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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
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Articles 27 Documents
Search results for , issue "2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)" : 27 Documents clear
Flow Process Development and Optimization of A Suzuki-Miyaura Cross Coupling Reaction using Response Surface Methodology Girish Basavaraju; Ravishankar Rajanna
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8229.604-616

Abstract

A custom-made tubular flow reactor was utilized to develop a mathematical model and optimize the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction. In this study, the experimentation was designed and executed through the statistical design of experiments (DoE) approach via response surface methodology. The effect of molar ratios of phenylboronic acid (1) and 4-bromophenol (2), temperature, the catalyst tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium, and equivalence of aqueous tripotassium phosphate was studied in detail. The flow reactor profile was in good agreement with batch conditions and significant improvements to the overall reaction time and selectivity towards desired [1-1-biphenyl]-4-ol (3) was achieved. The Suzuki coupling reaction in batch condition would take on an average of 4 to 6 hours to complete, which was effectively accomplished in 60 to 70 minutes in this tubular reactor setup and could be operated continuously. The reaction model is in good agreement with the reaction conditions. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).
NZF Nanoscale Particles: Synthesis, Characterization and its Effective Adsorption of Bromophenol Blue Benhadria Naceur; Elaziouti Abdelkader; Laouedj Nadjia; Sari Esmahene
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8558.726-742

Abstract

The ferrospinels NixZn1_xFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 0.6) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by a sol-gel method and analyzed by TGA/DTA, XRD, SEM-EDS, UV-Vis-DRS, and pHIEP. The adsorption potential of NZF NPs towards the Bromophenol blue (BPB) dye was investigated. The batch adsorption efficiency parameters were studied including contact time, pH, initial dye concentrations and catalyst dosage. Results indicated that NZF crystallized in single-phase and exhibited smaller crystallite size (49 nm vs. 59.24 nm) than that of the pristine (ZF). The SEM analysis showed that the materials are elongated-like shape. NZF catalyst showed a red-shift of absorption bands and a more narrowed band gap (2.30 eV vs. 1.65 eV) as compared to ZF. The adsorption process was found to be highly dependent to the pH of the solution, dye concentration and adsorbent dose. Under optimum conditions of 5 mg.L–1 BPB, 0.5 g.L–1 NZF catalyst, pH = 6, and 25 °C, up to ≈ 86.30%  removal efficiency could be achieved after 60 min. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave the best fit with highest correlation coefficients (R2 ≥ 0.99). A high specific surface area, a stabilized dispersion state of NZF NPs and the electrostatic interaction between the BPB-2 anions and the NZF-H3O+active sites on NZF surface were believed to be the main factors that can be responsible for the high adsorption efficiency. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).  
Clean 3,4-Dihydropyrimidones Synthesis via Biginelli Reaction over Supported Molybdenum: Structural and Textural Characteristic of αMoO3 Ouzna Kheffache; Cristina Lopez-Olmos; Inmaculada Rodriguez-Ramos; Ouiza Cherifi
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8264.698-713

Abstract

A one-pot three-component synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) via Biginelli reaction was carried out at 100 °C using benzaldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate and urea as reactants, in the presence of ethanol and free solvent, in heterogeneous catalytic medium. The Mo (30 wt%) metal oxides (Al2O3, SiO2 or MgO) used catalysts were prepared by sol-gel, impregnation and microemulsion methods and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Nitrogen Adsorption - Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and NH3-Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) methods. The Mo-SiO2 sample prepared by the sol-gel method exhibited the highest DHPM yield (87%), in free solvent with a reaction time of 30 min. The high efficiency, in the Biginelli reaction, of the Mo-SiO2 catalyst is due to its structural, textural and acid properties. Highly dispersed αMoO3 species of orthorhombic structure having a high contribution of strong acidic sites would be the active species in the Biginelli synthesis. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Effect of FSP-inserted Cu on Physicochemical Properties of Cu/Al2O3 Catalyst Charuwan Poosri; Choowong Chaisuk; Wantana Klysubun
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8193.641-652

