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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
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Articles 26 Documents
Search results for , issue "2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)" : 26 Documents clear
Optimization of Oxidative Desulfurization Reaction with Fe2O3 Catalyst Supported on Graphene Using Box-Behnken Experimental Method Hameed Hussein Alwan; Ammar Ali Ali; Hasan F. Makki
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.6670.175-185

Abstract

In this study, the catalyst activity of Fe2O3 supported on Graphene for Iraqi gas oil oxidation desulfurization (ODS) by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. The prepared catalyst was synthesized by wet impregnation for ferric nitrate as a Fe2O3 precursor while Graphene represented as catalyst support. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and EDS analysis. The experiments were designed according to three-level for three variables by Box-Behnken experimental design; Stirring time, catalyst dosage and temperature while the sulfur removal efficiency acts as experiment response. Catalyst activity was studied by ODS reaction for Iraqi gas oil (sulfur content 9400 ppm) at temperature range (40-60 ºC), stirring time (160-240 minutes) and catalyst dosage (0.5-2.5 g), the results show maximum sulfur removal efficiency 90% at stirring time, catalyst dosage and temperature 240 min, 1.5 g, and 60 ºC, respectively. ANOVA analysis shows the important effect of each independent variable on sulfur removal efficiency (response) as following influential order; stirring time, reaction temperature and catalyst dosage. Kinetics calculation showed that the ODS reaction obeys pseudo first-order reaction with reaction rate constant equal 1.0837, 1.5893, and 2.5053 at temperature 40, 50, and 60 ºC, respectively, while activation energy equal 36.26 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Effect of Composition of Iron-Cobalt Oxide Catalyst and Process Parameters on The Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Sugarcane Bagasse Gopalakrishnan Govindasamy; Rohit Sharma; Sunu Subramanian
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.5385.186-198

Abstract

Development of catalyst with high deoxygenation activity and optimum process parameters are the key for getting the highest biooil yield with the least oxygen content by hydrothermal liquefaction. With this view, iron-cobalt oxides of Co/Fe ratio 0.33, 1.09, 2.35, and 3.52 were prepared by co-precipitation method, and characterized by XRD, BET surface area, chemical composition by EDX method, and evaluated for hydrothermal liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse in a high-pressure batch reactor under subcritical conditions using CO as process gas to find the optimum Co/Fe ratio and process parameters. Optimum Co/Fe ratio was found to be 1.09 as it gave the highest bio-oil yield of 57.6% with the least oxygen content of 10.8%, attributed to the cobalt ferrite, the major phase present in it. The optimum temperature, initial CO pressure, water/biomass ratio, catalyst/biomass ratio and reaction time for the highest oil yield with the least oxygen content were found to be 250 °C, 45 bar, 28, 0.4, and 120 min,  respectively. From the effect of reaction time, it was found that much of the hydrolysis of lignocellulose to water soluble oxygenates, its deoxygenation to bio-oil and its deoxygenation to low oxygen containing bio-oil took place in initial 15 min, 15 to 60 min, and from 30 to 120 min, respectively. Total oil yield (%) was lower by 21% and % oxygen in total oil was higher by 9.9% for spent catalyst compared to fresh catalyst indicating the erosion in the deoxygenation activity of catalyst and thus need for improving its hydrothermal stability. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
One-pot Selective Conversion of Biomass-derived Furfural into Cyclopentanone/Cyclopentanol over TiO2 Supported Bimetallic Ni-M (M = Co, Fe) Catalysts Maria Dewi Astuti; Ditya Kristina; Rodiansono Rodiansono; Dwi Rasy Mujiyanti
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.6307.231-241

