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Al-Jami´ah: Journal of Islamic Studies
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Core Subject : Religion,
Al-Jamiah, a journal of Islamic Studies published by Al-Jami'ah Research Centre of State Islamic University Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta since 1962, can be said as the oldest academic journal dealing with the theme in South East Asia. The subject covers textual and fieldwork studies with various perspectives of law, philosophy, mysticism, history, art, theology, and many more. In the beginning the journal only served as a scholarly forum for the lecturers and professors at the State Institute of Islamic Studies. However, due to the later development with a broader readership, the journal has successfully invited scholars and researchers outside the Institute to contribute. Thus, Indonesian and non-Indonesian scholars have enriched the studies published in the journal. Although not from the beginning Al-Jamiah presents highly qualified scholarly articles, improvement—in terms format, style, and academic quality—never ceases. Now with articles written in Arabic and English and with the fair procedure of peer-review, Al-Jamiah continues publishing researches and studies pertinent to Islamic studies with various dimensions and approaches.
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Islam and the Changing Meaning of Spiritualitas and Spiritual in Contemporary Indonesia Muttaqin, Ahmad
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.23-56

Abstract

Spiritualitas, an Indonesian term derived from English word’s spirituality, and spiritual from English’s spiritual, are now commonly used in Indonesian discourses. This paper traces earliest usages of the term spiritualitas and spiritual and then explores their changing meaning in contemporary Indonesia. Unlike in the past, where Indonesian government broadly used the terms to refer indigenous mystical legacies of the Aliran Kepercayaan or Kebatinan designing them as not religion but merely cultural legacy (adat, budaya spiritual), the current usage of the terms indicates a growing trend of Indonesian world religions, mainly Islam, in absorbing and acquiring the terms as kind of religious expressions. This trend is quite different from that happen in the West; while the growing of spirituality is correlated to the declining of Western affiliation and participation in religion, mainly Christianity; in Indonesia, world religions, especially Islam, seem to be the sponsor of spirituality. Thus, instead of spirituality will silently take over religion as predicted by Jaremy Carrette and Richard King (2005), the mainstream religious groups seem to take over spirituality.[Istilah spiritual dan spiritulitas akhir-akhir ini banyak digunakan di Indonesia, merujuk tidak hanya pada ekspresi spiritual di luar agama, namun juga yang ada dalam tradsi keagaamaan. Tulisan ini menelaah awal mula penggunaan istilah spiritual dan spiritualitas dalam khazanah literatur pasca kemerdekaan serta fase-fase perubahan makna dari istilah tersebut pada masa-masa sesudahnya. Pada fase awal, pemerintah Indonesia secara massif menggunakan istilah spiritual untuk menunjuk tradisi keberagamaan di luar agama-agama resmi yang berbasis pada mistisisme agama-agama lokal seperti Aliran Kepercayaan dan Kebatinan. Hal ini mengisyaratkan bahwa istilah spiritual tersebut digunakan untuk menekankan bahwa tradisi beragamaan lokal tersebut bukan agama, hanya warisan budaya atau adat istiadat. Namun, kecenderangan baru sejak akhir 1990an hingga saat ini menunjukkan bahwa agama-agama resmi, terutama Islam, secara massif telah menggunakan istilah spiritual maupun spiritualitas sebagai padanan dari ekspresi batin keberagamaan (inner religious expression). Trend semacam ini cukup unik bila dibandingkan dengan yang terjadi di Barat, sebab tumbuh suburnya gerakan spiritual di Barat terjadi pada saat menurunnya tingkat afiliasi publik terhadap agama-agama besar, terutama Kristen; sedangkan di Indonesia agama-agama besar dunia, terutama Islam, menjadi sponsor utama populernya istilah spiritual dan spiritualitas serta munculnya gerakan-gerakan spiritual berbasis agama. Oleh karena itu, prediksi Jaremy Carrete dan Richard King yang menyatakan “pengambil alihan peran agama oleh spiritualitas” sebagaimana yang terjadi di dunia Barat, tidak terjadi di Indonesia. Sebaliknya, yang terjadi di Indonesia adalah agama-agama besar dunia telah mengambil alih peran dan fungsi spiritualitas.]
Paving the Way for Interreligious Dialogue, Tolerance, and Harmony: Following Mukti Ali’s Path Ismail, Faisal
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.147-178