Abstract

The copper inserted on Cu/Al2O3 catalysts with various Cu loading (10-40 wt%) were synthesized via flame spray pyrolysis (FSP). These catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). The XRD results confirmed the formation of copper aluminate spinel (CuAl2O4) on the FSP-inserted Cu catalyst. The CuO crystallite size of the Cu/Al2O3 catalysts was increased with increasing Cu loading during the flame spray pyrolysis step. The incorporation of copper and aluminum precursors during the flame spray pyrolysis step can inhibit the growth of Al2O3 particles resulting in higher BET surface area and smaller particle size than pure Al2O3 support. The data from TPR and XANES results can predict the ratio of CuO and CuAl2O4 in the FSP-made support. Less than 20 wt% loading of the FSP-inserted Cu showed high concentration of CuAl2O4 phase in the FSP-made material. The composition of CuO and CuAl2O4 phase can be controlled by varying Cu loading in flame spray pyrolysis step. This is a promising alternative way to synthesize the desired catalyst. An example was the catalytic testing of the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol. The presence of both CuO and CuAl2O4 phases in the Cu/Al2O3 catalyst enhanced the catalytic activity and promoted the selectivity to acetol product. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Production of Acetaldehyde via Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethanol over AgLi/SiO2 Catalysts Narawich Mukda; Chaowat Autthanit; Piyasan Praserthdam; Bunjerd Jongsomjit
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8702.714-725

Abstract

Three AgLi/SiO2 catalysts containing different types of silica supports [small particle size (SPS), medium particle size (MPS) and large particle size (LPS)] were prepared by incipient wetness co-impregnation techniques and tested in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol into acetaldehyde. The catalysts were characterized and evaluated by various characterization techniques (e.g. XRD, N2 physisorption, SEM-EDX, UV-Visible spectroscopy, H2-TPR, and CO2-TPD). This study reveals that the catalyst with the best performance is AgLi/SiO2-LPS with a yield in acetaldehyde of 76.8% at 300 °C. The results obtained with the tested catalysts are discussed, and the reasons of performance improvement caused by the presence of the dispersion of active components, the interaction between active components and silica supports, the textural properties of catalysts and reducibility, are raised. Besides, the cooperation of redox properties (Agnδ+  cluster and Ag0) and weak basic density played a pivotal role in promoting the formation of acetaldehyde from ethanol oxidative dehydrogenation. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Studies on Epoxidation of Tung oil with Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Sulfuric Acid Eni Budiyati; Rochmadi Rochmadi; Arief Budiman; Budhijanto Budhijanto
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8243.674-686

Abstract

Tung oil with an iodine value (IV) of 99.63 g I2/100 g was epoxidized in-situ with glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in the presence sulfuric acid as catalyst. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of mole ratio of H2O2 to unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), reaction time and catalyst concentration in Tung oil epoxidation. The reaction kinetics were also studied. Epoxidation was carried out for 4 h. The reaction rates and side reactions were evaluated based on the IV and the conversion of the epoxidized Tung oil to oxirane. Catalytic reactions resulted in higher reaction rate than did non-catalytic reactions. Increasing the catalyst concentration resulted in a large decrease in the IV and an increase in the conversion to oxirane at the initial reaction stage. However, higher catalyst concentration in the epoxidation reaction caused to a decrease in reaction selectivity. The mole ratio of H2O2 to UFA had an influence identical to the catalyst concentration. The recommended optimum mole ratio and catalyst concentration in this study were 1.6 and 1.5%, respectively. The highest conversion was 48.94% for a mole ratio of 1.6. The proposed kinetic model provided good results and was suitable for all variations in reaction temperature. The activation energy (Ea) values were around 5.7663 to 76.2442 kcal/mol. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
An Efficient Method for The Synthesis of Dihydropyridine by Hantzsch Reaction with Fe/SiO2 Nano Heterogeneous Catalysts Ateeq Rahman; P. N. Nehemia; Moola M. Nyambe
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.7669.617-630

Abstract

An efficient method for the synthesis of dihydropyridines (DHPs) by Hantzsch reaction with Fe/SiO2 heterogeneous catalysts was developed. The Fe/SiO2 catalysts was prepared by impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by IR and SEM instruments. The SEM results indicated that Fe/SiO2 nano spheres were formed. The reaction procedure involved reaction of aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate (EAA), ammonium acetate (NH4OAc) and ethanol under reflux. The study was focused on optimizing reactions conditions: Standardization of catalyst, substrate of study and solvent study. In order to identify the best active catalysts, five different ratios of catalyst were synthesized and evaluated for the title reaction under similar conditions. To standardize the active catalysts, different temperature conditions (i.e. room temperature, 60 ºC and 80 ºC) as well as catalysts amounts were evaluated. Under these established conditions, 2.5% Fe/SiO2 was the best active catalysts that resulted. Benzaldehyde and p-anisaldehyde were used to study the effect of having various substrates on the conversion and reaction time, especially the substituted aldehydes. The best results were obtained by reacting p-anisaldehyde with EAA, NH4OAc and ethanol at 60 ºC with 0.3 grams of 2.5% Fe/SiO2 heterogeneous catalysts. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) monitoring of the reaction mixture showed no selectivity at high temperatures (80 ºC) with 15% Fe/SiO2. Standardization of solvent study was executed with two solvents, ethanol and acetonitrile. The product dihydropyridines were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The melting points of the products were compared with authentic samples reported in the literature. Hence, the Fe/SiO2 catalysts is eco-friendly and economically developed for the title reaction. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).
Copper Ferrite Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Cross-coupling Reaction to Form Diindolylmethane (DIM): Effect of Experimental Parameters Oanh T.K. Nguyen; Ha Trong Pha; Huynh Dang Khoa; Duy Chinh Nguyen; Nguyen Thi Hong Tam
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8228.631-640

