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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
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Articles 18 Documents
Search results for , issue "2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)" : 18 Documents clear
Reduction of Peroxide Value and Free Fatty Acid Value of Used Frying Oil Using TiO2 Thin Film Photocatalyst Ummi Kaltsum; Affandi Faisal Kurniawan; Iis Nurhasanah; Priyono Priyono
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (492.641 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.577.369-375

Abstract

The quality of used frying oil degraded due to the presence of products degradation, such as; PV and FFA which formed during the frying process. PV and FFA are harmful to human health. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin film has been applied in various fields, especially in the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin film for reducing PV and FFA in used frying oil. The TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray coating method at a temperature of 450 oC. The TiO2 precursor solution was prepared by mixing TTiP, AcAc, and ethanol. The thin films were varied into two conditions; as-deposited and annealed at a temperature of 500 oC. The morphology, crystalline structure, and optical properties of the thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and UV-VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. The photocatalytic process was carried out by putting TiO2 thin film in used frying oil and irradiated by sunlight. The result showed that both of TiO2 thin films were still amorphous in nature. However, there was a peak with low intensity for annealed TiO2 thin film which corresponding to the TiO2 anatase crystals plane of (101). Annealing process improved crystallinity and changed the shape morphology of TiO2 thin films. The band gap was found to be 3.59 eV for as-deposited TiO2 thin film and 3.49 eV for the annealed-TiO2 thin film. The photocatalytic process shows that TiO2 thin films reduced FFA and PV of used frying oil up to 67.10% and 79.15%, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of annealed TiO2 thin film was higher than as-deposited TiO2 thin film. The results indicated that TiO2 thin film photocatalyst potential as the new alternative method to purify used frying oil. 
Silica-Supported Co3O4 Nanoparticles as a Recyclable Catalyst for Rapid Degradation of Azodye Ali Baghban; Esmail Doustkhah; Sadegh Rostamnia; Khadijeh Ojaghi Aghbash
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (818.813 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.568.284-291

Abstract

In this paper, silica nanoparticles with particle size of ~ 10-20 nm were selected as a support for the synthesis of Co3O4 nanoparticles by impregnation of silica nanoparticles in solution of Co(II) in a specific concentrations and then calcination to 800 oC. This nanocomposite was then, used as a catalyst for oxidative degradation of methyl orange (MO) with ammonium persulfate in aqueous media. Effect of pH, temperature, contact time, amount of oxidant and catalyst were studied in the presence of manuscript. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FT-IR, and ICP-AES analyses were used for analysis of silica-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/SiO2). Treating MO with ammonium persulfate in the presence of Co3O4/SiO2 led to complete degradation of MO under the optimized conditions. Also, the catalyst exhibited recyclability at least over 10 consecutive runs. 
Surface Modification of Macroporous Matrix for Immobilization of Lipase for Fructose Oleic Ester Synthesis Hani Hilmanto; Chusnul Hidayat; Pudji Hastuti
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (512.846 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.573.339-345

Abstract

The objective of this research was to modify the matrix surfaces to obtain both hydrophobic matrix (HM) and hydrophilic-hydrophobic matrix (HHM) for enzymatic synthesis of fructose oleic ester (FOE). The modification was performed by the attachment of 2-phenylpropionaldehyde (PPA) and PPA followed by polyethyleneimine (PEI) for HM and HHM, respectively. The results from FT-IR analysis showed that the peak of stretching vibration of NH2 bond decreased and it was followed by an increase of the peak vibration of –C=N– bond at wave number 1667 cm-1. The peak of bending vibrations of the C=C bond also increased. It indicated that PPA was successfully attached on matrix. For HHM, an increase in the peak area of NH2 bond indicated that PEI was also successfully attached on the matrix. The optimum conditions of lipase adsorption were obtained at buffer pH 7 containing 0.5 M NaCl (9.27 mg protein/g matrix) and without NaCl (9.23 mg protein/g matrix) for HM and HHM, respectively. For FOE synthesis, the best immobilized lipase concentration was about 8% and 6% for HM and HHM, respectively. The optimum time of esterification was 24 h and 18 h for HM and HHM, respectively, in which the yields were 75.96% and 85.29%, respectively. The immobilized lipase could be used up to 3 cycles of esterification reaction. 
Advanced Chemical Reactor Technologies for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils - A Review Luqman Buchori; Istadi Istadi; Purwanto Purwanto
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (475.793 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.490.406-430

