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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
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Articles 26 Documents
Search results for , issue "2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)" : 26 Documents clear
Observation of Increased Dispersion of Pt and Mobility of Oxygen in Pt/g-Al2O3 Catalyst with La Modification in CO Oxidation Thanawat Wandondaeng; Chaowat Autthanit; Bunjerd Jongsomjit; Piyasan Praserthdam
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (464.691 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.4518.579-585

Abstract

The study focuses on an improvement of the catalytic activity via CO oxidation for Pt/g-Al2O3 catalyst by addition of La onto the support prior to impregnation with Pt metals. The molar ratios of La/Al were varied from 0.01 to 0.15. Based on temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO2, La addition apparently resulted in increased basicity of the catalysts, which is related to increasing of oxygen mobility. However, when considered the Pt dispersion measured by CO chemisorption, it was found that Pt dispersion also increased with increasing the amount of La addition up to La/Al = 0.05. It is suggested that too high amount of La addition can inhibit the dispersion Pt due to surface coverage of La. It is worth noting that the catalytic activity toward CO oxidation essentially depends on both Pt dispersion and oxygen mobility and they can be superimposed on each other. Based on this study, the Pt/g-Al2O3 catalyst with La addition of La/Al molar ratio = 0.05 showed the highest activity due to its optimal Pt dispersion and oxygen mobility leading to its highest value of turnover frequency (TOF). 
Selective Conversion of 2-Methylfuran to 1,4-Pentanediol Catalyzed by Bimetallic Ni-Sn Alloy Rodiansono Rodiansono; Astuti Maria Dewi; Sadang Husain; Agung Nugroho; Sutomo Sutomo
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1766.934 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.4347.529-541

Abstract

The selective conversion of 2-methylfuran (2-MeF) to 1,4-pentanediol (1,4-PeD) over bimetallic nickel-tin alloy catalysts in the ethanol/H2O solvent mixture was studied. By using bulk Ni-Sn(x); x = 3.0 and 1.5 catalysts, a maximum yield of 1,4-PeD (49%) was obtained at 94% conversion of 2-MeF. The dispersion of Ni-Sn(x) on the aluminium hydroxide (AlOH) or g-Al2O3 supports allowed to an outstanding yield of 1,4-PeD (up to 64%) at 433 K, 3.0 MPa of H2 within 12 h. Ni-Sn(3.0)/AlOH catalyst was found to be reusable and the treatment of the recovered Ni-Sn(3.0)/AlOH catalyst with H2 at 673 K for 1 h restored the catalyst’s original activity and selectivity. 
Isatin Aldazines Synthesis using A Proton Exchanged Algerian Montmorillonite Clay as Acid Eco-friendly Catalyst Boumadiene Benlahreche; Assya Taleb; Mokhtar B. Lahrech; Salih Hacini
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (692.483 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.4574.551-558

Abstract

An efficient and easy procedure is developed for the synthesis of isatin aldazines or bis-Schiff bases of isatin, catalyzed by a proton exchanged Algerian montmorillonite clay (MMT-H+) as green catalyst. The products were obtained in two catalyzed steps under conventional heating in ethanol. Isatin-3-hydrazone obtained from the reaction of isatin with hydrazine monohydrate reacts in the second step with the appropriate aromatic aldehydes to give the desired products in good yields. The main advantages of using this protonated solid non-toxic catalyst in this synthesis are its availability and low cost, the simplicity of its use, the recycling possibilities without significant loss of its catalytic activity and its environmentally benign process. 
Effect of Dilute Acid and Alkaline Pretreatments on Enzymatic Saccharfication of Palm Tree Trunk Waste for Bioethanol Production Kusmiyati Kusmiyati; Sakina Tunissa Anarki; Sabda Wahyu Nugroho; Reistu Widiastutik; Hadiyanto Hadiyanto
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4407.282 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.4256.705-714

Abstract

The sugar palm tree (Arenga pinnata) was abundant in Indonesia and has high cellulose contents for bioethanol production. However, the lignin content was the major drawback which could inhibit saccharification enzymes and therefore removing the lignin from the biomass is important. This paper evaluated the effects of pretreatments  using nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) at 2 to 10% (v/v) on reducing sugar and ethanol contents and compared with the effects of steam pre-treatment. The pretreated samples were hydrolyzed using cellulase enzymes at pH 5.0 with a substrate concentration of 10% (w/v) for 24 to 72 h at 50 °C. Subsequent assessments of enzymatic saccharification following pre-treatment with 10% (v/v) HNO3 showed maximum reducing   and total sugar contents in palm tree trunk waste of 5.320% and 5.834%, respectively, after 72 h of saccharification. Following pretreatment with 10% (v/v) of NH4OH, the maximum reducing and total sugar contents of palm tree trunk waste were 2.892% and 3.556%, respectively, after 72 h of saccharification. In comparison, steam pretreatments gave maximum reducing sugar and total sugar contents of 1.140% and 1.315% under the same conditions. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted at 37 °C (pH 4.8) and 100 rpm for 120 h using 10% (v/v) Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cellulase enzyme with a substrate concentration of 10% (w/v). The result showed the highest ethanol content of 2.648% was achieved by using 10% (v/v) HNO3. The use of 10% (v/v) NH4OH gained a yield of 0.869% ethanol while the steam pretreatment could obtained 0.102% ethanol.  
Polyvinylpyrrolidone - Reduced Graphene Oxide - Pd Nanoparticles as an Efficient Nanocomposite for Catalysis Applications in Cross-Coupling Reactions Hany A. Elazab; Tamer T. El-Idreesy
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (881.83 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.3461.490-501

