cover
Contact Name
-
Contact Email
-
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
-
Editorial Address
-
Location
Kota semarang,
Jawa tengah
INDONESIA
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Published by Universitas Diponegoro
ISSN : -     EISSN : 19782993     DOI : -
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis (e-ISSN: 1978-2993), an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to the catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics studies, and chemical reaction engineering.
Arjuna Subject : -
Articles 21 Documents
Search results for , issue "2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)" : 21 Documents clear
DFT Study on the Reaction Mechanism of Cyclization of 2-Hydroxy Chalcone Catalyzed by Bronsted Acid with M06-2X Functional Suci Zulaikha Hildayani; Muhamad Abdulkadir Martoprawiro; Yana Maolana Syah
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11487.796-803

Abstract

Flavanones are one of the flavonoid group that has wide variety of applications such as a precursors in drug discovery. In the laboratory, flavanone is often synthesized from chalcone compounds. The conversion of chalcone to flavanone can be catalyzed by bronsted acid. The reaction mechanism for this process is proposed through the Michael addition reaction, however, the energetic details and the rate determining step for this reaction is not certainly known. This research aimed to investigate the reaction mechanism for chalcone-flavanone conversion with the present of bronsted acid as catalyst and also studied the effect of the solvent on the reaction energy profile with computational method. In this study, the modeling of the reaction mechanism for the said reaction was carried out using the DFT computational method with M06-2X functional. The computation was done both in the gas phase and in present of the solvent effect using the PCM models. The results showed that the mechanism of chalcone-flavanone conversion occurred in three steps which are protonation, cyclization, and then tautomerization. Based on these calculations, the rate determining step was the tautomerization reaction, which exhibited the same results with or without the solvent effects. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Comparison of Ex-Situ and In-Situ Transesterification for the Production of Microbial Biodiesel Alia Tasnim Hazmi; Farah B. Ahmad; Ahdyat Zain Athoillah; Ahmad Tariq Jameel
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11044.733-743

Abstract

Microbial biodiesel is converted from microbial lipids via transesterification process. Most microbial biodiesel studies are focusing on the use of microalgal lipids as feedstock. Apart from using microalgae for lipid biosynthesis, lipids can also be extracted from other oleaginous microorganisms like fungi and yeast. However, there are gaps in the studies of lipid production from filamentous fungi, especially in-situ transesterification process. The aim of this project is to compare in-situ with the ex-situ transesterification of fungal biomass from Aspergillus oryzae. In ex-situ transesterification, two methods of lipid extraction, the Soxhlet extraction and the Bligh and Dyer extraction, were performed. For in-situ transesterification, two methods using different catalysts were investigated. Base-catalyzed in-situ transesterification of fungal biomass resulted on the highest Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) yield. The base-catalyzed in-situ transesterification was further optimized via Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The parameters investigated were the catalyst loading, methanol to biomass ratio and reaction time. The optimization showed that the highest FAME yield was at 25.1% (w/w) with 10 minutes reaction time, 5% catalyst and 360:1 of the ratio of the methanol to biomass. Based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), the model was found to be significant according to the value of “Prob >F” of 0.0028. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Kinetic Study of SN2 Reaction between Paranitrophenyl Benzoate and Hydrazine in the Presence of CTAB Reverse Micelles K. Bhargavi; P. Shyamala; M. Padma; K. V. Nagalakshmi
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11036.744-751

Abstract

Kinetic study of the reaction between p-Nitrophenyl benzoate (PNPB) by hydrazine (HYN) in the presence of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/Chloroform/Hexane reverse micellar medium shows that the reaction obeys first order kinetics with respect to each of the reactants. The rate of the reaction is much slower in reverse micellar medium compared to aqueous medium under identical conditions (kˈAq = 2.84×10−3 sec−1, krm =1.34×10−4 sec−1). The rate constants for the reaction in the reverse micellar medium have been determined at different values of W {W=[H2O]/[CTAB]} and at different concentrations of CTAB. It was found that the observed rate constant decreases with W. This kinetic behaviour was interpreted by using modified Berezin pseudo phase model, taking into consideration the distribution of the reactants, PNPB and hydrazine between the three pseudo phases, i.e., water pool, interface an organic phase. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Degradation of Ciprofloxacin by Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanoparticles: Optimization of Conditions, Toxicity, and Degradation Pathway Mohammad Rofik Usman; Azmi Prasasti; Sovia Islamiah; Alfian Nur Firdaus; Ayu Wanda Marita; Syamsiyatul Fajriyah; Atiek Rostika Noviyanti; Diana Rakhmawaty Eddy
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11355.752-762