Abstract

Biodiesel is an alternative biofuel that can replace diesel oil without requiring modifications to the engine and advantageously produces cleaner emissions. Biodiesel can be produced through transesterification process between oil or fat and alcohol to form esters and glycerol. The transesterification can be carried out with or without a catalyst. The catalyzed production of biodiesel can be performed by using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzyme. Meanwhile, non-catalytic transesterification with supercritical alcohol provides a new way of producing biodiesel. Microwave and ultrasound assisted transesterification significantly can reduce reaction time as well as improve product yields. Another process, a plasma technology is promising for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils due to very short reaction time, no soap formation and no glycerol as a by-product. This paper reviews briefly the technologies on transesterification reaction for biodiesel production using homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysts, as well as advanced methods (supercritical, microwave, ultrasonic, and plasma technology). Advantages and disadvantages of each method were described comprehensively.
Selective Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetics Studies of poly(α-Methyl styrene) induced by Maghnite-Na+ Clay (Algerian MMT) Moulkheir Ayat; Mohamed Belbachir; Abdelkader Rahmouni
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (845.094 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.578.376-388

Abstract

A new and efficient catalyst of Na-Montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) was employed in this paper for α-methylstyrene (AMS) cationic polymerization. Maghnite clay, obtained from Tlemcen Algeria, was investigated to remove heavy metal ion from wastewater. “Maghnite-Na” is a Montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, exchanged with sodium as an efficient catalyst for cationic polymerization of many vinylic and heterocyclic monomers. The various techniques, including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, DSC and Ubbelohde viscometer, were used to elucidate structural characteristics and thermal properties of the resulting polymers. The structure compositions of “MMT”, “H+-MMT” and “Na+-MMT” have been developed. It was found that the cationic polymerization of AMS is initiated by Na+-MMT at 0 °C in bulk and in solution. The influences of reaction temperature, solvent, weight ratio of initiator/monomer and reaction time on the yield of monomer and the molecular weight are investigated. The kinetics indicated that the polymerization rate is first order with respect to the monomer concentration. A possible mechanism of this cationic polymerization is discussed based on the results of the 1H-NMR Spectroscopic analysis of these model reactions. A cationic mechanism for the reaction was proposed. From the mechanism studies, it was showed that monomer was inserted into the growing chains.
Sustainable Catalytic Process for Synthesis of Triethyl Citrate Plasticizer over Phosphonated USY Zeolite Kakasaheb Y. Nandiwaleand; Vijay V. Bokade
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (553.42 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.569.292-298

Abstract

Fruits wastage is harmful to health and environment concerning spreading diseases and soil pollution, respectively. To avoid this issue, use of citrus fruit waste for the production of citric acid (CA) is one of viable mean to obtain value added chemicals. Moreover, synthesis of triethyl citrate (TEC), a non-toxic plasticizer by esterification of CA with ethanol over heterogeneous catalyst would be renewable and sustainable catalytic process. In this context, parent Ultrastable Y (USY) and different percentage phosphonated USY (P-USY) zeolites were used for the synthesis of TEC in a closed batch reactor, for the first time. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by N2-adsorption desorption isotherm, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Effect of reaction conditions, such as the molar ratio of ethanol to CA (5:1 - 20:1), the catalyst to CA ratio (0.05 - 0.25) and reaction temperature (363-403 K), were studied in view to maximizing CA conversion and TEC yield. Phosphonated USY catalysts were found to be superior in activity (CA conversion and TEC yield) than parent USY, which is attributed to the increased in total acidity with phosphonation. Among the studied catalysts, the P2USY (2% phosphorous loaded on USY) was found to be an optimum catalyst with 99% CA conversion and 82% TEC yield, which is higher than the reported values. This study opens new avenues of research demonstrating principles of green chemistry such as easy separable and reusable catalyst, non-toxic product, bio-renewable synthetic route, milder operating parameters and waste minimization. 
Physicochemical and Photocatalytic Properties of Fe-Pillared Bentonite at Various Fe Content Is Fatimah; Yuyun Yunani Nurkholifah
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (894.075 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.456.398-405