Abstract

This paper reported a scientific approach adopting microwave-assisted synthesis as a synthetic route for preparing highly active palladium nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (Pd/PVP) and supported on reduced Graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly active catalyst used for Suzuki, Heck, and Sonogashira cross coupling reactions with remarkable turnover number (6500) and turnover frequency of 78000 h-1. Pd/PVP nanoparticles supported on reduced Graphene oxide nanosheets (Pd-PVP/rGO) showed an outstanding performance through high catalytic activity towards cross coupling reactions. A simple, reproducible, and reliable method was used to prepare this efficient catalyst using microwave irradiation synthetic conditions. The synthesis approach requires simultaneous reduction of palladium and in the presence of Gaphene oxide (GO) nanosheets using ethylene glycol as a solvent and also as a strong reducing agent. The highly active and recyclable catalyst has so many advantages including the use of mild reaction conditions, short reaction times in an environmentally benign solvent system. Moreover, the prepared catalyst could be recycled for up to five times with nearly the same high catalytic activity. Furthermore, the high catalytic activity and recyclability of the prepared catalyst are due to the strong catalyst-support interaction. The defect sites in the reduced Graphene oxide (rGO) act as nucleation centers that enable anchoring of both Pd/PVP nanoparticles and hence, minimize the possibility of agglomeration which leads to a severe decrease in the catalytic activity. 
Production of Triacetin by Microwave Assisted Esterification of Glycerol Using Activated Natural Zeolite Marwan Marwan; Eti Indarti; Darmadi Darmadi; Wahyu Rinaldi; Dzikri Hamzah; Taufik Rinaldi
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2452.193 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.4250.672-677

Abstract

Triacetin, an alternative biodiesel additive, was prepared by esterification of glycerol with acetic acid in the presence of chemically activated natural zeolite. The esterification was carried out in a small reaction flask under microwave irradiation. The catalyst was characterized for its morphology by SEM and its chemical composition by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrograph indicates improved surface area of the zeolite, while the XRD analysis shows an increase in Si/Al ratio from natural zeolite to 6.042 and its crystallinity value of 12.23%. The Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) analysis obtained showed that microwave-heated samples have an esters group spectrum of triacetin at 1702 cm-1. The conversion value of glycerol was more than 95% at molar ratio of the reactants 1:9 and catalyst loading of 3%. The selectivities for monoacetin, diacetin and triacetin were 80.1%, 15.4%, and 4.5% at 60 minutes, and 43.0%, 48.6%, and 8.3% at 90 minutes. It shows that the conversion took place in consecutive steps and the use of microwave allows the reaction proceeding at milder condition. 
Inhibition Effect of Ca2+ Ions on Sucrose Hydrolysis Using Invertase Hargono Hargono; Bakti Jos; Abdullah Abdullah; Teguh Riyanto
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (382.156 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.4437.646-653

Abstract

Fermentable sugar for bioethanol production can be produced from molasses due to its high sucrose content but Ca2+ ions found in the molasses may affect the hydrolysis. Therefore, this paper was focused to study the effect of Ca2+ ions as CaO on sucrose hydrolysis using invertase and to obtain the kinetic parameters. The kinetic parameters (KM and Vmax) were obtained using a Lineweaver-Burk plot. The value of KM and Vmax parameters were 36.181 g/L and 21.322 g/L.h, respectively. The Ca2+ ions act as competitive inhibitor in sucrose hydrolysis using invertase. Therefore, the inhibition mechanism was followed the competitive inhibition mechanism. The value of inhibition constant was 0.833 g/g. These parameters were obtained from the non-substrate inhibition process because this study used the low substrate concentrations which means the fermentable sugar production was low. Hence, there were still more challenges to studying the simultaneous effect of substrate and Ca2+ on sucrose hydrolysis to produce high fermentable sugar. 
Backmatter (Publication Ethics, Copyright Transfer Agreement Form) Istadi, Istadi
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (291.185 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.5836.App.1-App.5

Abstract

Synthesis of Solid Acid Catalyst from Fly Ash for Eugenol Esterification Nur Hidayati; Titik Pujiati; Elfrida B. Prihandini; Herry Purnama
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2487.394 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.4254.683-688

Abstract

A series of fly ash-based heterogeneous acid catalysts were prepared by chemical and thermal treatment. Fly ash was chemically activated using sulfuric acid and followed by thermal activation. Characterization methods of XRD, BET, SEM-EDX, and the performance in esterification of eugenyl acetate production was carried out to reveal the physical and chemical characteristics of prepared catalysts. Activated catalyst showed high silica content (96.5%) and high BET surface area of 70 m2.g-1. The catalyst was proven to be highly active solid acid catalyst for liquid phase esterification of eugenol with acetic acid yielding eugenyl acetate. A yield of 43-48% was obtained with activated fly ash catalysts for 90 minutes reaction. These catalysts may replace beneficially the conventional homogenous liquid acid to the eco-friendly heterogeneous one. 
Operating Conditions and Composition Effect on the Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide Performed over CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts Djaouida Allam; Salem Cheknoun; Smain Hocine
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2019: BCREC Volume 14 Issue 3 Year 2019 (December 2019)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (124.99 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.14.3.3451.604-613

Abstract

A series of catalysts constituted of mixed copper and zinc oxides supported on alumina were prepared by co-precipitation method. The cooper content was in the 10-90 wt.% range. Their catalytic behavior in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol was investigated at high pressure (up to 75 bars). The catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis, N2-adsorption, N2O-chemisorptions, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The catalysts showed a clear activity in the hydrogenation reaction that could be correlated to the surface area of the metallic copper and to the reaction pressure. The CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst with a Cu/Zn/Al weight ratio of 60/30/10, exhibits the highest carbon dioxide conversion and methanol selectivity. Finally, a mechanism pathway has been proposed on copper active sites of (Cu0/CuI) oxidation state. 

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