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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
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Articles 26 Documents
Search results for , issue "2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)" : 26 Documents clear
Synergistic Effect of Microwave Calcination and Sonophotocatalytic Activity of TiO2-Montmorillonite on The Degradation of Direct Yellow 106 and Disperse Violet 1 Issma Labib; Hocine Boutoumi; Hussein Khalaf
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.6999.304-318

Abstract

The TiO2-pillared montmorillonite nanoparticles (TiO2-Mt) were prepared by the sol-gel method, then applied for the elimination of dyes in solution: CI Direct Yellow 106 (DY106) (azo dye) and CI Disperse Violet 1 (DV1) (anthraquinone dye) by the sonocatalytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic processes, in order to test the efficiency of photocatalysts, while photolysis, sonolysis, and sonophotolysis tests have been done previously. The photocatalysts (TiO2-Mt) were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods, thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA) and the zero load point (pHpzc). Aqueous solutions of dye of an initial concentration (50 mg/L), in the presence of 1 g/L of photocatalyst, were irradiated using a mercury lamp (Hg) of 40 Mw/cm2 and put in contact with an ultrasonic probe with a frequency of 20 kHz and a power of 750 W, providing the ultrasound. The results obtained indicate that a weak, good and better dye degradation rate has been observed successively by the application of the sonocatalytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic processes, where the latter has shown a synergistic effect, while the photocatalyst TiO2-Mt/MW showed significant efficiency during the degradation, due to the beneficial effect of the microwave calcination mode. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
A Novel Green Synthesis Method of Poly (3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane) Catalyzed by Treated Bentonite Nadia Embarek; Nabahat Sahli
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.6568.290-303

Abstract

The present work focuses on the preparation and characterization of poly(3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane) (PGPTMS) under mild conditions. Ring-opening polymerization of the 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is initiated with the bentonite of Maghnite-H+ (Mag-H+), an ecologic and low-cost catalyst. The evolution of epoxy ring-opening was studied in bulk and in solution using CH2Cl2 as solvent, as well as the influences of several factors such as the amount of Mag-H+, polymerization time and temperature on the yield of polymer were investigated. The best polymer yield (30 %) was obtained in bulk polymerization at room temperature (20 °C) for a reaction time 8 h, and it’s increases with time and reaches 68 % for 7 days. The structures of the obtained polymers (PGPTMS) were confirmed respectively by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal properties of the prepared polymers were given by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the Tg of PGPTMS is recorded at -31.27 °C, and it is thermally stable with a degradation start temperature greater than 300 °C, all  decomposition stopped at 600 °C. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
UV Irradiation and Ozone Treatment of κ-Carrageenan: Kinetics and Products Characteristics Aji Prasetyaningrum; Widayat Widayat; Bakti Jos; Yudhy Dharmawan; Ratnawati Ratnawati
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.7047.319-330

Abstract

The low molecular weight (LMW) of sulfated polysaccharides including k-carrageenan, is shows a wide spectrum of biological activities. This research investigates the influence of UV irradiation, ozone (O3), and the combination of O3/UV methods on the depolymerization of k-carrageenan. The depolymerization kinetics of k-carrageenan using the Advanced Oxidation Process (UV/O3) was also studied. Furthermore, the intrinsic viscosity method was used to determine the average molecular weight of the research sample, and a mathematical model was developed to predict the kinetic rate constant, as a function of ozone dosage and UV irradiation intensity. Therefore, the physicochemical and morphological properties of the degraded k-carrageenan were analyzed by FT-IR, SEM, and XRD. The intrinsic viscosity k-carrageenan decreases with increasing UV light intensity and ozone concentration. The combination of UV/O3 treatment appeared to be more effective than the individual approaches, as the highest kinetic rate constant for depolymerization was 1.924×10-4 min-1, using 125 mg/L ozone concentration and 40 mW/cm2 of UV lamp intensity. This research also evaluated the relationship between various experimental conditions, including UV lamp power dissipation and ozone concentration on the reaction kinetics model, and the results suggest that lower effect is contributed by UV irradiation intensity. In addition, FT-IR spectra showed the absence of any significant change in the functional properties of k-carrageenan treated with UV and O3 processes, although the morphological properties of the LMW k-carrageenan were rougher and more porous than the native k-carrageenan. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Totally-green Fuels via CO2 Hydrogenation Lorenzo Spadaro; Alessandra Palella; Francesco Arena
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.7168.390-404

