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Al-Jami´ah: Journal of Islamic Studies
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Core Subject : Religion,
Al-Jamiah, a journal of Islamic Studies published by Al-Jami'ah Research Centre of State Islamic University Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta since 1962, can be said as the oldest academic journal dealing with the theme in South East Asia. The subject covers textual and fieldwork studies with various perspectives of law, philosophy, mysticism, history, art, theology, and many more. In the beginning the journal only served as a scholarly forum for the lecturers and professors at the State Institute of Islamic Studies. However, due to the later development with a broader readership, the journal has successfully invited scholars and researchers outside the Institute to contribute. Thus, Indonesian and non-Indonesian scholars have enriched the studies published in the journal. Although not from the beginning Al-Jamiah presents highly qualified scholarly articles, improvement—in terms format, style, and academic quality—never ceases. Now with articles written in Arabic and English and with the fair procedure of peer-review, Al-Jamiah continues publishing researches and studies pertinent to Islamic studies with various dimensions and approaches.
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Search results for , issue "Vol 37, No 64 (1999)" : 9 Documents clear
Metode Penelitiaan Berspektif Jender Tentang Literatur Islam Nasaruddin Umar
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.176-202

Abstract

This article explains about how to conduct research on Islamic literature in the perspective of gender. Gender bias in reading understanding Qur'an and Hadis is due to several reasons. Firstly, the codification of Qur'an in a single way of reading prevents the other version of understanding which has no gender bias. Secondly, the meaning of certain words (mufradād) are often debatable. Thirdly, the reference of pronoun (Domir) is often not certain. Fourthly, the limit of exception (Mustasna) is often debatable. Moreover, the reference world ('Atf) wau has several meanings. Sixthly, the structure of Arabic language is based on Arabic patriarchal culture. Furthermore, the bias also come from Arabic dictionaries which only provide meaning that have gender bias. Eighthly, some methods of exegetes produce the understanding of the text which has gender bias. In addition, the influence of Israeli stories (isrā’ilyyāt) in understanding Qur'anic verses cause also gender bias. Finally, the contributes of Fiqh Books which are influenced by local cultures contributes to this gender bias.
The Rise of Muslim Elite Schools: A New Pattern of “Santrinization” Azyumardi Azra
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.63-78

Abstract

Makalah ini menyoroti gejala baru kemunculan sekolah lslam unggulan baik yang berbentuk madrasah, sekolah umum maupun pesantren sebagai kecenderungan baru "santrinisasi’ masyarakat lndonesia. Di antara sekolah tersebut adalah sekolah Islam Azhar yang dibangun oleh prof. Hamka dan Sekolah Islam Azhar yang merupakan pecahan dari sekotah pertama, SMU Madania yang dikelola oleh para aktivis yayasan paramadina, dan SMU lnsan Gendekia yang dibangun oleh para ilmuwan dari Badan pengembangan dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT). Di samping sekolah umum, sejumlah madrasah juga mengembangkan sekolah unggulan. Di antaranya adalah Madrasah pembangunan tingkat lbtidaiyah Negeri (MIN) I Malang, Jawa Tirnur yang semula merupakan "sekolah pelatihan swasta bagi para siswa Pendidikan Guru Agama ditingkatkan menjadi madrasah unggulan. Kementerian Agama juga akan membangun 57 model Madrasah Tsanawiyah dan 35 model Madrsah Aliyah.di berbagai propinsi di Indonesia. Kemuculan sekolah unggulan ini ikut meningkatkan “santrinisasi” masyarakat Indonesia. Karena mahalnya biaya pendidikan, kebanyakan siswa berasal dari keluarga "kelas menengah.". Mereka akan membawa pengetahuan dan kesadaran keislarnan ke rumah yang pada gilirannya dalam banyak kasus mendorong orang tua murid untuk meningkatkan pengetahuaan dan aktivitas keislaman mereka.
Al-Mushkilāt al-Dalāliyyah Fī Ta’līm al-Lugha al-‘Arabiyah Ahmad Satary Ismail
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.203-244