Abstract

One-pot selective conversion of biomass-derived furfural (FFald) into cyclopentanone (CPO) or cyclopentanol (CPL) using bimetallic nickel-based supported on TiO2 (denoted as Ni-M(3.0)/TiO2; M = Co and Fe; 3.0 is Ni/M molar ratio) have been investigated. Catalysts were synthesized via a hydrothermal method at 150 °C for 24 h, followed by H2 reduction at 450 °C for 1.5 h. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis  showed that the formation of Ni-Co alloy phase at 2θ = 44.2° for Ni-Co(3.0)/TiO2 and Ni-Fe alloy at 2θ = 44.1° for Ni-Fe(3.0)/TiO2. The amount of acid sites was measured by using ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). Ni-Co(3.0)/TiO2 has three NH3 desorption peaks at 180 °C, 353 °C, and 569 °C with acid site amounts of 1.30 µmol.g-1, 1.0 µmol.g-1, and 2.0 µmol.g-1,        respectively. On the other hand, Ni-Fe(3.0)/TiO2 consisted of NH3 desorption peaks at 214 °C and 626 °C with acid site amounts of 3.3 µmol.g-1and 2.0 µmol.g-1, respectively. Both Ni-Co(3.0)/TiO2 and Ni-Fe(3.0)/TiO2 catalysts were found to be active for the selective hydrogenation of FFald to furfuryl alcohol (FFalc) at low temperature of 110 °C, H2 3.0 MPa, 3 h with FFalc selectivity of 81.1% and 82.9%, respectively. High yields of CPO (27.2%) and CPL (41.0%) were achieved upon Ni-Fe(3.0)/TiO2 when the reaction temperature was increased to 170 °C, 3.0 MPa of H2, and a reaction time of 6 h. The yield of CPO+CPL on the reused catalyst decreased slightly after the second reaction run, but the activity was maintained for at least three consecutive runs. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Kinetics and Thermodynamics Study of Ultrasound-Assisted Depolymerization of k-Carrageenan in Acidic Solution Ratnawati Ratnawati; Nita Indriyani
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.6738.280-289

Abstract

K-carrageenan is a natural polymer with high molecular weight ranging from 100 to 1000 kDa. The oligocarrageenan with low molecular weight is widely used in biomedical application. The aim of this work was to depolymerize k-carrageenan in an acidic solution with the assistance of ultrasound irradiation. The ultrasonication was conducted at various pH (3 and 6), temperatures (30-60 °C), and depolymerization time (0-24 minutes). The results show that the depolymerization reaction follows pseudo-first-order kinetic model with reaction rate constant of 1.856×10-7 to 2.138×10-6 s-1. The reaction rate constant increases at higher temperature and lower pH. The Q10-temperature coefficients of the depolymerization are 1.25 and 1.51 for pH 6 and 3, respectively. The enthalpy of activation (ΔH‡) and the Gibbs energy of activation (ΔG‡) are positive, while the entropy of activation (ΔS‡) is negative, indicating that the activation step of the ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of k-carrageenan is endothermic, non-spontaneous, and the molecules at the transition state is more ordered than at the ground state. The ΔH‡ and the ΔS‡ are not affected by temperature, while the ΔG‡ is a weak function of temperature. The ΔH‡ and ΔS‡ become smaller at higher pH, while the ΔG‡ increases with the increase of pH. The kinetics and thermodynamics analysis show that the ultrasound-assisted depolymerization of k-carrageenan in acidic solution is possibly through three mechanisms, i.e. bond cleavage due to cavitational effect of microbubbles, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, as well as proton. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Enhancing Enzymatic Digestibility of Coconut Husk using Nitrogen-assisted Subcritical Water for Sugar Production Maktum Muharja; Nur Fadhilah; Tantular Nurtono; Arief Widjaja
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (122.402 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.5337.84-95

Abstract

Coconut husk (CCH) as an abundant agricultural waste in Indonesia has the potential to be utilized for sugar production, which is the intermediate product of biofuel. In this study, subcritical water (SCW) assisted by nitrogen (N2) was developed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of CCH. SCW process was optimized by varying the operation condition: the pressure of 60-100 bar, the temperature of 150-190 °C, and the time of 20-60 min. The SCW-treated solid was subsequently hydrolyzed by utilizing a mixture of commercial cellulase and xylanase enzymes. The result shows that the optimum total sugar yield was obtained under the mild condition of SCW treatment, resulting in the sugar of 15.67 % and 10.31 % gained after SCW and enzymatic hydrolysis process, respectively. SEM and FTIR analysis of SCW-treated solid exhibited the deformation of lignin and solubilization of cellulose and hemicellulose, while XRD and TGA revealed an increase of the amount of crystalline part in the solid residue. The use of N2 in SCW treatment combined with enzymatic hydrolysis in this study suggested that the method can be considered economically for biofuel production from CCH waste in commercial scale. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Carbon Waste Powder Prepared from Carbon Rod Waste of Zinc-Carbon Batteries for Methyl Orange Adsorption Fitria Rahmawati; Viona Natalia; Agung T. Wijayanta; Siti Rondiyah; Koji Nakabayashi; Jin Miyawaki
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (12.256 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.5148.66-73

