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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
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Articles 27 Documents
Search results for , issue "2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)" : 27 Documents clear
Highly Conductive and Soluble Polymer Synthesized by Copolymerization of Thiophene with Para-Methoxybenzaldehyde Using Clay Catalyst Djamal Eddine Kherroub; Larbi Bouhadjar; Bouhadjar Boukoussa; Abdelkader Rahmouni; Khadidja Dahmani; Mohammed Belbachir
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (861.804 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.3793.413-420

Abstract

This present research focuses on the synthesis of a new conducting polymer based on the copolymerization of thiophene with para-methoxybenzaldehyde, using a clay as an ecologic catalyst named Maghnite-H+. The catalysis of the reaction by Maghnite-H+ can confer it important benefits, such as the green environment aspect. The reaction was carried out in dichloromethane as a solvent. The new copolymer obtained is a poly (heteroarylene methines) small bandgap polymers precursor. It can be considered as a useful model system for examining the impacts of π-conjugation length on the electronic properties of this type of conjugated polymers. The measurements of the electrical conductivity gave a value of order of 0.0120 W.cm-1, allowing its use in various important applications. The characteristics of the molecular structure and the thermal behavior of the conducting polymer obtained are also discussed using different methods of analysis, such as: proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). 
Green Synthesis of [EMIm]Ac Ionic Liquid for Plasticizing MC-based Biopolymer Electrolyte Membranes Sun Theo Constan Lotebulo Ndruru; Deana Wahyuningrum; Bunbun Bundjali; I Made Arcana
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1783.519 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.3074.345-357

Abstract

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are favorable power source devices at the last two decades, owing to high energy density, rechargeable, long life cycle, portable, safe, rechargeable, good performance and friendly environment. To support their development, in this research has been successfully prepared polymer electrolyte membrane, a main component of LIBs, based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIm]Ac) ionic liquid-plasticized methyl cellulose/lithium perchlorate (MC/LiClO4). [EMIm]Ac ionic  liquid was easy synthesized by metathesis reaction between 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([EMIm]Br) ionic liquid and potassium acetate (CH3COOK) at ambient temperature, for 1 hour. [EMIm]Ac ionic liquid was functional groups analyzed with Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) and structural analyzed with 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR. [EMIm]Ac ionic liquid-plasticized MC/LiClO4 biopolymer electrolyte membrane was prepared by casting solution, with [EMIm]Ac ionic liquid content, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (w/w). Effect of 15% (w/w) [EMIm]Ac ionic liquid incorporation to MC/LiClO4 showed the best condition and selected as the optimum condition with conductivity, tensile strength, elongation break, and thermal stability of 9.160×10-3 S.cm-1, 24.19 MPa, 36.43%, ~256 and ~370 ºC, respectively. These results confirm that [EMIm]Ac ionic liquid can plasticize biopolymer electrolyte membranes of MC/LiClO4 to be appealing performances to fulfill the LIB’s separator requirement. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved 
The Optimised Statistical Model for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Tapioca by Glucoamylase Immobilised on Mesostructured Cellular Foam Silica Joni Agustian; Lilis Hermida
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (850.701 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.3078.380-390

