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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
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Articles 17 Documents
Search results for , issue "2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)" : 17 Documents clear
Kinetic and Thermodynamics of Methylene Blue Adsorption onto Zero Valent Iron Supported on Mesoporous Silica Atyaf Khalid Hameed; Nugroho Dewayanto; Du Dongyun; Mohd Ridzuan Nordin; Mohd Hasbi Ab Rahim
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (814.415 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.443.250-261

Abstract

Zero valent iron supported on mesoporous silicanano particles (NZVI/MSNs) was prepared by the aqueous phase borohydride reduction methods. Prior to the reduction, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared through the activation of fumed silica with concentrated HCl by refluxing at 90 °C. FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDX and BET were used to characterize theadsorbents prepared. BET surface areas of MSNs, NZVI, and NZVI/MSNs were 126, 41, and 72 m2/g for, respectively. The performance of NZVI/MSNs as adsorbent was examined by adsorption of methylene blue (MB), performed in series of batch experiments. In the kinetic studies, pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic models were examined. The pseudo second order equation provided the best fit with the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic with ΔH° was 90.53 kJ/mol. Positive ΔS° (300 J/mol) and negative ΔG° (-6.42 kJ/mol) was recorded, indicating the spontaneous of the adsorption process and naturally favorable. 
Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil using Calcium Loaded on Deoiled Spent Bleaching Clay as A Solid Base Catalyst Rehan Zainol Abidin; Gaanty Pragas Maniam; Mohd. Hasbi Ab. Rahim
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (369.501 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.548.176-181

Abstract

Waste cooking oil has a high potential as a raw material in biodiesel production due to its abundant availability and cheapest among other feedstock. Hence transesterification reaction is carried out using waste cooking oil in this research. The objective of this study is to synthesize and characterize the catalyst. On the other hand, deoiled spent bleaching clay impregnated with 40% CaO utilized as a catalyst. Optimization was carried out on methanol to oil molar ratio (6:1-24:1), catalyst loading (3-10 wt.%) and reaction duration (2-10 h). The catalyst of deoiled spent bleaching clay doped with 40% CaO was prepared by wet impregnation method and calcined at 500 °C for 4 hours. The catalyst shows high activity under optimum condition of 5 hours of reaction time, 12:1 of methanol to oil molar ratio with 7 wt.% of catalyst. The transesterification yields 84.7% methyl ester. Therefore, this catalyst has potential to be used in the transesterification of waste cooking oil in producing biodiesel due to its high activity.
Characterization of Ag-promoted Ni/SiO2 Catalysts for Syngas Production via Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Dry Reforming of Glycerol Norazimah Harun; Jolius Gimbun; Mohammad Tazli Azizan; Sumaiya Zainal Abidin
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (885.151 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.553.220-229

Abstract

The carbon dioxide (CO2) dry reforming of glycerol for syngas production is one of the promising ways to benefit the oversupply crisis of glycerol worldwide. It is an attractive process as it converts carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas into a synthesis gas and simultaneously removed from the carbon biosphere cycle. In this study, the glycerol dry reforming was carried out using Silver (Ag) promoted Nickel (Ni) based catalysts supported on silicon oxide (SiO2) i.e. Ag-Ni/SiO2. The catalysts were prepared through wet impregnation method and characterized by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Thermo Gravimetric (TGA) analysis. The experiment was conducted in a tubular reactor which condition fixed at 973 K and CO2:glycerol molar ratio of 1, under atmospheric pressure. It was found that the main gaseous products are H₂, CO and CH4 with H₂:CO molar ratio < 1.0. From the reaction study, Ag(5)-Ni/SiO2 results in highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen yield, accounted for 32.6% and 27.4%, respectively. 
Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil Prashant Kumar; Anil Kumar Sarma; Ajay Bansal; Mithilesh Kumar Jha
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (696.262 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150