Abstract

A known Indonesian Muslim scholar Mukti Ali (1923-2004) was very much concerned with dialogue, tolerance, and harmony among the people of different traditions, cultures, and religions. In his many academic works, he stressesed the importance of promoting, strengthening, and maintaining intercultural and interreligious dialogue, tolerance, and harmony. Not only did he produce various academic works, but also made efforts in putting his intercultural and interreligious ideas into practice. Both as a scholar and expert in the comparative study of religions and as Minister of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia (1971-1978), Mukti Ali endlessly promoted intercultural and interreligiuos diologue, tolerance, and harmony. Realizing that Indonesia is a pluralistic society, Mukti Ali adopted an approach called ‘agree in disagreement’ in the effort of creating and supporting tolerance, harmony, and security among people of different religious traditions. This paper will highlight the principles and values which Mukti Ali struggled for during his long administrative and academic careers.[Mukti Ali (1923-2004) adalah salah seorang intelektual Muslim ternama di Indonesia. Dia dedikasikan hidupnya untuk menyemai dialog, toleransi dan kehidupan harmonis antar tradisi, budaya dan agama yang beragam. Dalam berbagai karya akademiknya, Mukti Ali selalu menekankan pentingnya kehidupan harmonis dan toleransi antar pemeluk agama dan budaya. Lebih dari itu, dia melampaui hanya sekedar batas pemikiran dengan mengimplementasikan gagasan-gagasannya tersebut. Sebagai seorang ilmuwan dengan keahlian perbandingan agama dan sebagai Menteri Agama RI (1971-1978), Mukti Ali dengan kukuh memperjuangkan dialog, toleransi dan kehidupan harmonis antar agama dan budaya. Mukti Ali sadar, Indonesia adalah negara yang plural, karena itu dia menawarkan pendekatan “agree in disagreement” untuk menciptakan harmoni dan toleransi tersebut. Tulisan ini mengulas prinsip dan nilai yang diperjuangkan Mukti Ali selama karir akademiknya dan sebagai Menteri Agama.]
Gender Construction in Dakwahtainment: A Case Study of Hati ke Hati Bersama Mamah Dedeh Sofjan, Dicky
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.57-74

Abstract

This case study examines the phenomenon of dakwahtainment, a concept amalgamating Islamic propagation and entertainment. It focuses on the highly popular daily live programme entitled Hati ke Hati Bersama Mamah Dedeh (literally: Heart to Heart with Mother Dedeh). The programme involves a female penceramah (preacher) providing taws}iyyah or nasehat (spiritual advice) to the jamaah (congregation), while offering religious verdicts on various aspects of life confronting Indonesian women. One of the main pillars of the programme’s success has been its tightly observed winning formula held dearly by the producer and the creative team, which stipulates 70% tuntunan (spiritual guidance) and 30% tontonan (entertainment viewing). Based on an exploratory, single case study design, research findings suggest that the Hati ke Hati Bersama Mamah Dedeh programme is constructed on a gendered understanding that is inconsistent and contradictory, which tend to simultaneously empower and disempower Muslim women viewers.[Tulisan ini merupakan studi kasus mengenai dakwahtainmen yang mempertemukan dakwah pada satu sisi dan hiburan pada sisi lainnya. Diskusi akan difokuskan pada program televisi “Hati ke Hati Bersama Mamah Dedeh.” Program ini melibatkan penceramah yang menyampaikan taws}iyyah dan nasehat yang merespon persoalan-persoalan yang kerap dihadapi perempuan Muslim di Indonesia. Salah satu kunci kesuksesan program ini adalah keberhasilan produser dan tim kreatif yang memadukan 70% tuntunan dan 30% tontonan. Tulisan ini menemukan bahwa program Hati ke Hati Bersama Mamah Dedeh dikonstruk berdasarkan pengertian relasi gender yang rancu dan saling bertentangan. Karena itu, program ini dapat memberdayakan pemirsa perempuan dan sekaligus memperlemah mereka.]
The Historical Figure of Omar al-Mukhtar and Islamic Martyrdom in Indonesia Dhont, Frank
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.75-95

