahan  TDZ dengan konsentrasi 0,1; 0,5; dan 1,0 mg/L dikombinasikan dengan kinetin 0,5 mg/L selama 12 minggu yang disubkultur pada umur 6 minggu. Metode kultur yang digunakan terdiri atas tiga macam yaitu: kultur suspensi, sistem perendaman sesaat (SPS) dan media padat. Perlakuan terdiri atas 12 kombinasi perlakuan dengan empat ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata jumlah embrio somatik tertinggi dicapai pada perlakuan metode kultur SPS dengan TDZ 1,0 mg/L baik pada umur kultur 6 minggu (167,3 buah) maupun umur 12 minggu (389,2 buah). Rerata bobot segar tertinggi juga diperoleh pada perlakuan metode kultur SPS dengan TDZ 1,0 mg/L  pada umur kultur 6 minggu (18,4 g) dan  12 minggu (29,1 g). Rerata daya hidup kultur akhir (12 minggu) tertinggi  sebesar 100% diperoleh pada perlakuan SPS. Induksi embrio somatik  tercepat yakni setelah  dua minggu diperoleh pada  metode kultur SPS dengan TDZ 1,0 mg/L dikombinasikan dengan kinetin 0,5 mg/L. Analisis histologi embrio somatik stadium awal  menunjukkan adanya susunan sel yang rapat dan kompak yang menyusun semacam poros atau berkas titik tumbuh tunas atau SAM (shoot apical meristem) maupun akar atau RAM (root apical mersitem) yang saling terhubung.[Kata kunci: kalus embriogenik, metode kultur, kinetin, TDZ, sagu, Metroxylon sagu]
Induksi mutasi Stevia rebaudiana dengan perendaman kolkisin secara in vitro (Induced mutation of Stevia rebaudiana through colchicine soaking in vitro) Masna Maya SINTA; Ni Made Armini WIENDI; Syarifah Iis AISYAH
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (747.959 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v1i1.277

Abstract

Stevia rebaudiana Bert. is a plant producing steviol glycosides that have 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose. These steviol glycosides are produced in the leaves and then spread to all parts of the plant including stems. The use of superior stevia planting material is important for stevia sugar industry. One of the stevia breeding programme is to increase genetic diversity through colchicine soaking to produce polyploid plants. Polyploid plants usually have higher vigor than diploid plants. The purpose of this research was to induce genetic diversity of stevia through colchicine soaking in vitro. Single nodes of sterile stevia clone BS were soaked in colchicine at the concentration of 0.01; 0.02; 0.04; 0.08 and 0.1% for 48 and 72 hours, and in sterile aquadest as a control. Plantlet subcultures were done until MV4 (mutant vegetative 4). Putative mutants were observed by plantlet vigor and stomata analyses on MV5. Vigor of plantlets was observed by counting the number of leaves, nodes, roots, fresh weight and dry weight of the plantlet. Stomata analysis was performed by calculating stomata density, stomata size and chloroplast number in stomata guard cells. Results showed that colchicine soaking treatment increased significantly fresh weight and dry weight of putative mutants. Colchicine soaking treatment increased chloroplast number on stomata guard cell and stomata size, but decreased stomata density. Stevia soaked in colchicine for 48 hours at concentration 0.01-0.04% produce putative mutants with high chromosome numbers. [Key words: poliploidy, stomata, chloroplast, mutant]AbstrakStevia rebaudiana Bert. merupakan tanaman penghasil glikosida steviol yang memiliki tingkat kemanisan 200-300 kali lebih tinggi dibandingkan sukrosa. Glikosida steviol ini diproduksi di daun yang kemudian disalurkan ke bagian tanaman lainnya termasuk batang. Penggunaan klon terbaik stevia merupakan salah satu kunci penting keberhasilan industri gula stevia. Salah satu program pemuliaan tanaman stevia adalah meningkatkan keragaman tanaman melalui mutasi dengan kolkisin sehingga menghasilkan tanaman poliploid. Tanaman poliploid umumnya memiliki vigor lebih baik dibandingkan tanaman diploid. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan keragaman stevia melalui peren-daman kolkisin in vitro. Buku tunggal steril stevia klon BS direndam dalam kolkisin dengan konsentrasi 0,01; 0,02; 0,04; 0,08 dan 0,1% selama 48 dan 72 jam dengan perendaman dalam air steril sebagai kontrol. Sub kultur dilakukan hingga MV4 (mutan vegetatif 4). Pengamatan mutan putatif dilakukan meliputi analisis morfologi dan stomata pada MV5.  Analisis morfologi dilakukan dengan mengamati jumlah daun, buku, akar, bobot basah serta bobot kering planlet. Analisis stomata dilakukan dengan menghitung kerapatan stomata, ukuran stomata serta jumlah kloroplas pada sel penjaga stomata. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa perendaman stevia pada kolkisin meningkatkan bobot basah serta bobot kering stevia in vitro. Perlakuan perendaman kolkisin meningkatkan jumlah kloroplas pada sel penjaga stomata serta ukuran stomata namun menurunkan kerapatan stomata. Perendaman stevia selama 48 jam pada konsentrasi kolkisin 0,01-0,04% menghasilkan mutan putatif dengan jumlah kromosom tertinggi.[Kata kunci: poliploidi, stomata, kloroplas, mutan]
Optimasi produksi enzim ligninolitik dari medium limbah produksi Pleurotus ostreatus menggunakan metode respons permukaan (Optimization of ligninolytic enzyme production from Pleurotus ostreatus medium waste production using surface response methodology Urip PERWITASARI; Firda DIMAWARNITA; Shanti RATNAKOMALA
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (631.641 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v1i1.278