Abstract

Musa Balbisiana Colla Underground Stem (MBCUS) catalyst was treated thermally mixing with 5:1 w/w of Strontium Oxide (SrO) and the dynamic sites were reformed. The MBCUS-SrO showed sharper crystalline phases as evidence from XRD and TEM analysis. The composition and morphology were characterized from BET, SEM, EDX thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and XRF analysis. The optimization process for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L oil (JCO) having high percentage of free fatty acids was carried out using orthogonal arrays adopting the Taguchi method. The linear equation was obtained from the analysis and subsequent biodiesel production (96% FAME) was taken away from the JCO under optimal reaction conditions. The biodiesel so prepared had identical characteristics to that with MBCUS alone, but at a lower temperature (200˚C) and internal vapour pressure. Metal leaching was much lower while reusability of the catalyst was enhanced. It was also confirmed that the particle size has little impact upon the conversion efficacy, but the basic active sites are more important. 
A Preliminary Study: Esterification of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) in Artificially Modified Feedstock Using Ionic Liquids as Catalysts Nurul Asmawati Roslan; Mohammad Haniff Che Hasnan; Norhayati Abdullah; Syamsul Bahari Abdullah; Sumaiya Zainal Abidin
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (596.69 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.549.182-190

Abstract

The exploration of non-edible oils as a feedstock has been positively affect the economic viability of biodiesel production.  Due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) in non-edible oils, esterification is needed to remove the acidity to the minimum level before base-catalyzed transesterification.  In this study, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate (HMIMHSO4) was self-synthesized and compared with the commercialized ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulphate (BMIMHSO4). HMIMHSO4 and BMIMHSO4 were characterized by 1H NMR prior to use in the esterification reaction. The reaction was carried out in a batch reactor and variables such as types of alcohol, oil: alcohol molar ratio, temperature and types of stirring were investigated. The highest conversion for each catalyst was achieved using ethanol as a solvent at the condition of 343 K reaction temperature, 12:1 alcohol to oil ratio in 8 h reaction time. BMIMHSO4 showed higher conversion (98%) as compared to HMIMHSO4 with only 82% conversion. Clearly, BMIMHSO4 shows considerable potential to reduce the FFA in the feedstock as it is exhibit excellent catalytic activity due to lower alkyl chain of BMIMHSO4 compared to HMIMHSO4. 
Effect of Calcination Temperature on Performance of Photocatalytic Reactor System for Seawater Pretreatment Weerana Eh Kan; Jamil Roslan; Ruzinah Isha
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (391.341 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.554.230-237

Abstract

Conservative desalination technology including distillation requires high energy and cost to operate. Hence, pretreatment process can be done prior to desalination to overcome energy demand and cost reduction. Objective of this research is to study the effect of calcination temperature of hybrid catalyst in photocatalytic reactor system in the seawater desalination, i.e. salt removal in the seawater. The catalyst was synthesized via wet impregnation method with 1:1 weight ratio of TiO2 and activated oil palm fiber ash (Ti:Ash). The catalyst was calcined at different temperature, i.e. 500 oC and 800 oC. The study was carried out in a one liter Borosilicate photoreactor equipped with mercury light of 365 nanometers for two hours with 400 rpm mixing and catalyst to seawater sample weight ratio of 1:400. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity and conductivity of the seawater were analyzed prior and after the testing. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized via X-Ray Diffractogram (XRD and Nitrogen physisorption analysis. The calcination temperature significantly influenced the adsorption behaviour and photocatalytic activity. However, Ti:Ash which calcined at 800 oC has less photocatalytic activity. It might be because the surface of fiber ash was sintered after calcined at high temperature. The Ti:Ash catalyst that calcined at 500 oC was found to be the most effective catalyst in the desalination of seawater by reducing the salt concentration of more than 9 % compared to Ti:Ash calcined at 800 oC. It can be concluded that catalyst calcination at 500 °C has better character, performance and economically feasible catalyst for seawater desalination. 
New Method for Nucleophilic Substitution on Hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene by Allylamine Using an Algerian Proton Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay (Maghnite-H+) as a Green Solid Catalyst Lahouaria Medjdoub; Belbachir Mohammed
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (699.554 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.541.151-160