Abstract

A research on the preparation of Carbon Waste Powder, CWP, was conducted and made from carbon rod waste which was extracted from used zinc-carbon batteries. This research was an effort to overcome environmental problem caused by battery waste by converting into adsorbent for methyl orange (MO) that frequently used by textile industries. The prepared powder was then analyzed to understand its characteristic peaks, crystallinity, and to compare the properties with other carbonaceous forms, i.e. a commercial Carbon Paper (CP), and a commercial meso- carbon micro-beads (MCMB). The analysis found that CWP is dominated by graphitic carbon. An adsorption experiment was then conducted to study their adsorption ability to methyl orange solution. The result found that those three carbonaceous materials have the ability to adsorb methyl orange with different activities. MCMB has the highest adsorption capacity of 0.197 mg.g-1. Meanwhile, CWP and CP show adsorption capacity of 0.066 mg.g-1 and 0.062 mg.g-1, respectively. Methyl orange adsorption on CWP and CP were under second order, which means the adsorption could be four times faster as the MO solution doubled. Moreover, the rate constant of MO adsorption on CWP is 8×10-4 min-1, which was higher than the rate constant of MO adsorption on CP. It confirmed that the CWP can be used as a promising adsorbent for dye waste water. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Facile Investigation of Ti3+ State in Ti-based Ziegler-Natta Catalyst with A Combination of Cocatalysts Using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Thanyaporn Pongchan; Piyasan Praserthdam; Bunjerd Jongsomjit
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.5227.55-65

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the influences of a combination of cocatalysts including triethylaluminum (TEA) and tri-n-octylaluminum (TnOA) for activation of a commercial Ti-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst during ethylene polymerization and ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization on the change in Ti3+ during polymerization. Thus, electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was performed to monitor the change in Ti3+ depending on the catalyst activation by a single and combination of cocatalyst. It revealed that the amount of Ti3+ played a crucial role on both ethylene polymerization and ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization. For ethylene polymerization, the activation with TEA apparently resulted in the highest catalytic activity. The activation with TEA+TnOA combination exhibited a moderate activity, whereas TnOA activation gave the lowest activity. In case of ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization, it revealed that the presence of 1-hexene decreased activity. The effect of different cocatalysts tended to be similar to the one in the absence of 1-hexene. The decrease of temperature from 80 to 70 °C in ethylene/1-hexene copolymerization tended to lower catalytic activity for TnOA and TEA+TnOA, whereas only slight effect was observed for TEA system. The effect of different cocatalyst activation on the change of Ti3+ state of catalyst was elucidated by ESR measurement. It appeared that the activation of catalyst with TEA+TnOA combination essentially inhibited the reduction of Ti3+ to Ti2+ leading to lower activity.  Furthermore, the polymer properties such as morphology and crystallinity can be altered by different cocatalysts. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).
Zn-M-CO3 Layered Double Hydroxides (M=Fe, Cr, or Al): Synthesis, Characterization, and Removal of Aqueous Indigo Carmine Salima Bouteraa; Fatiha Boukraa Djelllal Saiah; Sarah Hamouda; Nourredine Bettahar
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.5053.43-54