Abstract

There have been many lndonesia vocabularies coming from Arabic. They have developed morphologically and semantically whose meanings are different from the real meanings in Arabic. For Indonesian teachers, this fact creates difficulties in teaching Arabic, especially in reading comprehension and translations. This article is intended by the writer to explain how to understand Indonesian words absorbed from Arabic by using a contrastive approach, i.e., a linguistic approach aims at explaining the similarities and differences between two or more languages or dialect in phonologic, morphologic and semantic aspects. By using this approach, the writer tries to find a method to make the Arabic teaching and translations easy. By using a contrastive approach, the writer concludes that the semantic problems faced by Indonesian teachers lie in the fact that they should understand Arabic worlds from three aspects of meanings: basic material, morphological structure and context. By understanding the similarities and differences between Indonesian and Arabic vocabularies, the writer categorizes their meanings into three levels: easy, average and difficult. Based on these levels, the Arabic teaching, vocabularies and translations should be approached, in addition to understanding its internal and external context. [Banyak sekali kosa kata dalam bahasa lndonesia yang berasal dari Bahasa arab. Kosa kata bahasa Indonesia yang berasal dari bahasa Arab ini dalam perkembangannya mengalami perkembangan morfo-semantis yang mengakibatkan terjadinya kesenjangan antara kosa kata dalam Bahasa lndonesia dengan bahasa aslinya dalam aspek morfologi dan semantik. Fakta ini pada akhimya mempunyai pengaruh yang besar dalam proses pengajaran Bahasa Arab bagi pengajar Indonesia, terutama dalam pengajaran reading comprehension dan terjemah. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengatasi problematika pengajaran bahasa yang berkaitan dengan semantika kosa kata-kosa kata Bahasa lndonesia yang diserap dari bahasa Arab dengan memanfaatkan pendekatan linguistik yang kontrastif, sebuah pendekatan linguistik yang bertujuan menyingkapkan unsur-unsur kesamaan dan perbedaan antara dua bahasa atau lebih, atau antar berbagai dialek, dalam aspek fonologi, sintaksis, morfologi dan semantiknya dengan tuiuan untuk mendapatkan prinsip-prinsip yang dapat diterapkan untuk memecahkan problem-problem  pengajaran bahasa Arab atau teriemah. Setelah memberikan penjelasan mengenai problem-problem semantik dan macam-magam makna sebalai pengantar, melalui pendekaan kontrastif penulis sampai pada kesimpulan, bahwa problem semantis yang dihadapi oleh pengajar lndonesia terletak pada upaya mengenali makna dari kosa kata-kosa kata Arab dari sisi ketiga pilar makna, yaitu materi dasar, struktur morfologis dan konteks. Dari ketiga sisi ini kosa kata-kosa kata tersebut, ditinjau dari tingkat kesamaan antara kosa kata Bahasa Indonesia dengan bahasa Arab, dapat dibagi meniadi tiga level; mudah, wajar dan sulit. Atas dasar tingkatan inilah pengaiaran bahasa, kosa kata dan teriemah, selayaknya disusun di samping terutama sekali didasarkan pada konteks internal dan eksternal bahasa Arab itu sendiri.
Perdagangan Mekkah dan Kemunculan Islam (Mendiskusikan Tesis Montgomery Watt dan Patricia Crone) Faisal Ismail
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.93-119

Abstract

Montgomery watt and Patricia crone disagree about the important factors contributed to the rise of lslam in Mecea at the beginning of the seventh century. According to watt, it was the Meccan trade that became the main factor contributed to the rise of lslam. The transformation of social life in Arabia from nomadic to mercantile economy resulted in the collapse of social and moral values to which was Muhammad's response. In this case, Watt used a socioeconomic approach in understanding and explaining the rise of lslam. Different from watt, crone argued that the rise of lslam had nothing to do with the Meccan trade. According to crone, it was Muhammad's political mission that contributed to the rise of lslam. Muhammad struggled to promote Arab nationalism or Arab unity in his attempt to counterbalance the Byzantine and sasanid Empires, the two super powers dominated the Middle East at the time. so, crone's approach to the study of the rise of lslam was very political in nature. Despite some weaknesses, watt's theory of the rise of lslam was more generally accepted by Muslim historian than crone’s. In the view of Muslim historians, the socio-economic condition and political background of Arabia were not the main factors to explain the rise of Islam. The rise of lslam was strongly related to the implementation Muhammad's prophetic mission which put emphasis on the unity of God and equity of man.
Islam In Indonesia (The Politics of Recycling and the Collapse of a Paradigm) M. Atho Mudzhar
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.1-23