Abstract

Enzymatic hydrolysis of starches using free glucoamylase to reducing sugars have difficulties in recovering and recycling of the enzyme, hence immobilisation on inert supports were widely studied. However, effectiveness of the immobilised glucoamylase were merely observed only on soluble starches. It was considered a valuable thing to know performance of glucoamylase on Mesostructured Cellular Foam (MCF) silica in hydrolysing of tapioca. An optimised study on enzymatic hydrolysis of tapioca using glucoamylase on MCF silica (9.2T-3D) and its kinetics were described including justification of the predicted model as it was required to develop in large scale operations. Central Composite Design was used to model the process by studying effects of three factors on DE values after enzyme immobilisation.  Immobilisation of glucoamylase on this support gave up to 82% efficiency with the specific activity of 1,856.78 U.g-1. Its used to hydrolysis of tapioca resulted DE values of 1.740-76.303% (w/w) where the highest DE was obtained at pH of 4.1, temperature of 70 ℃ and agitation speed of 140 rpm. The optimisation produced a polynomial quadratic model having insignificant lack-of-fit and low standard deviation, so that it was applicable and reliable in simulating the DE with only 0.80% of data were not described. Temperature affected the process highly, but the buffer pH, agitation speed and factorial interactions were considered not important. KM value for immobilised enzyme was better than the free glucoamylase, however, its reaction rate was slower than the free glucoamylase catalysis. Copyright © 2019 BCREC Group. All rights reserved 
Author Guideline (2019) Istadi, Istadi
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (352.904 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.4851.App.1-App.6

Abstract

Solid-phase Synthesis of Visible-light-driven BiVO4 Photocatalyst and Photocatalytic Reduction of Aqueous Cr(VI) Jing Li; Yan Chen; Chengru Chen; Shaorong Wang
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (140.62 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.3182.336-344

Abstract

This communication reports a pioneering study on the synthesis of BiVO4 and photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)-polluted wastewaters. Monoclinic phase BiVO4 micron-crystals with adjustable morphology were synthesized via a solid-phase route. The structures, morphology, optical properties of the BiVO4 micron-crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, and photocurrent measurements. Besides, their photocatalytic properties were tested for the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) under visible light (l > 420 nm) irradiation. The photocatalytic tests showed that the photocatalytic activities of BiVO4 powders in aqueous Cr(VI) depended on the dark adsorption amount for Cr(VI) and number of photogenerated carriers. BiVO4-(c) exhibited the highest photocatalytic reduction efficiency that attributed to highest separation and transfer efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes. Besides, effects of photocatalytic experiment parameters (including dosage of photocatalyst and coexistent anions and cations) on the Cr(VI) removal rate by BiVO4-(c) were also investigated, and •OH play an important role in the BiVO4 photocatalytic reduction Cr(VI). 
Facile Template In-Situ Fabrication of ZnCo2O4 Nanoparticles with Highly Photocatalytic Activities under Visible-Light Irradiation Vu T. Tan; La The Vinh; Tran Ngoc Khiem; Huynh Dang Chinh
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2686.633 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.3613.404-412

Abstract

High specific surface area ZnCo2O4 nanoparticles were prepared via a sacrificial template accelerated hydrolysis by using nanoparticles of ZnO with highly polar properties as a template. The obtained ZnCo2O4 nanoparticles were characterized by the method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The obtained nanoparticles were performed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under visible irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation rate of methylene blue onto the synthesized ZnCo2O4 was higher than that of commercial ZnO and synthesized ZnO template. 
Preparation and Candida rugosa Lipase Immobilization on Nylon-6 Grafted and Aminated (Polyvinyl Benzyl Chloride) Microfibers Nur Lilani Abd Halin; Maan Fahmi Rashid Al-Khatib; Hamzah Mohd. Salleh; Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (629.223 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.2894.369-379

Abstract

This paper demonstrates a simplified procedure for the preparation of a nylon-6 microfibers based support for the immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase via covalent attachment to enhance the stability and reusability of lipase. The preparation of the support was done by radiation induced graft copolymerization (RIGC) of vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC) onto nylon-6 microfibers followed by amination with ethanolamine to facilitate the immobilization of lipase. Fourier transfer infra red (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to study the chemical and physical changes following grafting, amination and immobilization. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for the optimization of lipase immobilization on the aminated microfibers. The optimization parameters were incubation time, pH, and lipase concentration. Moreover, this study investigated the effect of temperature, pH, and storage stability and reusability on the lipase in its immobilized and free forms. The developed model from RSM showed an R2 value of 0.9823 and P-value < 0.001 indicating that the model is significant. The optimum temperatures for both immobilized and free lipases were 45 °C, whereas the best pH values for lipase activity were at pH 8 and pH 7, respectively. This study also identifies values for KM and Vmax for both immobilized and free lipase accordingly. Based on the results, immobilized lipase had significantly improved the stability and reusability of lipase compared to that in free forms. 
Evaluation of Enzyme Kinetic Parameters to Produce Methanol Using Michaelis-Menten Equation Norazwina Zainol; Siti Natrah Ismail
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (62.793 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.3317.436-442