Abstract

The story of Omar al-Mukhtar resisting Italian colonisation of Libya had great potential as a rallying point for anti-colonial sentiment in the Indies stirred up by Islamic politicians under a Pan-Islamic banner. The Dutch colonial government was quite aware of the issue’s sensitivity. It forbade newspapers and Islamic leaders from even mentioning the story of Omar al-Mukhtar with the result that the proposed boycotts against Italy could not become widespread. The effectivity of Dutch policy snuffed out the possibility of the figure of Omar al-Mukhtar becoming a rallying point for those politically active in the struggle against colonialism. Those that would become Indonesian National Heroes with Islamic roots were in fact figures re-cast in a national, secular mould. After ndonesian independence it was national, local identity which dominated over that of Islamic martyrdom.[Kisah perjuangan Omar al-Mukhtar dalam melawan kolonialisasi Italia menjadi kisah yang menginspirasi gerakan anti-kolonialisme di Hindia-Belanda yang dimotori oleh kalangan politisi muslim melalui semboyan Pan-Islamisme. Pemerintah kolonial Belanda merespon dengan hati-hati isu sensitif ini dengan melarang koran dan pemimpin Muslim menceritakan kisah perjuangan Omar al-Mukhtar. Namun, pelarangan ini tidak cukup berhasil. Omar al-Mukhtar menjadi inspirator gerakan anti-kolonialisme. Mereka yang disebut sebagai pahlawan nasional dengan latar belakang muslim sebenarnya tokoh-tokoh yang dihadirkan dengan nuansa nasional/sekuler. Setelah Indonesia merdeka, identitas lokal-nasional itulah yang kemudian lebih dominan ketimbang identitas keislaman.]
Editorial: Religiosity, Spirituality, and Ideology
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.ix-xi

Abstract

The current edition of Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies throws light on various themes related to contemporary development of Islamic religiosity with its multiple contexts. Indeed, Islam has become inspirations for many who uphold its dogma. Muslims, like any other who embrace other faiths, have participated in the creation of various traditions along human history. The first article, penned by Octavia with the title “Islamism and Democracy: a Gender Analysis on PKS’s Application of Democratic Principles and Values,” focuses on the internal dynamic within the Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS) with regard to the way in which the group has dealt with gender issues. The author detects the internal development of the PKS in which its activists responded to the gender issues in two ways. The first group remains conservative in line with Islamist ideology. The second group seems to start looking at the issue in a rather progressive way. Whereas the conservative wing displays their ideological stance, the progressive wing exhibits pragmatic step in response to the demand of the current context. After all, this shows ambiguity in the party’s position pertaining to gender issues.
Religious Symbolism and Democracy Encountered: A Case of Prostitution Bylaw of Bantul Fauzi, Muhammad Latif
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.97-118