Abstract

The popular use of ciprofloxacin is often irrational, so it causes environmental pollution such as resistance. The solution to overcome environmental pollution due to ciprofloxacin is degradation by using TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles performance is influenced by environment such as light source, pH solvent, duration of lighting and TiO2 nanoparticles mass. The residual levels determination of ciprofloxacin was carried out by using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Toxicity test of ciprofloxacin degradation products with TiO2 nanoparticles used Escherichia coli bacteria. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) was used to determine the type of ciprofloxacin degradation product with TiO2 nanoparticles. The optimum condition for the ciprofloxacin degradation with TiO2 nanoparticles is lighting for 5 hours by using a white mercury UV lamp and 50 mg TiO2 nanoparticles with pH solvent of 5.5. The toxicity of ciprofloxacin degradation product with TiO2 nanoparticles was low. The smallest degradation product identified with m/z was p-fluoraniline (m/z 111). Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
The Utilization of Mg-Al/Cu as Selective Adsorbent for Cationic Synthetic Dyes Arini Fousty Badri; Neza Rahayu Palapa; Risfidian Mohadi; Mardiyanto Mardiyanto; Fitri Suryani Arsyad; Aldes Lesbani
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11043.696-706

Abstract

Mg-Al-LDH is a chemical compound produced through co-precipitation technique and modified with Cu(NO3)2.6H2O to form Mg-Al/Cu. However, the research on the capability of these compounds for adsorbing mixtures of cationic dyes as well as malachite green (MG), methylene blue (MB), and Rodhamine-B (Rh-B) has not been carried out. Therefore, this research aims to determine the performance of Mg-Al-LDH and Mg-Al/Cu for removing cationic dyes. The materials used were characterized by using XRD powder, FT-IR, and N2 adsorption desorption. The Adsorption process was conducted by batch system and several effects were investigated, such as kinetic parameter, isotherm, and the temperature condition. The stability feature of Mg-Al-LDH and Mg-Al/Cu was obtained from the regeneration process in the five cycles. The results presented that Mg-Al/Cu was effectively produced, which was indicated by the formation of layer at 10.792° (003), 22.94° (006), 35.53° (112), 55.78° (110), and  56.59° (116). Mg-Al-LDH and Mg-Al/Cu were found to adsorbed MG than the other cationic dyes with adsorption capacity of 68.996 mg/g and 104.167 mg/g, respectively. The unique properties of Mg-Al/Cu includes, structural stability towards the reuse of adsorbent subsequently for five times, without significant decrease of adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Comparative Study on the Catalytic Performance of a 13X Zeolite and its Dealuminated Derivative for Biodiesel Production Balqees A. Alshahidy; Ammar S. Abbas
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11436.763-772

Abstract

Natural kaolin clay was used to successfully prepare 13X zeolite catalysts, which were modified by dealumination with citric acid. Acid leaching eliminates impurities and aluminum, and improves the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite framework. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of both the original and modified 13X zeolites were the same, indicating that the crystalline frameworks were not destroyed during the dealumination process. X-ray fluorescence data of the dealuminated 13X zeolite showed an improved Si/Al ratio. Also, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used for the characterization of the catalysts. The catalytic performance of the original and modified catalysts was tested in the esterification reaction of oleic acid in a batch reactor. A higher conversion of oleic acid was obtained using the modified 13X zeolite. The resulting experimental data from the esterification reactions were fitted to the heterogeneous Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) kinetic model to determine the rates of reaction. The results of the reaction kinetics showed an increase in the rate of reaction velocity and a distinct decrease in the activation energy when using the modified zeolite, indicating that employing the modified catalyst will give a higher conversion over a shorter time through a reaction with less sensitivity to temperature. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
The Surface Modification of Ag3PO4 using Tetrachloroaurate(III) and Metallic Au for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity Uyi Sulaeman; Richo Dwi Permadi; Alfa Marcorius; Hartiwi Diastuti; Anung Riapanitra; Shu Yin
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.10863.707-715

Abstract

The improvement of Ag3PO4 photocatalytic activity was successful by incorporating tetrachloroaurate(III) (AuCl4−)  and metallic Au on the surface of Ag3PO4. The photocatalysts were synthesized using the coprecipitation and chemisorption method. Coprecipitation of Ag3PO4 was carried out under ethanol-water solution using the starting material of AgNO3 and Na2HPO4.12H2O. AuCl4− ion and metallic Au were incorporated on the surface of Ag3PO4 using a chemisorption method under auric acid solution. The photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, DRS, SEM, and XPS. The AuCl4− ion and metallic Au were simultaneously incorporated on the Ag3PO4 surface. The high photocatalytic activity might be caused by increasing the separation of hole and electron due to capturing photogenerated electrons by metallic Au and Au(III) as electron acceptors. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
The Dependency of Kinetic Parameters as a Function of Initial Solute Concentration: New Insight from Adsorption of Dye and Heavy Metals onto Humic-Like Modified Adsorbents Rahmat Basuki; Bambang Rusdiarso; Sri Juari Santosa; Dwi Siswanta
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11816.773-795