Abstract

Makalah ini menyoroti perkembangan politik lslam di Indonesia akhir-akhir ini. Untuk itu, penulis menguraikan,asal mula masuknya Islam ke Indonesia menurut berbagai versi. Selain itu, doktrin teologi Sunni dan struktur social di Indonesia juga ikut mempengaruhi pemikiran politik Islam Indonesia. Dalam masyarakat sunni, ulama berfungsi hanya sebagai patron yang nasehat dan teladannya meskipun perlu diikuti tetapi bukan dipandang sebagai kewajiban agama. Indonesia mengalami terpaan gelombang berbagai ideologi politik. Pada abad ke-19, memang bendera Islam menjadi inspirasi perjuangan bangsa Indonesia melawan para penguasa kafir. Namun, muncul ideologi nasionalisme yang memicu perdebatan dan pertentangan antara umat Islam "santri" dan "abangan". Di era orde lama, ideologi Komunis mengalami puncak kejayaan yang kemudian hancur lebur seiring dengan kemunculan orde Baru yang kemudian juga memarjinalkan ideorogi politik lslam. Dengan runtuhnya rezim Suharto, kebebasan dibuka kembali sehingga muncul romantisme untuk menghidupkan kembali partai-partai yang pernah aktif di masa Orde Lama termasuk partai-partai Islam. Umat Islam yang berusaha menghidupkan kembati politik Islam pada pemilu 1955 mempunyai resiko dan bisa kontra-produktif. Masyarakat Muslim Indonesia telah berubah. Mereka kini berpendidikan lebih baik dan memahami hubungan antara Islam dan nasionalisme dengan lebih kritis dan realistis. Pada pemilu 7 Juni 1999, partai-partai Islam tidak mendapat suara mayoritas. Karena itu, paradigma lama bahwa umat Islam akan lebih baik jika dilayani oleh parrai-partai Islam nampaknya telah runtuh. setidaknya pada pemilu terakhir ini, ketaatan dan afiliasi agama tidak lagi menjadi pertimbangan utama pemilihan suatu partai.
Isa Almasih, Wafat dan Kebangkitannya (Gagasan Kristologi Islam) Syafa’atun Almirzanah
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.120-142

Abstract

The death of Jesus Christ and his raise have been sensitive and debatable themes of discussion among followers of Christianity and Islam. This is because both Bible and Al-Qur'an do provide several verses mentioning the disputed affairs. Al-Qur'an Considers Jesus as a respectable prophet and is endowed special quality. This special view of lslam, however, does not transfer him from his humanity to divinity. Jesus is a human and God's messenger. Al-Qur'an also speaks about Jesus' death, though in aquite ambiguous manner. According to the writer, when Al-Qur'an explains about above matter it does not speak about historical event concerning his death. Rather, it shows God's superiority over the Jew's plan and claim on their success to crucify Jesus. With regard to Jesus' raise, Al-Qur'an says, according to the writer's interpretation, that ie raise must be understood as the same idea as the victory of the Muslims over the unbelievers in Badar Battle. If does not mean that Jesus physically raise and bring salvation to mankind. The victory gained by Jesus and Muhammad signifies God's approval to believers.
Indonesia’s (Future) Civil Society: Examining Its Religio-Cultural Basis Bahtiar Effendy
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.24-38

Abstract

“Civil Society” merupakan istilah yang sampai sekarang masih hangat diperdebatkan. Ada relasi antara Civil Society dengan demokrasi, dalam hal ini berkaitan dengan pengertian demokrasi itu sendiri. Dalam hal ini, disamping uraian tentang apa "civil Society” itu, yang lebih menarik adalah bantahan penulis terhadap tesis bahwa Islam tidak sesuai bahkan bertentangan dengan ide-ide demokrasi, dalam hal ini dengan civil society. Demokrasi hanya cocok untuk masyarakat Barat atau negara-negara Eropa dengan koloninya. Menurut penulis, pendapat ini muncul karena pandangan mereka hiang monolitik dalam memahami Islam. Hal ini disebabkan oleh keterbatasan pengetahuan mereka tentang hakekat Islam yang sebenarnya. Sementara dalam pandangan penulis, lslam adalah agama yang polyinterpretable. Dan yang pasti tidak ada diktum yang sah dan logis bahwa Islam bertentangan dengan sistem politik modem (demoknrsi). Lalu bagaimana affinitas nilai-nilai Islam dengan ide tentang Civil Society Dan bagaimana dengan Indonesia dengan situasi politiknya sendiri? Inilah hal-hal yang iuga dicoba diuraikan dalarn Makalah ini.
Kontribusi Daerah Aceh terhadap Perkembangan Awal Hukum Islam di Indonesia. Kamaruzzaman BA
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.143-175