Abstract

Determination of kinetic parameters of enzymes is important in biotechnology research. It is also one of the most challenging processes in methanol production. The activity of enzyme is determined in term of initial rates at various substrate concentrations. The enzymatic hydrolysis of methanol by pectin methyl esterase (PME) enzyme was investigated at 25 °C and pH 9 over the reaction time range from 0 to 90 min. In this study, the parameters of the enzyme's kinetic, KM and Vmax were directly determined using a modified Michaelis-Menten equation by applying the Lineweaver-Burk plots. Besides, nonlinear regression of Michaelis-Menten equation was calculated based on Euler’s and Runge-Kutta 4th order methods by using Solver supplement application. The result of kinetic constant was tested by comparing the experimental data with model predictions. It was found that Euler and Runge-Kutta method was successful in determining the kinetic parameter rather than Lineweaver-Burk plot. The application of the Michaelis-Menten equation describes the enzyme kinetic very well. From the kinetic analysis, it showed the good agreement between the result obtained and the predictions model in the production of methanol using PME enzyme.  
Kinetic Study of Saponin Extraction from Sapindus rarak DC by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Methods Aininu Nafiunisa; Nita Aryanti; Dyah Hesti Wardhani
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4101.349 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.4253.468-477

Abstract

Saponin is an important plant-derived compound that is commonly found in sapindaceae plants, such as Sapindus rarak DC. Saponin is extensively used in plenty of industries as a detergent or emulsifying agent in cleansers, shampoos, and cosmetics. The extraction of saponin was previously studied and shows that the extraction assisted by ultrasonic waves was found to be an effective method. However, the previous studies have rarely examined the extraction kinetic study of the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). In the present study, the extraction of saponin from Sapindus rarak DC and its extraction kinetics is conducted. The results show that the highest saponin yield of 354.92 (mg of saponin per gram of dry feed) was obtained from the extraction using a solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:50 (w/v) at 50 °C. The amount of extracted saponin increased with the increase of extraction temperature as well as the solute ratio in the solution. However, increasing the temperature to 60 °C decreased the saponin yield. The results of a simple kinetics study of saponin extraction also show that the second-order kinetics model can better describe the UAE process, with an R2 value of 0.929 and a rate coefficient of 0.00495 L.g-1.min-1. The experimental results agree well with the practical calculations obtained using the second-order kinetics model based on an average error of 6.79%. 
Kinetic Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Ketchup Industry Wastewater in a Three-stages Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Indro Sumantri; Budiyono Budiyono; Purwanto Purwanto
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 2 Year 2019 (August 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (785.981 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.2.2838.326-335

Abstract

The anaerobic digestion of the ketchup industry’s wastewater in a three-stage 60 L capacity baffled reactor has been studied. The effect of concentrations of the initial chemical oxygen demand (2727.3-12086.7 mg/L), on the ABR performance and kinetic models were investigated. The ABR performance was evaluated by measuring the concentrations of each compartment of the COD, calculating its percentage removal, and the acquired data were fitted to the kinetic models. From the initial input, the three-stage ABR successfully removed 90 % of COD, for the initial COD until the concentration was 5324.6 mg/L it achieved stationary phase with HRT 5-10 days, while for initial COD until the concentration was 12086.7 mg/L is attained, the stationary was at 10 days. The kinetic model of second order Grau was suitable for the data, with k2 of 0.6061 d-1 and R2 of 0.9955. 

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