Abstract

White rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus has long been produced on a large scale for human consumption. This fungi is known to produce ligninolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to utilize waste fungal medium from empty fruit bunch oil palm (EFBOP) for production of ligninolytic enzymes. Determination of the optimal conditions in this study used the design of statistical experiments Response Surface Method (RSM) with Design Expert® 10 software. Variables used in this research were EFBOP composition (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 %), part baglog (top, middle, bottom), and time of incubation (1, 2, and 3 month). The highest lignin peroxidase activity was 1.72 U/mL obtained on baglog composition with 50% EFBOP the top past of baglog after 2 months incubation. The highest manganese peroxidase activity was 23.00 U/mL obtained on baglog composition with 100% EFBOP at the bottom of baglog after 3 months incubation and the highest laccase activity was 0.14 U/mL on baglog composition with 100% EFBOP the top past of baglog after 1 month.[Keywords: Pleurotus ostreatus, ligninolytic enzyme, fungal medium waste, response surface methodology]. AbstrakJamur pelapuk putih Pleurotus ostreatus telah lama diproduksi skala besar untuk dikonsumsi. Jamur ini diketahui mampu menghasilkan enzim ligninolitik. Selama ini medium limbah produksi P. ostreatus belum dimanfaatkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memanfaatkan medium limbah produksi jamur tiram yang berbahan dasar tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) untuk produksi enzim ligninolitik. Penentuan kondisi optimal pada penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimen statistika Metode Respons Permukaan (Response Surface Method (RSM)) dengan software Design Expert® 10. Variabel yang digunakan dalam riset ini adalah konsentrasi TKKS (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 %), bagian baglog (atas, tengah, dan bawah), dan waktu inkubasi (1, 2, dan 3 bulan). Aktivitas lignin peroksidase tertinggi diperoleh pada medium dengan komposisi 50% medium pada bagian atas baglog setelah 2 bulan inkubasi dengan aktivitas sebesar 1,72 U/mL. Aktivitas mangan peroksidase tertinggi diperoleh pada medium komposisi 100% TKKS pada bagian bawah baglog setelah 3 bulan inkubasi sebesar 23,00 U/mL, dan lakase tertinggi pada medium komposisi 100% TKKS pada bagian atas baglog setelah 1 bulan inkubasi, yaitu sebesar 0,14 U/mL.[Kata kunci: Pleurotus ostreatus, enzim ligninolitik, limbah media jamur, Metode Respons Permukaan]
Produksi imunoglobulin Y (IgY) untuk pengembangan metode deteksi dini kontaminasi okratoksin (Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) production to develop an early detection method for ochratoxin contamination) Irma KRESNAWATY; . SUHARYANTO; . SISWANTO; Sumi HUDIYONO
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v1i1.279