Abstract

Superparamagnetic copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles were utilized as a heterogenous catalyst for the cross-coupling reaction of indole to form 3,3’-diindolylmethane (DIM) as the desirable product. High reaction yield, at around 82%, was achieved under optimal conditions. The CuFe2O4 material could be easily separated from the reaction mixture by an external magnetic field and could be reutilized several times without a significant decrease in catalytic activity. We also showed that no sites of catalyst material leached into reaction solution was detected. To our best knowledge, the above cross-coupling reaction was not previously conducted under catalysis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).
Synthesis of Ziegler-Natta Catalyst using Malaysian Ilmenite Derived TiCl4 via Recrystallization Method: A Statistical Approach Sanjith Udayakumar; Najwa Ibrahim; Chan Yong Chien; Shaikh Abdul Rahman Shaik Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor; Sivakumar Ramakrishnan
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8195.687-697

Abstract

In the current study, Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalyst was synthesized via recrystallization method using MgCl2 as a support, AlCl3 as an activator and TiCl4 as a transition metal source. The TiCl4 used in the study was derived from Malaysian ilmenite through a sequential pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical process of ilmenite concentrate conversion to TiCl4. The recrystallization method of synthesis of the heterogeneous Z-N catalyst was studied by varying the synthesis parameters, such as the combined amount of MgCl2 and AlCl3, temperature, and amount of TiCl4, using statistical design of experiments. The investigation aimed at determining the best conditions for synthesizing the heterogeneous Z-N catalyst. The synthesis conditions posed a significant influence on the Ti content present in the catalyst product. The morphological and elemental analysis of SEM-EDX showed good spherical nature of the prepared catalysts. The XRD phase analysis detected the peaks of MgCl2, MgCl2-Ethanol, MgCl2/TiClx, and TiO2. The IR spectra confirmed the presence of the Mg-Cl bond at 1635 cm−1 and Ti-Cl bonds at 602 cm-1 and 498 cm-1. The produced catalyst contained a small amount of TiO2, which could be due to the seepage of moisture during the analysis or storage of the sample. The most favourable combination of the studied parameters was determined based on the Ti content in the catalyst product. Therefore, the best conditions for synthesizing the heterogeneous Z-N catalyst with high Ti content (181.1 mg/L) was at a combined amount of 2 g of MgCl2 for 6 g of AlCl3, crystallization temperature of 80 °C, and 2 mL dosage of TiCl4. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Unique Adsorption Properties of Malachite Green on Interlayer Space of Cu-Al and Cu-Al-SiW12O40 Layered Double Hydroxides Neza Rahayu Palapa; Novie Juleanti; Normah Normah; Tarmizi Taher; Aldes Lesbani
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2020: BCREC Volume 15 Issue 3 Year 2020 (December 2020)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.15.3.8371.653-661

Abstract

Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was intercalated with Keggin ion of polyoxometalate           K4[a-SiW12O40] to form Cu-Al-SiW12O40 LDH. The obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunaur-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. Furthermore, the materials were used as adsorbents of malachite green from aqueous solution. Some variables for adsorption, such as: effect of adsorption times, malachite green concentration, and also adsorption temperature, were explored. The results showed that diffraction at 11.72° on Cu-Al LDH has interlayer distance of 7.56 Å. The intercalation of that LDH with [a-SiW12O40]4− ion resulted increasing interlayer distance to 12.10 Å. The surface area of material was also increased after intercalation from 46.2 m2/g to 89.02 m2/g. The adsorption of malachite green on Cu-Al and          Cu-Al-SiW12O40 LDHs followed pseudo second order kinetic and isotherm Langmuir model with adsorption capacity of Cu-Al and Cu-Al-SiW12O40 LDHs was 55.866 mg/g and 149.253 mg/g, respectively. That adsorption capacity is equal with increasing interlayer space and surface area properties of material after intercalation. Thus, the adsorption of malachite green on Cu-Al and Cu-Al-SiW12O40 LDHs is unique and dominantly occurred on interlayer space of LDH as active site adsorption. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0).

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