Abstract

In this approach, Zn-M+3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with M+3 = Fe, Cr, or Al were synthesized by the co-precipitation method from the aqueous solution at a constant solution pH. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD analysis, FTIR spectra, BET techniques and simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC). XRD analysis showed that Zn-Fe-CO3 had the greatest lattices parameters. BET surface area of Zn-Fe-CO3 was calculated as 52.24 m2.g-1 and was higher than Zn-Cr-CO3 and Zn-Al-CO3 with 46.70 and 49.99 m2.g-1, respectively. The FTIR spectra clearly confirmed the presence of carbonate anions in the structure of the LDHs. Adsorption experiments for Indigo Carmine (IC), as the main model organic pollutant in this study from aqueous solution onto synthetized samples were carried out in terms of solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Experimental results indicate that the capacity of dye uptake augmented rapidly within the first 15, 40, and 55 minuts for Zn-Fe-CO3, Zn-Cr-CO3 and Zn-Al-CO3 respectively and then stayed practically the same regardless of the concentration. Adsorption kinetics studies revealed that the adsorption process followed pseudo-second order kinetics model instead of a pseudo-first-order model. The adsorption isotherm data follow the Langmuir equation in which parameters are calculated. The maximum Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacities were 94.87, 21.79, and 66.71 mg.g-1, respectively, for Zn-Fe-CO3, Zn-Cr-CO3, and Zn-Al-CO3. The adsorption capacities were slightly influenced by the pH variations from 5 to 10, showing the advantage of using these materials in water treatments in a wide pH range. Finally, the IC removal is proven by the presence of IC functional groups in IR spectra and thermograms. TGA/DSC of Zn-Fe-CO3 obtained after removal of IC indicate that the LDHs stabilizes IC and delays the combustion of adsorbed molecules. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).
Soluble Colloidal Manganese Dioxide: Formation, Characterization and Application in Oxidative Kinetic Study of Ciprofloxacin Gajala Tazwar; Vijay Devra
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (17.675 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.5436.74-83

Abstract

Soluble colloidal manganese dioxide was formed by reduction of potassium permanganate with sodium thiosulphate in neutral aqueous medium at 25 ºC. The obtained nano-sized colloidal manganese dioxide was found to be dark reddish-brown in color and stable for several months. The formation of manganese dioxide was confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and determination of oxidation state of Mn species in manganese dioxide. The effect of different concentration of sodium thiosulphate on the formation of manganese dioxide was also studied. The nano-sized colloid manganese dioxide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The formed soluble colloidal manganese dioxide was used as an oxidant in oxidation of ciprofloxacin in perchloric acid medium at 35 ºC. The reaction was first-order concerning to concentration of manganese dioxide and hydrogen ion but fractional order with ciprofloxacin. The results suggest formation of complex between ciprofloxacin and manganese dioxide. The oxidation products were also identified based on stoichiometric and characterization results. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).
One-pot Synthesis of Carbon-doped TiO2 with Bimetallic Ni-Ag co-catalysts in Photodegradation of Methylene Blue under UV and Visible Irradiation Kurnia Putri; Annisa Annisa; Sadang Husain; Rodiansono Rodiansono
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 1 Year 2020 (April 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (826.07 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.1.4811.35-42

Abstract

Carbon modified-titanium dioxide (@C-TiO2) was prepared by one-pot procedure from TiCl4 and glucose under hydrothermal conditions at 150 ºC for 24 hours. The obtained @C-TiO2 was employed as support for Ni-Ag(3.0)@C-TiO2 nanocomposite (3.0 is the Ni/Ag molar ratio). The synthesized catalysts were characterized by means of XRD and UV-Vis DRS Spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of @TiO2 show the brookite as the main phase, meanwhile the main phase in the @C-TiO2, Ni-Ag(3.0)@TiO2 and Ni-Ag(3.0)@C-TiO2 nanocomposites were anatase. The band gap of the TiO2 sample slightly shifted to the visible range after the addition of C dopant or Ni-Ag(3.0) co-catalyst as indicated by UV-Vis DRS spectra. Ni-Ag(3.0)@C-TiO2 catalyst showed high photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of MB under both UV and visible irradiations at 60 ºC within 2 hours with maximum MB conversion of 67.5% and 54.1%, respectively. The synergistic action of C dopant or Ni-Ag(3.0) co-catalyst is believed to be important in the improvement of photocatalytic activity of @TiO2. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 

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