Abstract

Indonesian coffee and cocoa commodities are constrained by low product quality problem due to contamination of fungal metabolites which  producing ochratoxin A (OTA). Ochratoxin is neprotoxic, immunogenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic to the human health. Early detection method on site detection should be developed  because of  those negative effects. The aim of this study  was to produce antibody to develop a method for  OTA detection. Antibody was produced by immunization of egg laying hen. Antibody-produced was sepatared and analyzed using ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and DBIA (dot blot immunoassay),and tested its composition using HPLC and SDS PAGE. The results showed that anti-OTA polyclonal antibodies had been obtained already from chicken eggs in the 4th period (7 weeks after initial immunization). These antibodies showed anti-OTA reactivity by DBIA method and still showed anti-OTA reactivity up to 9th period (12 weeks after initial immunization). The anti-BSA antibodies produced should be removed to increase the sensitivity of antibodies againts ochratoxin A. The separation of BSA antibodies can be conducted by the absorption of the protein.  [Keywords: ochratoxin A; early detection; antibody IgY]. AbstrakKomoditas kopi dan kakao Indonesia terkendala masalah mutu produk yang rendah akibat kontaminasi cendawan penghasil okratoksin A. Okratoksin A (OTA) bersifat neprotoksik, imunogenik, karsinogenik dan teratogenik yang membahayakan kesehatan manusia. Karena efek negatif yang diakibatkan oleh mikotoksin ini, maka perlu dikembangkan deteksi dini kontaminasi okratoksin langsung di lokasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan antibodi imunoglobulin Y (IgY) untuk mengembangkan metode perakitan perangkat deteksi cepat berbasis imunologi untuk deteksi OTA. Antibodi dihasilkan menggunakan uji ayam petelur. Antibodi yang dihasilkan dipisahkan dan dianalisis aktivitasnya dengan ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) dan DBIA (dot blot immunoassay), serta diuji komposisinya dengan HPLC dan SDS PAGE. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa antibodi poliklonal anti-OTA sudah diperoleh dari telur ayam pada periode ke-4 (7 minggu setelah imunisasi awal). Antibodi ini menunjukkan reaktivitas anti-OTA dengan metode DBIA dan masih menunjukkan reaktivitas anti-OTA sampai periode 9 (12 minggu setelah imunisasi awal). Komposisi asam amino antibodi anti-OTA menunjukkan perbedaan dengan komposisi asam amino IgY di database. Antibodi anti BSA yang dihasilkan harus dihilangkan terlebih dahulu untuk meningkatkan sensitivitas antibodi terhadap okratoksin A dan pemisahan dapat dilakukan dengan penyerapan antibodi BSA.[Kata Kunci:  okratoksin A;  deteksi dini; antibodi IgY].
Pengaruh biostimulan terhadap toleransi kekeringan dan pertumbuhan tanaman tebu varietas Kidang Kencana di rumah kaca (Effect of biostimulants on drought tolerance and growth of sugarcane var. Kidang Kencana at green house) Dian mutiara AMANAH; Soekarno Mismana PUTRA
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (623.476 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v1i1.287