Abstract

Iron-pillared bentonites (Fe/Bents) were successfully prepared using a ferric chloride precursor. The prepared samples were characterized using XRD, BET and SEM-EDX. The results show that the pillared bentonite physicochemical character is affected by the iron content in a precursor solution. By Fe content variation it is found that Fe content in Fe/Bents is not linearly correlated with the specific surface area and the increased in d001 in which both the maximum specific surface are and d001 reach maximum at the Fe content of 20 mmol/g. Due to the kinetics of photocatalytic activity in phenol removal, it is concluded that in photo-Fenton-like processes.
Enzymatic Phorbol Esters Degradation using the Germinated Jatropha Curcas Seed Lipase as Biocatalyst: Optimization Process Conditions by Response Surface Methodology Avita Kusuma Wardhani; Chusnul Hidayat; Pudji Hastuti
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (468.334 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.574.346-353

Abstract

Utilization of Jatropha curcas seed cake is limited by the presence of phorbol esters (PE), which are the main toxic compound and heat stable. The objective of this research was to optimize the reaction conditions of the enzymatic PE degradation of the defatted Jatropha curcas seed cake (DJSC) using the acetone-dried lipase from the germinated Jatropha curcas seeds as a biocatalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using three-factors-three-levels Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the reaction time, the ratio of buffer volume to DJSC, and the ratio of enzyme to DJSC on PE degradation. The results showed that the optimum conditions of PE degradation were 29.33 h, 51.11 : 6 (mL/g), and 30.10 : 5 (U/g cake) for the reaction time, the ratio of buffer volume to DJSC, and the ratio of enzyme to DJSC, respectively. The predicted degradation of PE was 98.96% and not significantly different with the validated data of PE degradation. PE content was 0.035 mg/g, in which it was lower than PE in non-toxic Jatropha seeds. The results indicated that enzymatic degradation of PE might be a promising method for degradation of PE. 
ZnO/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as a Photocatalytic Bleaching of Methylene Orange - A Black Box Modeling by Artificial Neural Network Seyed Ali Hosseini; Mansor Akbari
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1006.638 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.570.299-315

Abstract

The paper reports the development of ZnO-MgAl layered double hydroxides as an adsorbent-photo catalyst to remove the dye pollutants from aqueous solution and the experiments of a photocatalytic study were designed and modeled by response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The co-precipitation and urea methods were used to synthesize the ZnO-MgAl layered double hydroxides and FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis were done for characterization of the catalyst.The performance of the ANN model was determined and showed the efficiency of the model in comparison to the RSM method to predict the percentage of dye removal accurately with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.968. The optimized conditions were obtained as follows: 600 oC, 120 min, 0.05 g and 20 ppm for the calcination temperature, irradiation time, catalyst amount and dye pollutant concentration, respectively. 
Liquid-phase Hydrogenation of Phenol to Cyclohexanone over Supported Palladium Catalysts Lihui Fan; Luyang Zhang; Yanming Shen; Dongbin Liu; Nasarul Wahab; Md Mahmud Hasan
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2016: BCREC Volume 11 Issue 3 Year 2016 (December 2016)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (678.919 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.575.354-362

Abstract

The ZSM-5, g-Al2O3, SiO2 and MgO supported Pd-catalysts were prepared for the phenol hydrogenation to cyclohexanone in liquid-phase. The natures of these catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, H2-TPR, CO2-TPD and NH3-TPD. The catalytic performance of the supported Pd-catalyst for phenol hydrogenation to cyclohexanone is closely related to nature of the support and the size of Pd nanoparticles. The Pd/MgO catalyst which possesses higher basicity shows higher cyclohexanone selectivity, but lower phenol conversion owing to the lower specific surface area. The Pd/SiO2 catalyst prepared by precipitation gives higher cyclohexanone selectivity and phenol conversion, due to the moderate amount of Lewis acidic sites, and the smaller size and higher dispersion of Pd nanoparticles on the surface. Under the reaction temperature of 135 oC and H2 pressure of 1 MPa, after reacting for 3.5 h, the phenol conversion of 71.62% and the cyclohexanone selectivity of 90.77% can be obtained over 0.5 wt% Pd/SiO2 catalyst. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reservedReceived: 7th March 2016; Revised: 13rd May 2016; Accepted: 7th June 2016How to Cite: Fan, L., Zhang, L., Shen, Y., Liu, D., Wahab, N., Hasan, M.M. (2016). Liquid-phase Hydrogenation of Phenol to Cyclohexanone over Supported Palladium Catalysts. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3): 354-362 (doi: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.575.354-362)Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.575.354-362

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