Abstract

This paper tries to trace the contribution of Aceh in the development of Islamic law in lndonesia. so far the study on the early development of Islamic law is rarely carried out. The condition might be influenced by scholars' statement that the school of thought that spread widely in Aceh was shafi'1ryah. The statement seems to be agreed since no study tries to trace the contribution of Aceh in the development of Islamic law in lndonesia. In this paper, the writer try to prove that Shafi,iyyah was not the only school spread in Aceh, but there was shi'ite Islamic law in Aceh. After a deep study, begun with the description of Islamic law, then followed by the arrival of Islam in Aceh, the writer comes to a conclusion that shi'i school come to Aceh before shafi’i. Shafi’i school came and developed after the demolishment of shi'i. This opinion is supported by the traditions of Aceh that still go on. This is also supported by the lineage of perlak sultans. Meanwhile, the writer is involved in the polemic on the existence of shi'ite in Indonesia. The polemic was raised by Azyumardi Azra with his statement that there was no shi'it's influence in Aceh, let alone in Nusantara during 9th century. Azra's opinion could be caused by his fear of local historiography. He said that local historiography is difficult to encounter other sources and historical development. In this paper, the writer encounters Azra's opinion using the book "Tazbira Ṭabagat jumū’Sulṭān as-Salāṭīn. The book explains clearly the date of crowning Perlak's Sultans. Furthermore, the writer found that Perlaks Sultans were the descendants of Shi'ites.
Islamic Fundamentalism in Late-Colonial Indonesia: The Persatuan Islam Revisited Howard M. Federspiel
Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 37, No 64 (1999)
Publisher : Al-Jami'ah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.1999.3764.39-62

Abstract

Persaman lslam, secara urnum dikenal sebagai organisasi yang cukup berpengaruh dalam tulisan keislaman di Indonesia pada awal abad kedua puluh. Meskipun tidak banyak menaruh perhatian dalam bidang politik, namun ide-idenya yang modern dan fundamentalistis serta ideologinya yang mumi mampu dianggap sebagai warisan yang penting dalam membentuk identitas lslam di Asia Tenggara. Organisasi yang didirikan oleh sekelompok cendekiawan muslim di Bandung pada tahun 1923 ini mempunyai sistem pengajaran yang berbeda dari sisrem yang banyak berlaku pada saat itu. Jika para ulama tradisionalis (kyai) menerapkan sistem pengajaran dengan pendekatan guru-murid, maka Persis menggunakan sistem klasikal. Berkaitan dengan materi yang diajarkan,75% adalah pelajaran agama dan 25% untuk pelajaran umum, khususnya dikelas-kelas dasar, adapun untuk kelas-kelas diatasnya perbandingannya adalah 50:50. Sebagai organisasi lslarn Persis mempunyai prinsip "memajukan Islarn dengan berdasar pada al-Qur'an dan al-Hadis." Para tokohnya menganggap diri mereka sebagai ulama baru yang berusaha membersihkan agama dari segala bid'ah, serta mengdaptasikan prinsip-prinsip agama pada kondisi kontemporer. Untuk menyebarkan ajaran-ajarannya digunakan majalah disamping sarana-sarana yang lain. Ada empat majalah yang diterbitkan antara uhun 1929 - 1941 yaitu ; Pambela Islam, al-Lisan, at-Fatwa dan. At-Taqwa. Gerakan yang telah dilakukan Persis ini dapat disejajarkan dengan apa yang telah dilakukan oleh para pembaharu yang lain semisal al-Afgani, Abduh dan Rasyid Rida. [The Persatuan Islam (Islamic Union; Persis) is generally recognized as an influential organization " in Indonesian Islamic writing on the twentieth century for its attempts to apply Islamic teachings to the Indonesian religious environment.2 While considered generally out of touch with political reality, its modernist, fundamentalist and ideological message has been regarded as an important legacy in the building of an Islamic identity in Southeast Asia. While the movement has moved to a very minor role in contemporary Indonesian Muslim activity, in its heyday in the 1930's and 1950's, it was an influential actor in both the Islamic community of Indonesia and on the political stage of those eras. The academic study of this movement was undertaken first by a Dutch administrator-scholar in the 1950’s in official reports and in a published study in the 1960's,3 and later through a dissertation and two ancillary studies by an American scholar in the l960's and 1970's.4 Since the appearance of those studies several Indonesian scholars have written studies of the movement and one Indonesian scholar has contributed a new dissertation on the legal teachings of one of its prominent activists.5  In view of these new studies and an extensive review of the original source materials of the movement, this essay reexamines the earlier evaluations and compares them with other Islamic thinkers movements of the twentieth century to gain fuller perspective of the persatuan Islam and its place in indonesia history. The focal point of this assessment is on the movement in the last two decades of Dutch rule in the lndies from approximately 1923 to 1942, which is the initial period of Persatuan lslam activity. What emerges from this reassessment is a fuller understanding of the role of the movement and its place in the Islamic activities of its day.]

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