Abstract

Increasing productivity and sugar yield of sugarcane are required to meet the increasing demand for sugar. Biostimulants application is one of the effort to increase the productivity and rendement of sugar, especially at drought stress conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of biostimulants on the performance of sugarcane var. Kidang Kencana known susceptible to drought stress. The research was conducted in the greenhouse with several biostimulant treatments i.e. P0: Control, P1: Citorin-R, P2: Citorin-R and Citorin-S (1x spray) P3: Citorin-R and Citorin -S (2x spray), P4: Citorin-R, Citorin-S (1x spray) and Humic Acid, P5: Citorin-R, Citorin-S (1x spray), Humic Acid and Mycorrhiza, P6: Citorin-R, Citorin-S (2x spray), Humic Acid and Mycorrhiza. All treatments were subjected with drought stress started from 4 months after planting. The biostimulant treatments resulted in better growth and yield on treated-biostimulan compared to these of control. The best treatment for the vegetative growth and the productive parameters was P6. The plant height, stems diameter, segment number, weight, and sap volume at P6 were respectively 32.2%, 5.5%, 24.0%, 53.2% and 44.7% higher than the control. The best treatment for the sugar yield was P5 and the productivity parameters was P6 respectively, 42.5% and 70.5% higher than the control. The best treatments contained Citorin biostimulant. Humic Acid and Mycorrhiza which increased growth and sugar yield of Kidang Kencana sugarcane at drought stress conditions.[Keywords: drought stress Kidang Kencana variety, plant biostimulant, productivity, sugar yield]. AbstrakPeningkatan produktivitas dan rendemen gula tanaman tebu diperlukan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan gula yang terus meningkat. Aplikasi biostimulan merupakan salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan rendemen gula khususnya pada kondisi tercekam kekeringan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian beberapa produk biostimulan terhadap produktivitas tanaman tebu varietas Kidang Kencana yang rentan cekaman kekeringan. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca dengan perlakuan beberapa perlakuan biostimulan pada tanaman tebu, yaitu P0: Kontrol, P1: Citorin-R, P2: Citorin-R dan Citorin-S (1x semprot) P3: Citorin-R dan Citorin-S (2x semprot), P4: Citorin-R, Citorin-S (1x semprot) dan Asam Humat, P5: Citorin-R, Citorin-S (1x semprot), Asam Humat dan Mikoriza, P6: Citorin-R, Citorin-S (2x semprot), Asam Humat dan Mikoriza. Seluruh perlakuan diberi kondisi cekaman kekeringan pada 4 bulan setelah tanam. Perlakuan biostimulan memberikan pengaruh serta hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan kontrol baik fase vegetatif maupun produktif. Perlakuan terbaik selama fase vegetatif hingga 5 bulan setelah tanam adalah P6. Tinggi batang panen, diameter batang panen, jumlah ruas batang, bobot batang dan volume nira pada P6 meningkat 32,2%, 5,5%, 24,0%, 53,2% dan 44,7% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Perlakuan terbaik untuk parameter rendemen gula adalah P5 dan produktivitas gula adalah P6, masing-masing 42,5% dan 70,5% lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Perlakuan terbaik tersebut mengandung komponen biostimulan yaitu Citorin, Asam Humat dan Mikoriza yang dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan rendemen gula tanaman tebu Kidang Kencana pada kondisi cekaman kekeringan. [Kata kunci: cekaman kekeringan, varietas Kidang Kencana, biostimulan tanaman, produktivitas, rendemen gula].
Deteksi Ganoderma secara molekuler pada kebun kelapa sawit yang diberi perlakuan biofungisida Ganor (Molecular detection of Ganoderma on oil palm plantation treated with Ganor biofungicide) Hayati MINARSIH; Happy WIDIASTUTI; Djoko SANTOSO
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 86, No 1 (2018): April, 2018
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (495.414 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v1i1.289