Abstract

Hydrogen is the cleanest energy vector among any fuels, nevertheless, many aspects related to its distribution and storage still raise serious questions concerning costs, infrastructure and safety. On this account, the chemical storage of renewable-hydrogen by conversion into green-fuels, such as: methanol, via CO2 hydrogenation assumes a role of primary importance, also in the light of a cost-to-benefit analysis. Therefore, this paper investigates the effects of chemical composition on the structural properties, surface reactivity and catalytic pathway of ternary CuO-ZnO-CeO2 systems, shedding light on the structure-activity relationships. Thus, a series of CuZnCeO2 catalysts, at different CuO/CeO2 ratio (i.e. 0.2-1.2) were performed in the CO2 hydrogenation reactions at 20 bar and 200-300 °C, (GHSV of 4800 STP L∙kg∙cat-1∙h-1). Catalysts were characterized by several techniques including X-ray Diffraction (XRD), N2-physisorption, single-pulse N2O titrations, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Temperature-programmed Reduction with H2 (H2-TPR). Depending on preparation method, the results clearly diagnostics the occurrence of synergistic structural-electronic effects of cerium oxide on copper activity, with an optimal 0.5 copper-to-cerium content. The rise of CuO loading up to 30% drives to a considerable increase of hydrogenation activity: C2Z1-C catalyst obtains the best catalytic performance, reaching methanol yield value of 12% at 300 °C. Catalyst activity proceeds according to volcano-shaped relationships, in agreement with a dual sites mechanism. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).  
Enhanced Long-term Stability and Carbon Resistance of Ni/MnxOy-Al2O3 Catalyst in Near-equilibrium CO2 Reforming of Methane for Syngas Production Baya Djebarri; Fouzia Touahra; Nadia Aider; Ferroudja Bali; Moussa Sehailia; Redouane Chebout; Khaldoun Bachari; Djamila Halliche
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.6983.331-347

Abstract

Herein we study the catalytic activity/stability of a new generation of cheap and readily available Ni and Al-based catalysts using two Mn precursors, namely Mn(NO3)2 and Mn(EDTA)2- complex in the reaction of CO2 reforming of methane. In this respect, Ni/Al2O3 and two types of Ni/MnxOy-Al2O3 catalysts were successfully synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques: TGA, ICP, XRD, BET, FTIR, TPR-H2, SEM-EDX, TEM, XPS and TPO-O2. Utilization of Mn(EDTA)2- as synthetic precursor successfully furnished Ni/Al2O3-MnxOyY (Y = EDTA) catalyst which was more active during CO2 reforming of methane when compared to Ni/MnxOy-Al2O3 catalyst, synthesized using Mn(NO3)2 precursor. Compared to Ni/MnxOy-Al2O3, Ni/Al2O3-MnxOyY catalyst afforded near-equilibrium conversion values at 700 °C (ca. 95% conversion for CH4 and CO2, and H2/CO = 0.99 over 50 h reaction time). Also, Ni/Al2O3-MnxOyY showed more resistance to carbon formation and sintering; interestingly, after 50 h reaction time, the size of Ni0 particles in Ni/MnxOy-Al2O3 almost doubled while that of Ni/Al2O3-MnxOyY remained unchanged. The elevated conversion of CO2 and CH4 in conjunction with the observed low carbon deposition on the surface of our best catalyst (Ni/Al2O3-MnxOyY) indicated the presence of MnxOy oxide positioning mediated simultaneous in-situ carbon elimination with subsequent generation of oxygen vacant sites on the surface for more CO2 adsorption. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).Corrigendum to this article is here: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.15.3.9855.907-907 
Correction to: Studies on H2-Assisted Liquefied Petroleum Gas Reduction of NO over Ag/Al2O3 Catalyst Pratichi Singh; Deepak Yadav; Pooja Thakur; Jitendra Pandey; Ram Prasad
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.7659.603-603

Abstract

Correction to: Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (2018), 13 (2): 227-235 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.2.1307.227-235)An error appeared in Corresponding Author in a paper entitled “Studies on H2-Assisted Liquefied Petroleum Gas Reduction of NO over Ag/Al2O3 Catalyst” published in Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis. The Corresponding Author is corrected to be:* Corresponding Authors. Tel: +919415268192. Email: rprasad.che@itbhu.ac.in (R. Prasad) Tel: +917505072607. Email: dyadav.rs.che13@iitbhu.ac.in (D. Yadav)——————The original article can be found online at: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.13.2.1307.227-235——————Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).How to Cite: Singh, P., Yadav, D., Thakur, P., Pandey, J., Prasad, R. (2020). Correction to: Studies on H2-Assisted Liquefied Petroleum Gas Reduction of NO over Ag/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 15 (2): 603-603 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.15.2.7659.603-603)Permalink/DOI: https://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.15.2.7659.603-603
One-Pot Access to Diverse Functionalized Pyran Annulated Heterocyclic Systems Using SCMNPs@BPy-SO3H as a Novel Magnetic Nanocatalyst Ke Chen; Guangzu He; Qiong Tang; Qahtan A. Yousif
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.6693.348-366