Abstract

Nucleophilic substitution on hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCTP) with allylamine in order to give hexa(allylamino)cyclotriphosphazene (HACTP)  is performed for the first time under mild conditions by using diethylether as solvent to replace benzene which is very toxic. The reaction time is reduced to half and also performed at room temperature but especially in the presence of an eco-catalyst called Maghnite-H+. This catalyst has a significant role in the industrial scale. In fact, the use of Maghnite is preferred for its many advantages: a very low purchase price compared to other catalysts, the easy removal of the reaction mixture. Then, Maghnite-H+ is became an excellent catalyst for many chemical reactions. The structure of HACTP synthesized in the presence of Maghnite-H+ to 5% by weight is confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 31P-NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy). MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry) is used to establish the molecular weight of HACTP which is 471 g/mol. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetery) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) show that HACTP is a crystalline product with a melting point of 88 °C. It is reactive after melting but is degraded from 230 °C. 
Preface of BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 Istadi, Istadi
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (169.915 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.565.v-vii

Abstract

Preface of BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.565.v-vii
Thermo-Catalytic Methane Decomposition for Hydrogen Production: Effect of Palladium Promoter on Ni-based Catalysts Irene Lock Sow Mei; S.S.M. Lock; Dai-Viet N. Vo; Bawadi Abdullah
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (577.085 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.550.191-199

Abstract

Hydrogen production from the direct thermo-catalytic decomposition of methane is a promising alternative for clean fuel production. However, thermal decomposition of methane can hardly be of any practical and empirical interest in the industry unless highly efficient and effective catalysts, in terms of both catalytic activity and operational lifetime have been developed. In this study, the effect of palladium (Pd) as a promoter onto Ni supported on alumina catalyst has been investigated by using co-precipitation technique. The introduction of Pd promotes better catalytic activity, operational lifetime and thermal stability of the catalyst. As expected, highest methane conversion was achieved at reaction temperature of 800 °C while the bimetallic catalyst (1 wt.% Ni -1wt.% Pd/Al2O3) gave the highest methane conversion of 70% over 15 min of time-on-stream (TOS). Interestingly, the introduction of Pd as promoter onto Ni-based catalyst also has a positive effect on the operational lifetime and thermal stability of the catalyst as the methane conversion has improved significantly over 240 min of TOS. 
Samarium Promoted Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts for Syngas Production from Glycerol Pyrolysis Mohd Nasir Nor Shahirah; Bamidele V. Ayodele; Jolius Gimbun; Chin Kui Cheng
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 2 Year 2016 (August 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (454.82 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.2.555.238-244

Abstract

The current paper reports on the kinetics of glycerol reforming over the alumina-supported Ni catalyst that was promoted with rare earth elements. The catalysts were synthesized via wet impregnation method with formulations of 3 wt% Sm-20 wt% Ni/77 wt% Al2O3. The characterizations of all the as-synthesized catalysts were carried out, viz.  BET specific surface area measurements, thermogravimetri analysis for temperature-programmed calcination studies, FESEM for surface imaging, XRD to obtain diffraction patterns, XRF for elemental analysis, etc.. Reaction studies were performed in a stainless steel fixed bed reactor with reaction temperatures set at 973, 1023 and 1073 K employing weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 4.5×104 mL g-1 h-1. Agilent GC with TCD capillary column was used to analyze gas compositions. Results gathered showed that the BET specific surface area was 2.09 m2.g-1 for the unpromoted Ni catalyst while for the promoted catalysts, was 2.68 m2.g-1. Significantly, the BET results were supported by the FESEM images which showed promoted catalysts exhibit smaller particle size compared to the unpromoted catalyst. It can be deduced that the promoter can increase metal dispersion on alumina support, hence decreasing the size of particles. The TGA analysis consistently showed four peaks which represent water removal at temperature 373-463 K, followed by decomposition of nickel nitrate to produce nickel oxide. From reaction results for Sm promotion showed glycerol conversion, XG of 27% which was 7% higher than unpromoted catalyst. The syngas productions were produced from glycerol decomposition and created H2:CO product ratio which always lower than 2.0. The H2:CO product ratio of 3 wt% Sm promoted Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was 1.70 at reaction temperature of 973 K and glycerol partial pressure of 18 kPa and suitable enough for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.  

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