Abstract

AbstractGanor organic fungicide potentially reduces Ganoderma, a pathogenic fungus causing basal stem rot disease. Application of Ganor on oil palm trees in the plantation attacked Ganoderma, inhibits the growth of Ganoderma fruiting bodies, improves rooting and stimulates the opening of the spear leaf. This study aims to identify molecularly the presence of Ganoderma in oil palm trees that have been attacked by Ganoderma routinely treated with Ganor for three months. Molecular analysis was performed by PCR using Ganoderma specific primers. The analysis results of sample from trunks and roots of  oil palm, indicating that the Ganoderma infected oil palm which has been treated with Ganor, were relatively free (96.4%) of Ganoderma. Of the 28 samples examined of treated plants, 27 samples did not indicate the presence of Ganoderma specific DNA band. On the other hand, the untreated oil palm trees infected by Ganoderma were still detected by the appearence of  DNA bands specific to Ganoderma. The results of molecular analysis indicated that Ganor treatments can effectively reduce the attack rate of Ganoderma in oil palm trees in the plantation infected by Ganoderma. However, the use of the molecular technique for early detection needs to be further tested to evaluate its consistency prior to introduction to the commercial growers. The reproducibility can be confirmed by repeating the experiment using more samples. Ganor effectiveness in curing oil palm trees infected by Ganoderma, maybe indicated by the ability of the reproductive organs to develop, particularly female flowers. The sex ratio of Ganor treated oil palms was clearly higher than that of control palms in 10 to 12 weeks after the treatment.[Keywords: organic fungicides, stem rot, molecular analysis, Elais guinensis Jack.] AbstrakFungisida organik Ganor berpotensi mengurangi serangan Ganoderma, cendawan patogenik penyebab penyakit busuk pangkal batang. Aplikasi Ganor pada tanaman kelapa sawit di kebun yang terserang Ganoderma, menghambat pertumbuhan tubuh buah Ganoderma, memper-baiki perakaran dan merangsang pembukaan daun tombak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi secara molekuler adanya Ganoderma pada tanaman kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma yang telah mendapat perlakuan Ganor secara rutin selama tiga bulan. Analisis molekuler dilakukan dengan teknik PCR menggunakan primer DNA spesifik Ganoderma. Hasil analisis sampel batang dan akar tanaman kelapa sawit, menunjukkan bahwa tanaman Perlakuan, yaitu kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma yang telah mendapat perlakuan Ganor, 96,4% bebas Ganoderma. Dari 28 sampel tanaman Perlakuan yang diperiksa, 27 sampel tidak menunjukkan adanya pita DNA spesfik Ganoderma. Sementara itu pada tanaman Kontrol, yaitu tanaman kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma dan tidak mendapat perlakuan Ganor, 100% masih terdeteksi adanya Ganoderma. Dari 7 sampel tanaman kontrol yang diperiksa semuanya menunjukkan adanya pita DNA spesifik Ganoderma. Hasil analisis molekuler ini mengindikasikan bahwa perlakuan Ganor efektif mengurangi tingkat serangan Ganoderma pada tanaman kelapa sawit di kebun yang terinfeksi Ganoderma. Namun demikian, untuk lebih meyakinkan praktisi perkebunan, penggunakan teknik molekuler ini masih perlu diuji lebih lanjut terkait konsistensinya. Reprodusibilitas dapat dikonfirmasi dengan mengulangi percobaan menggunakan lebih banyak sampel. Efektivitas Ganor dalam menyehatkan tanaman kelapa sawit terserang Ganoderma ini, terindikasi juga dari perkembangan organ reproduktifnya. Sex ratio meningkat dalam waktu 10 hingga 12 minggu setelah perlakuan.[Kata Kunci:  fungisida organik, busuk pangkal  batang, analisis molekuler, Elais guinensis Jack. ]
Direct somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tea by temporary liquid immersion Embriogenesis somatik langsung dan regenerasi tanaman teh melalui perendaman sesaat J S TAHARDI; Tatik RAISAWATI; Imron RIYADI; W A DODD
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 68, No 1: Juni 2000
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (102.117 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v68i1.133

Abstract

Ringkasan Perbanyakan tanaman teh [Camellia sinen­sis (L.) O. Kuntze] melalui stek tunas berdaun tunggal hanya dapat menghasilkan klon unggul dalam jumlah terbatas. Oleh sebab itu diperlukan metode alternatif dengan teknik kultur sel dan jaringan untuk perbanyakan klonal secara cepat. Dalam penelitian ini dikembangkan metode yang lebih efektif untuk regenerasi tanaman teh melalui embriogenesis somatik langsung. Massa pro­embriogenik dari eksplan kotiledon dihasilkan dengan frekuensi 56,7% dalam media MS padat setengah konsentrasi yang mengandung BAP 2 mg1L. Proliferasi, perkembangan, pendewasaan dan perkecambahan embrio somatik diperoleh dengan sistem perendaman sesaat (SPS) yang menggunakan media MS cair setengah konsen­trasi, yang diperkaya dengan zat pengatur tumbuh dengan berbagai konsentrasi. Proliferasi embrio meningkat 4,3 kali dalam media yang diberi BAP 2 mglL; perkembangan dan pendewasaannya meningkat dengan penambahan kinetin dan ABA masing-masing pada konsentrasi 0,1 mg1L yang 30% diantaranya berkecambah dan membentuk planlet tanpa penambahan zat pengatur tumbuh. Protokol SPS tersebut merupakan sistem in vitro yang berpotensi bagi proliferasi dan perkembang­an embrio somatik tanaman teh yang cepat dan sinkron dari kultur kotiledon, serta regenerasinya menjadi planlet tanpa melalui fase kalus.Summary Tea propagation by single-leaf bud cuttings has limited applications for rapid dissemination of planting materials from new elite clones. An alternative method for rapid cloning by cell and tissue culture technique is necessary. In this study we have established an improved method for tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] plant regenera­tion via direct somatic embryogenesis. Clumps of proembryogenic masses were initiated at a fre­quency of 56.7% from cotyledonary slices cul­tured on a half-strength MS agar-gelled medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP. Proliferation, development, maturation and germination of so­matic embryos were achieved using the temporary immersion system (TIS) provided with half­strength MS liquid media supplemented with varying concentrations of growth regulators. Em­bryo proliferation increased by 4.3-fold in me­dium provided with 2 mg/L BAP; their develop­ment and maturation were enhanced by the presence of both kinetin and ABA at 0.1 mg/L each. Germination and plant recovery were achieved at a frequency of about 30% without the use of growth regulators. The TIS protocol des­cribed above represents an in vitro system poten­tial for rapid proliferation and synchronized development of tea somatic embryos from cotyledon cultures, and their regeneration into plantlets without an intervening callus phase.
Nucleotide sequence of cryIA gene cloned from Btk isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis and comparison with cryIA(c) gene from B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae Sekuen nukleotida gen cryIA dari B.thuringiensis isolat Btk dibandingkan dengan gen crylA(c) dari B. thuringiensis subsp. Kenyae Asmini BUDIANI; Djoko SANTOSO
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 68, No 1: Juni 2000
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (54.059 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v68i1.134