Abstract

This paper addresses the bylaw on prostitution issued by the Bantul authority in May 2007. It specifically examines the relation between the involvement of religious symbolism, the call for public participation and political interests in the legislation process. The paper argues that, on the one hand, the law relates prostitution to issues of immorality, social illness, and the degradation of women due to economic discrimination or sexual exploitation. The subject of prostitution has been extended, covering not only sex workers and pimps, but everyone committing indecent acts, such as showing a ‘sexy’ performance. On the other hand, this regulation is considered to be ambiguous in determining the standard of public morality and, therefore, puts women in a marginalised position. That the implementation of this law contributes to institutionalising the criminalisation against women is another fact which is believed to diminish the meaning of democracy. The government is blamed as taking too much care with procedural democracy but giving less attention to education and employment opportunities.[Artikel merupakan hasil studi peraturan daerah tentang larangan pelacuran yang dikeluarkan oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Bantul pada Mei 2007. Studi ini menguji keterkaitan antara simbol-simbol keagamaan, partisipasi publik, dan kepentingan politik yang muncul dan menyertai proses legislasi. Penulis berpendapat bahwa pada satu sisi, dalam peraturan tersebut, pelacuran dikaitkan dengan perusakan terhadap nilai agama dan sosial serta penurunan martabat perempuan, terlepas akibat diskriminasi ekonomi atau eksploitasi seksual. Subjek pelacuran ternyata juga diperluas, tidak hanya pekerja seks dan mucikari, tetapi setiap orang yang melakukan perbuatan cabul, seperti berpenampilan seksi. Pada sisi yang lain, ukuran moralitas publik dalam peraturan ini dianggap kurang jelas dan menempatkan perempuan pada posisi yang terpinggirkan. Bahwa penerapan peraturan berimplikasi pada kriminalisasi terhadap perempuan merupakan bukti lain yang dinilai bertentangan dengan substansi demokrasi. Pemerintah dinilai terlalu perhatian pada demokrasi prosedural, tetapi mengabaikan masalah pendidikan dan kesempatan kerja.]
Islamism & Democracy: A Gender Analysis on PKS’s Application of Democratic Principles and Values Octavia, Lanny
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.1-22

Abstract

The increasing popular support for Islamist parties in democratic countries incites public suspicion concerning whether the Islamists’ participation in procedural democracy guarantees their commitment for substantial democracy, which in principle requires equality of rights among citizens regardless of their religion and gender. Indeed, gender politics often appears at the centre of the lslamist agenda, as they seek to construct a new moral order based on a conservative gender perspective. A greater concern arises on whether the Islamists will eventually lead society towards democracy or, conversely, towards theocracy. In Indonesia, the Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera/PKS) shows a remarkable development and significant electoral achievement. Some observers viewed that PKS is opportunistically using democratic means to “hijack” it for their Islamist agenda waiting for when political power is in their hands. Others believe PKS’s involvement in real politics will, in the end, lead to a “gradual secularisation” of their Islamist agenda. Based on a gender analysis, this paper examines whether PKS’s fulfillment of the formalist criteria of democracy is compatible with their application of democratic principles and values.[Semakin menguatnya dukungan terhadap partai Islam memincu kecurigaan publik yang mempertanyakan apakah partisipasi kalangan islamis dalam demokrasi prosedural menjamin komitmen mereka bagi tegaknya demokrasi substansial, demokrasi yang mensyaratkan kesetaraan bagi semua orang tanpa terkecuali. Sebenarnya, agenda politik gender yang didengungkan oleh kalangan islamis tidak bisa dilepaskan dari perspektif konservatif mereka mengenai relasi gender. Pertanyaannya kemudian, apakah yang mereka agendakan akan berlabuh pada pemantapan demokrasi atau --sebaliknya‍‑­‑ menuju teokrasi. Di Indonesia, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) adalah satu-satunya partai Islam di Indonesia yang berhasil berkembang pesat dan mampu mendulang suara secara signifikan. Bagi beberapa pengamat, PKS merepresentasikan partai Islamis yang berhasil “menunggangi” demokrasi untuk memperjuangkan agenda islamis mereka. Ini akan tampak jelas jika PKS berhasil menjadi partai penguasa. Kendati demikian, beberapa kalangan lainnya berkeyakinan bahwa keterlibatan PKS dalam politik demokratis akan “mensekulerkan” agenda islamis mereka. Dengan analisis gender, tulisan ini hendak menjawab apakah kriteria formal mengenai nilai dan prinsip demokrasi yang melekat pada PKS sejalan dengan apa yang mereka praktekkan.]
Wahhabism, Identity, and Secular Ritual: Graduation at an Indonesian High School Rohmaniyah, Inayah; Woodward, Mark
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre, Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.119-145