Abstract

Kinetics parameters are the essential issue in the design of water treatment systems for pollutants uptake. Though numerous studies have identified the boundary conditions that exert influence on the kinetics parameters, the influence of the dynamic initial solute concentration (C0) to the kinetic parameters generated from fitting kinetics model to experimental data has not been investigated thoroughly. This study revealed a change in the kinetics parameter value due to changes in the adsorption mechanism as an effect of dynamic C0. It was observed that at higher C0 the adsorbed solute at equilibrium (qe) increases and it takes longer time to reach equilibrium. As a result, the kinetics rate constant (k) calculated from adsorption reaction model (Lagergren, Ho, Santosa, and RBS) was decreased. In general, Ho model exhibit higher correlation coefficient value (R2) among the other model at low C0. At high C0, Ho’s R2 tend to decrease while the Lagergren and RBS’s R2 was increased. The amendment mechanism from external mass transport to intra-particle diffusion as a rate limiting step was evidenced by Boyd and Weber-Morris kinetics model. Further, the physicochemical properties of the adsorbent used in this work: chitin and Fe3O4 modified horse dung humic acid (HDHA-Fe3O4 and HDHA-Ch, respectively) with the solute: Pb(II), Methylene Blue (MB), and Ni(II) was deeply discussed in this paper. The outcomes of this work are of prime significance for effective and optimum design for pollutant uptake by adsorption equipment. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
A Novel Synthetic Nano-Catalyst (Ag2O3/Zeolite) for High Quality of Light Naphtha by Batch Oxidative Desulfurization Reactor Amer Talal Nawaf; Shymaa Ali Hameed; Layth T. Abdulateef; Aysar Talib Jarullah; Mohammed S. Kadhim; Iqbal M. Mujtaba
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11383.716-732

Abstract

Oxidative desulfurization process (ODS), enhanced with a novel metal oxide (Ag ions) as an active component over nano-zeolite that has not been reported in the literature, is used here to improve the fuel quality by removing mercaptan (as a model sulfur compound in the light naphtha). Nano-crystalline (nano-support (Nano-zeolite)) composite is prepared by Incipient Wetness Impregnation method loaded with a metal salt to obtain 0.5, 1 and 1.5% of Ag2O3 over Nano-zeolite. The new homemade nano-catalysts (Ag2O3/Nano-zeolite) prepared are characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) (surface area, pore volume and pore size), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. The ODS process is then used to evaluate the performance of the catalysts for the removal of sulfur at different reaction temperatures (80–140 °C) and reaction times (30–50 min) in a batch reactor using the air as oxidant. 87.4% of sulfur removal has been achieved using 1% silver oxide loaded on Nano zeolite (1% of Ag2O3/Nano-zeolite) giving a clear indication that our newly designed catalyst is highly efficient catalyst  in the removal of sulfur compound (mercaptan) from naphtha. A new mechanism of chemical reaction for sulfur removal by oxygen using the new homemade catalyst (Ag2O3/Nano-zeolite) prepared has been suggested in this study. The best kinetic model parameters of the relevant reactions are also estimated in this study using pseudo first order technique based on the experimental results. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 
Photocatalytic Degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Remazol Yellow FG using TiO2 doped Cd, Co, Mn Candra Purnawan; Sayekti Wahyuningsih; Oktaviani Nur Aniza; Octaria Priwidya Sari
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2021: BCREC Volume 16 Issue 4 Year 2021 (December 2021)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.16.4.11423.804-815

Abstract

TiO2 and TiO2 doped Cd, Co, Mn (TiO2-M) were synthesized with a sol-gel method, and the photocatalytic activity of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Remazol Yellow FG has been conducted. TiO2-M (Cd, Co, Mn) was synthesized with the mol Ti:M ratio of 3:1, and the materials were calcined at 300, 400, and 500 °C. The materials were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and UV-Vis Reflectance. The XRD result shows that at the temperature of 300 °C TiO2 and TiO2-M formed tend to be amorphous. At 400 °C the anatase phase is formed, while at 500 °C the rutile phase begins to form. And overall, the crystallinity of TiO2 is higher than metal-doped TiO2. The UV-Vis Reflectance result showed that the bandgap energy of all doping materials (TiO2-M) decreased. The larger the metal ion radius of dopant, the larger the crystal size obtained  and then the higher the bandgap obtained. The results of SEM-EDX showed that the morphology of TiO2 was spherical and regular, whereas the morphology of TiO2-M had a smoother surface due to the influence of metal doping. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2-M on Remazol Brilliant Blue R and Remazol Yellow FG was greater than TiO2. The optimum pH of the solution was obtained at pH 5 and the optimum catalyst phase was obtained at the anatase phase. The percentages degradation for 30 min of Remazol Brilliant Blue R were 67.34% (TiO2), 92.12% (TiO2-Co), 85.47% (TiO2-Mn), and 83.91% (TiO2-Cd), while for Remazol Yellow FG they were 58.84% (TiO2), 74.61% (TiO2-Co), 67.93% (TiO2-Mn) and 64.19% (TiO2-Cd), respectively. Copyright © 2021 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0). 

Page 1 of 3 | Total Record : 21