Abstract

Ringkasan Perakitan tanaman perkebunan yang toleran terhadap serangga hama dapat ditempuh melalui rekayasa genetika menggunakan gen cry. Gen cryIA merupakan gen cry yang paling banyak dipelajari di antara gen cry lainnya. Berdasarkan homology sekuen dan spesifisitas protein yang disandinya terhadap serangga sasaran, gen ini telah diklasifikasikan menjadi 10 subklas. Tulisan ini melaporkan hasil sekuensing (ragmen gen cryIA penyandi domain toksin yang diisolasi dengan teknik PCR dari Bacillus thuringiensis isolat Btk dan diklon menggunakan vektor pGEM­T. Untuk menentukan sekuen gen cryIA yang berukuran sekitar 2 kb tersebut, dilakukan kons­truksi satu seri mutan terdelesi searah dari ujung 5' menggunakan kit Erase-a-Base-System. Tiga DNA gen cryIA mutan dengan tingkat delesi yang sesuai dan satu nonmutan dipilih untuk sekuensing DNAnya. Sekuensing dilakukan dari satu arah menggunakan primer universal SP6 pada alat ABI 377A automatic DNA sequencer. Sekuen lengkap dari gen cryIA diperoleh dengan cara meng­gabungkan sekuen ketiga mutan dengan sekuen dari gen cryIA nonmutan secara manual. Untuk konfirmasi sekuen ujung 3', dilakukan sekuensing dari arah lainnya menggunakan primer universal T7. Sekuen lengkap dari fragmen tersebut mengandung 2021 nukleotida dan menyandi protein dengan 673 asam amino. Dibandingkan dengan sekuen gen crylA(c) dari B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae, terlihat adanya sepuluh mutasi titik masing-masing pada nukleotida ke 444, 477, 1089, 1092, 1098, 1242, 1566, 1869, 1906 dan 1961. Tujuh mutasi titik pada nukleotida ke 444, 477, 1089, 1092, 1242, 1566, dan 1869 tidak merubah asam amino, sedangkan tiga mutasi lainnya mengakibatkan perubahan asam amino, yaitu pada nukleotida ke 1098 (kodon ke 366, yang menyebabkan perubahan dari Phe menjadi Leu), nukleotida ke 1906 (kodon ke 636, yang mengubah Val menjadi Leu) dan pada nukleotida ke 1961(kodon ke 654, yang mengubah Cys menjadi Tyr).Summary Estate crops tolerant to pests can be devel­opment through genetic engineering using cry gene. CryIA is the best studied among cry genes. Based on the sequence homology and specificity of their encoded proteins to the, targeted insect, these genes have been classified into 10 sub­classes. This paper reports sequencing of cryIA gene fragment en-coding toxin domain isolated from Btk isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis using PCR technique and cloned with pGEM-T vector. To determine the full sequence of the 2-kb gene fragment, a series of mutants uni-directionally deleted at the 5'-end were constructed. Mutation was done using Erase-a Base-System kit. Three DNA mutants with appropriate degree of deletion and the un-mutated DNA were chosen for sequencing. Sequencing was conducted from one direction with SP6 universal primer using the ABI 377A automatic DNA sequencer. The full sequence of cryIA fragment was assembled manually using the sequences of DNA mutants and the non-mutant cryIA fragment. To confirm the sequence of the 3'-end, sequencing from the other direction was performed using the T7 universal primer.The completed sequence of the fragment contains 2021 nucleotides encoding a protein of 673 amino acids. Compares to the sequence of cryIA(c) from B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae, it was shown that there were ten point mutations (nucleotides of 444, 477, 1089, 1092, 1098, 1242, 1566, 1869, 1906 and 1961), sevent of them (nucleotides of 444, 477, 1089, 1092, 1242, 1566 and 1869) were identified as silent mutations, while the other three substituted the amino acids, which are at the nucleotide 1089 (codon 366, substitution of Leu for Phe), nucleotide 1906 (codon 636, substitution of Leu for Val), and nucleotide 1961 (codon 654, substitution of Tyr for Cys).
Physiological and biochemical changes in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao L.) caused by desiccation Perubahan fisiologi dan biokimia benih kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) akibat desikasi Nurita TORUAN-MATHIUS; . RACHMAWATI-HASID; . NURHAIMI-HARIS; Tolhas HUTABARAT
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 68, No 1: Juni 2000
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (79.17 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v68i1.135