Abstract

This paper concerns the social and ritual construction of social identities at Pondok Pesantren Madrasah Wathoniyah Islamiyah (PPMWI), a theologically Wahhabi oriented pesantren (traditional Islamic school) in Central Java, Indonesia. We focus on the inter-play of religious and secular symbols in the school’s graduation ceremonies (wisuda) for secondary school students and the ways it contributes to the construction of individual and social identities. Our analysis builds on Turner’s studies of the processual logic of rites of passage, Moore and Meyerhoff’s distinction between religious and secular ritual and Tambiah’s application of the Piercian concept of indexical symbols to the analysis of ritual. Theoretically we will be concerned with ritual, cognitive and social processes involved in the construction of religious identities. Empirically, we critique the common assumption that Salafi, and more specifically, Wahhabi, religious teachings contribute to the construction of exclusivist identities, social conflict and violence. In the case we are concerned with, religious tolerance and non-violence are among the defining features of Wahhabi identity.[Tulisan membahas konstruksi identitas ritual dan sosial pada sebuah pesantren yang berorientasi teologi Wahhabi, yaitu Pondok Pesantren Madrasah Wathoniyah Islamiyah (PPMWI). Diskusi akan difokuskan pada saling silang simbol-simbol agama dan sekuler dalam peringatan wisuda siswa menengah pertama serta signifikansinya dalam konstruksi identitas sosial dan individual. Analisis tulisan ini berdasarkan studi Turner mengenai logika proses dalam daur ritus (the processual logic of rites of passage), pembagian ritual agama dan sekuler oleh Moore dan Meyerhoff serta konsep Piercian mengenai indek simbolis dalam ritual oleh Tambiah. Secara teoritis, artikel ini akan mendiskusikan ritual, kognisi, dan proses sosial yang menjadi bagian dalam konstruksi identitas agama. Selain itu, penulis juga melakukan kritik terhadap pandangan umum mengenai Wahhabi yang dituduh sebagai identitas ekslusif, biang-kerok konflik sosial dan kekerasan. Penulis menemukan sebaliknya, bahwa toleransi antar agama dan anti-kekerasan adalah salah satu ciri identitas Wahhabi.]
Wahhabism, Identity, and Secular Ritual: Graduation at an Indonesian High School Rohmaniyah, Inayah; Woodward, Mark
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.119-145

Abstract

This paper concerns the social and ritual construction of social identities at Pondok Pesantren Madrasah Wathoniyah Islamiyah (PPMWI), a theologically Wahhabi oriented pesantren (traditional Islamic school) in Central Java, Indonesia. We focus on the inter-play of religious and secular symbols in the school’s graduation ceremonies (wisuda) for secondary school students and the ways it contributes to the construction of individual and social identities. Our analysis builds on Turner’s studies of the processual logic of rites of passage, Moore and Meyerhoff’s distinction between religious and secular ritual and Tambiah’s application of the Piercian concept of indexical symbols to the analysis of ritual. Theoretically we will be concerned with ritual, cognitive and social processes involved in the construction of religious identities. Empirically, we critique the common assumption that Salafi, and more specifically, Wahhabi, religious teachings contribute to the construction of exclusivist identities, social conflict and violence. In the case we are concerned with, religious tolerance and non-violence are among the defining features of Wahhabi identity.[Tulisan membahas konstruksi identitas ritual dan sosial pada sebuah pesantren yang berorientasi teologi Wahhabi, yaitu Pondok Pesantren Madrasah Wathoniyah Islamiyah (PPMWI). Diskusi akan difokuskan pada saling silang simbol-simbol agama dan sekuler dalam peringatan wisuda siswa menengah pertama serta signifikansinya dalam konstruksi identitas sosial dan individual. Analisis tulisan ini berdasarkan studi Turner mengenai logika proses dalam daur ritus (the processual logic of rites of passage), pembagian ritual agama dan sekuler oleh Moore dan Meyerhoff serta konsep Piercian mengenai indek simbolis dalam ritual oleh Tambiah. Secara teoritis, artikel ini akan mendiskusikan ritual, kognisi, dan proses sosial yang menjadi bagian dalam konstruksi identitas agama. Selain itu, penulis juga melakukan kritik terhadap pandangan umum mengenai Wahhabi yang dituduh sebagai identitas ekslusif, biang-kerok konflik sosial dan kekerasan. Penulis menemukan sebaliknya, bahwa toleransi antar agama dan anti-kekerasan adalah salah satu ciri identitas Wahhabi.]
Islam and the Changing Meaning of Spiritualitas and Spiritual in Contemporary Indonesia Muttaqin, Ahmad
Al-Jamiah: Journal of Islamic Studies Vol 50, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Al-Jamiah Research Centre