Abstract

The SCMNPs@BPy-SO3H catalyst was prepared and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Afterwards, its capability was efficiently used to promote the one-pot, three-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole and 2-amino-3-cyano-pyrano[3,2-c]chromen-5(4H)-one derivatives. The strategy resulted in the desired products with excellent yields and short reaction times. The SCMNPs@BPy-SO3H catalyst was readily recovered using a permanent magnetic field and it was reused in six runs with a slight decrease in catalytic activity. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).
Synthesis of 1-butoxy-4-tert-butylbenzene under The Effect of Multi-site Phase Transfer Catalysis System – A Kinetic Study Manickam Sathiyaraj; Perumal Venkatesh
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.7519.405-414

Abstract

Phase transfer catalysis technique proved to be a useful method for synthesizing various organic compounds under heterogeneous reactions and recognized as a viable environmentally friendly. The influence of a new multi site phase transfer catalyst (MPTC) is the synthesis of 1-butoxy-4-tertbutylbenzene from 4-tert-butylphenol with 1-bromobutane (BB) under heterogeneous solid-liquid condition using potassium hydroxide as a base at 60 °C. The higher conversion of 1-bromobutane was achieved by using the synergistic condition of multi-site phase transfer catalyst in better efficacy. The reaction rate enhanced by decreases the volume of water. The apparent the reaction rate was found to be pseudo-first order kinetics. The apparent rate constant was increased linearly with the increase in the concentration of various parameters, such as: MPTC, temperature, potassium hydroxide, and stirring speed. The activation energy (Ea) was also calculated through the Arrhenius plot. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Mesoporous Ce-doped Ti:Ash Photocatalyst Investigation in Visible Light Photocatalytic Water Pretreatment Process Abdulkarim Abdulrahman Mohamed Suliman; Ruzinah Isha; Mazrul Nizam Abu Seman; Abdul Latif Ahmad; Jamil Roslan
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.7055.367-378

Abstract

The treatment of organic pollutants in water including semiconductor photocatalysis is a promising approach to disinfect water. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Ce loaded on mesoporous Ti:Ash catalyst for water pretreatment process. The mesoporous Ti:Ash catalyst that doped with Ce was synthesized through wet impregnation method with 5%, 10%, and 15% weight percentage of Ce doped on 40:60 Ti:Ash. The photocatalytic properties were characterized through X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption studies and diffuse reflectance UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. It is found that the Ti:Ash nanocomposites doped with Ce shifted the light absorption band-edge position to the visible region. Moreover, the Ce doped Ti:Ash has large surface area and pore diameter. The Ce doping could significantly improve the absorption edge of visible light and adjust the cut-off absorption wavelength from 404 nm to 451, 477 and 496 nm for 5%, 10% and 15% Ce-doped mesoporous Ti:Ash catalysts, respectively. As the Ce doping ratio increased, the band gaps decreased from 3.06 eV to 2.53 eV. The most contaminant reduction up to 45% was achieved when Ti:Ash:Ce 40:55:5 was used. Higher Ce loading on the photocatalyst may reduce the photocatalyst performance because supernumerary metal loading on TiO2 can block TiO2 defect sites which are necessary for the adsorption and photoactivation. The OPFA also acts as an adsorbent for some pollutants besides, reducing the water salinity. It can be deduced that the hybrid TiO2 photocatalyst that synthesized with OPFA and doped with Ce has huge potential to treat seawater prior to commercial seawater desalination process. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Immobilised Chlorella vulgaris as An Alternative for The Enhancement of Microalgae Oil and Biodiesel Production Nur Hanani Rushan; Nur Hidayah Mat Yasin; Farhan Mohd Said; Nagaarasan Ramesh
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 2 Year 2020 (August 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.2.6905.379-389

Abstract

Microalgae are a promising alternative for biodiesel production and a valuable source of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). In this research, Chlorella vulgaris has been chosen as the suitable microalgae because this species was able to produce highest oils for biodiesel processing. Previously, sodium alginate (SA) was used to entrap the microalgae in the culturing process due to its low toxicity and high transparency. However, SA have some disadvantages such as bead disruption which leading to the loss of microalgae cell. Therefore, this research has been conducted to evaluate the oil production of immobilised Chlorella vulgaris using different matric systems at different ratios which are 0.3:1, 1:1 and 2:1. Currently, six matric systems have been developed, they are SA as a control, a combination of SA and chitosan (SA+CT), SA and carrageenan (SA+CR), SA and gelatin (SA+GT), SA and calcium alginate (SA+CA), and SA and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SA+CMC). The microalgae was first cultivated, harvested and extracted to produce oil, prior to use in the transesterification process. The SA+GT showed the highest oil yield with 59.14% and a total FAME of 0.56 mg/g. The FAME profile of oil extracted microalgae showed high potential for biodiesel production as it consisted of palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). The results proved that the combination of SA+GT had improved the oil yield and fatty acid composition as compared to the other matric systems, which may have useful application for the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2020 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 

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