Abstract

 Ringkasan Benih kakao tergolong rekalsitran, benihnya sensitif terhadap desikasi dan apabila disimpan pada kondisi yang menyebabkan kehilangan air, benih akan kehilangan viabilitasnya. Viabilitas benih kakao hanya dapat dipertahankan beberapa hari saja dalam keadaan terbuka pada suhu kamar. Hal ini merupakan kendala dalam penyimpanan dan pengiriman benih kakao. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menetapkan pengaruh desikasi terhadap karakter fisiologis dan biokimia benih kakao. Benih ICS 60 (kakao lindak) dan DR2 (kakao mulia) diletakkan dalam cawan Petri kemudian disimpan pada suhu 25oC dan Rh 55-75% selama empat hari. Percobaan dilakukan dengan rancang­an petak terpisah, petak utama adalah kandungan air awal dan kritikal. Sebagai anak petak adalah jenis kakao, masing-masing diulang empat kali. Peubah fisiologis yang diukur adalah viabilitas benih mencakup kandungan air benih, potensi tumbuh maksimum, daya berkecambah, kecepatan tumbuh, bobot kering kecambah normal, dan laju pertumbuhan kecambah normal. Di samping itu juga dilakukan pengamatan pola pita protein benih yang dianalisis dengan SDS-PAGE. Kandungan asam absisik (ABA) dan gula stahiosa, raftnosa, glukosa, fruktosa, arabinosa, silosa, serta sukrosa dalam benih yang ditetapkan dengan HPLC Integritas membran benih ditetapkan berdasarkan daya hantar listrik air perendaman benih yang diukur dengan konduktometer. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa adanya interaksi yang nyata antara desikasi dengan seluruh tolok ukur fisiologis. Desikasi menyebabkan penurunan daya ber­kecambah, bobot kering dan laju pertumbuhan kecambah normal, potensi tumbuh maksimum dan kecepatan tumbuh. Sedang untuk, kandungan ABA, sukrosa, arabinosa dan rafinosa mengalami peningkatan. Di samping itu desikasi menyebabkan dibentuknya protein baru dengan BM 32,5; 47,0 dan 51,0 kDa (DR2); 47,0 dan 51,0 kD (ICS 60). Beberapa protein yang hilang oleh pengaruh desikasi yaitu dengan BM37, 0 (DR2), 19, 0 dan 37, 0 kD (ICS60). Benih ICS60 lebih tahan terhadap desikasi dibandingkan dengan benih DR2. Summary Seed of cocoa is recalcitrant and sensitive to desiccation. In open condition at room temperature, the viability of cocoa seed ultimately lost for several days. These characters are a problem for seed storage and delivery. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of desiccation on physi­ological and biochemical characters of cocoa seed. Seeds of ICS 60 (bulk cocoa) and DR2 (fine cocoa) were placed on Petri dishes and stored at 25oC, Rh 55-75% for four days (critical water content). The experiment was conducted with split plot analysis, (1) The main plot was the storage condition initial and critical seeds water content. (2) The sub plot was the variety of cocoa, with four replications of each treatment. The effect of desiccation on seeds viability was tested, based on seed water content, maximum growth potential, seed germination, germination rate, dry weight of normal seedling, and seedling growth rate. Besides, the changes of seed proteins band pattern were also analysed by SDS­PAGE. Abscisic acid, stachyose, raffnose, fructose, arabinose, xyllose, and sucrose seed content were determined by HPLC. The integrity of seed membrane based on the leakage of electrolytes from seeds was measured with a CM 100 multicell conductivity meter. The results showed that there is an interaction with highly significant correlation between desiccation and all of the physiological and biochemical parameters. Desiccation caused the decrease of seed germination, dry weight and growth rate'of normal seedling, maximum growth potential, and germination rate and while the leakage of electrolytes, ABA, sucrose, arabinose and raffinose increased. Besides, desiccation was also caused the formation of new proteins with MW 32.5, 47,0 and 51,0 kDa (DR2); 47,0 and 51,0 kD ICS 60) . On the other hand, several protein were disappeared i.e. MW 37,0 (DR2), 19,0 and 37,0 kD (ICS60). Seeds of ICS 60 are more tolerant to desiccation than seeds of DR2. 
Continuously increasing of unsaturation level of crude palm oil using fermentation broth of Absidia corymbifera Peningkatan ketidakjenuhan minyak sawit kasar secara kontinyu menggunakan cairan fermentasi Absidia corymbifera . TRI-PANJI
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 68, No 1: Juni 2000
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (137.791 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v68i1.136