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14421/ajis.2012.501.23-56

Abstract

Spiritualitas, an Indonesian term derived from English word’s spirituality, and spiritual from English’s spiritual, are now commonly used in Indonesian discourses. This paper traces earliest usages of the term spiritualitas and spiritual and then explores their changing meaning in contemporary Indonesia. Unlike in the past, where Indonesian government broadly used the terms to refer indigenous mystical legacies of the Aliran Kepercayaan or Kebatinan designing them as not religion but merely cultural legacy (adat, budaya spiritual), the current usage of the terms indicates a growing trend of Indonesian world religions, mainly Islam, in absorbing and acquiring the terms as kind of religious expressions. This trend is quite different from that happen in the West; while the growing of spirituality is correlated to the declining of Western affiliation and participation in religion, mainly Christianity; in Indonesia, world religions, especially Islam, seem to be the sponsor of spirituality. Thus, instead of spirituality will silently take over religion as predicted by Jaremy Carrette and Richard King (2005), the mainstream religious groups seem to take over spirituality.[Istilah spiritual dan spiritulitas akhir-akhir ini banyak digunakan di Indonesia, merujuk tidak hanya pada ekspresi spiritual di luar agama, namun juga yang ada dalam tradsi keagaamaan. Tulisan ini menelaah awal mula penggunaan istilah spiritual dan spiritualitas dalam khazanah literatur pasca kemerdekaan serta fase-fase perubahan makna dari istilah tersebut pada masa-masa sesudahnya. Pada fase awal, pemerintah Indonesia secara massif menggunakan istilah spiritual untuk menunjuk tradisi keberagamaan di luar agama-agama resmi yang berbasis pada mistisisme agama-agama lokal seperti Aliran Kepercayaan dan Kebatinan. Hal ini mengisyaratkan bahwa istilah spiritual tersebut digunakan untuk menekankan bahwa tradisi beragamaan lokal tersebut bukan agama, hanya warisan budaya atau adat istiadat. Namun, kecenderangan baru sejak akhir 1990an hingga saat ini menunjukkan bahwa agama-agama resmi, terutama Islam, secara massif telah menggunakan istilah spiritual maupun spiritualitas sebagai padanan dari ekspresi batin keberagamaan (inner religious expression). Trend semacam ini cukup unik bila dibandingkan dengan yang terjadi di Barat, sebab tumbuh suburnya gerakan spiritual di Barat terjadi pada saat menurunnya tingkat afiliasi publik terhadap agama-agama besar, terutama Kristen; sedangkan di Indonesia agama-agama besar dunia, terutama Islam, menjadi sponsor utama populernya istilah spiritual dan spiritualitas serta munculnya gerakan-gerakan spiritual berbasis agama. Oleh karena itu, prediksi Jaremy Carrete dan Richard King yang menyatakan “pengambil alihan peran agama oleh spiritualitas” sebagaimana yang terjadi di dunia Barat, tidak terjadi di Indonesia. Sebaliknya, yang terjadi di Indonesia adalah agama-agama besar dunia telah mengambil alih peran dan fungsi spiritualitas.]

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