Abstract

Ringkasan Absidia corymbifera merupakan fungi peng­hasil asam lemak takjenuh majemuk yaitu asam linoleat dan asam y-linolenat. Produksi asam lemak jenis ini berkaitan dengan aktivitas enzim desaturase yang terdapat balk di dalam sel maupun di dalam cairan fermentasi (di luar sel). Enzim ini berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan dalam biokonversi enzimatik guna meningkatkan ketidak­jenuhan minyak sawit kasar (CPO). Penelitian ini bertujuan meningkatkan ketidakjenuhan minyak sawit kasar melalui biokonversi enzimatis secara kontinyu menggunakan cairan fermentasi Absidia corymbifera Pertama, fungi ini dikulturkan dalam media cair mengandung CPO dengan suplemen garam tertentu menggunakan bioreaktor film per­mukaan. Setelah inkubasi, biomassa fungi disaring dan sisa CPO dipisahkan. Cairan fermentasi diisi­kan ke dalam kolom gelas dan CPO dipompakan dari bagian bawah kolom menggunakan pompa peristaltik Analisis komposisi asam lemak dilaku­kan terhadap CPO sebelum dan setelah bio­konversi serta terhadap lipid biomassa. Karakter­isasi lipid dilakukan terhadap CPO sebelum dan setelah biokonversi, meliputi angka asam, angka iod, dan angka penyabunan. Hasil penelitian me­nunjukkan bahwa cairan fermentasi A. corym­bifera mampu meningkatkan ketidakjenuhan CPO dan kandungan asam lemak talfenuh majemuk Peningkatan ketidakjenuhan berkurang selama proses biokonversi kontinyu yang diduga disebab­kan menurunnya aktivitas enzim desaturase. Angka asam dan angka penyabunan tidak me­ningkat secara nyata yang menunjukkan bahwa pada proses tersebut tidak terjadi pemecahan gliserida dari CPO.Summary Absidia corymbifera is a fungus producing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), namely linoleic and y-linolenic acids. Production of these kind of fatty acids is related to the acitivity of desaturase enzyme existing both inside and outside cell (in fermentation broth). This enzyme is potential to be used in enzymatic bioconversion for increasing unsaturation level of crude palm oil (CPO). The objective of this research was to increase unsaturation level of CPO through con­tinuous enzymatic bioconversion using fermen­tation broth of A. corymbifera. This fungus was firstly cultured on a media containing CPO supplemented with certain salts using surface film bioreactor. After incubation, fungal biomass was filtered and residual CPO was then separated. Fermentation broth was filled to a glass column and CPO was pumped from the bottom side of the column using a peristaltic pump. Analysis of fatty acid composition was carried out on CPO before and after bioconversion as well as to lipid biomass. Lipid characterization was carried out for CPO before and after bioconversion, including acid, iodine and saponification numbers. The results showed that fermentation broth of A. corymbifera was capable of increasing unsaturation level CPO and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Desaturation process decreased during bioconversion which was possibly caused by the decrease of activity of desaturase enzyme. Acid and saponification numbers did not increase significantly, indicated that hydrolysis glyceride of CPO did not occur.

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