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INDONESIA
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science
ISSN : 22526951     EISSN : -     DOI : -
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Articles 10 Documents
Search results for , issue "Vol 11 No 1 (2022)" : 10 Documents clear
Characterization and Anti-Bacterial Activity Testing of the Nano Hydroxyapatite-Clove (Eugenia Caryophyllus) Against Streptococcus Mutans Bacteria Akbar, Achmad Fitriadi; Cahyaningrum, Sari Edi
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.51037

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite is one of the materials as a source of calcium and phosphate in the tooth remineralization process. Several studies have shown that hydroxyapatite produces strong antibacterial activity against caries-causing bacteria. Dental caries are one of the tooth scrapings suffered by many people. Dental caries are caused by Streptococcus mutans. In addition to hydroxyapatite, essential oil derived from cloves also has a good antimicrobial function. The eugenol content in cloves can kill bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. This study aims to determine the results of the physicochemical characterization and antibacterial test of Streptococcus mutans in the clove-hydroxyapatite nanoformulation. This study used a nano-hydroxyapatite-clove test material with various compositions of 0.5 mL, 1 mL, 2 mL, 3 mL, and 4 mL of clove oil, 1% hydroxyapatite, Tween, and propylene glycol. The results of FT-IR characterization showed OH, C-H, C-O, C=O, PO43-, and CO32- functional groups. In PSA testing, the smallest size is indicated by the variation in the composition of 1ml clove oil, which is 16.07nm. The measurement of the antibacterial activity test showed that the hydroxyapatite-clove nanoformulation was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria, with normally distributed data (p=0,05) and produce a significant probability,000 (p<0,05).
Preparation of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles from a Sea Water Bittern as an Antibacterial Agent Against Escherichia coli Ningrum, Ananda Nurmalia Kusuma; Jumaeri, Jumaeri
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v10i3.51041

Abstract

Bittern is a by-product of the manufacture of salt which has a high MgCl2 content. Bittern can produce Mg(OH)2 which is one of the important precursors of MgO. MgO compounds can be used as an antibacterial against E. coli that contaminates food. This research aims to synthesize MgO nanoparticles as well as antibacterial testing against E.coli. Synthesis was performed using the wet precipitation method with bittern reaction and technical NaOH with volume ratio 1: 1 which was then calcined at 5000C, 6000C, and 7000C. Characteristic tests using XRD, FT-IR, and SEM and antibacterial activity testing using disc diffusion method with concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, and 30 mg/mL. Inhibition is measured based on the size of the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition area. Based on the results of the XRD test showed the result of pure MgO with a crystalline size of 6.3 nm; 7.2 nm; and 15.8 nm at each calcination temperature, the FT-IR test produced an absorption at a wave <450 cm-1 indicating the presence of MgO clusters and the SEM test produced a nano-structure that was almost round, dense as a cavity in the grains. The results of testing the antibacterial activity of MgO nanoparticles showed inhibitory activity with a diameter range between 5 mm - 8 mm which was interpreted in the medium category. The best inhibition value is 5000C calcination at a concentration of 30 mg/ml of 7.87 mm.
Cytotoxic Activity of Eugenia polyantha Wight Leaves Extract, Purified Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction in T47D and Determination of Flavonoid Levels Hidayati, Devi Nisa; Parusiza, Intan Meyta; Fauzizah, Nisa
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.51056

Abstract

Breast cancer is one of the cancers with the highest incidence in women in Indonesia. Old bay leaf extract (Eugenia polyantha Wight) has been proven to contain flavonoids so that it has anticancer activity. The flavonoid compounds can be extracted with ethyl acetate as solvent. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxic activity of extracts, purified extracts, and the ethyl acetate fraction of old bay leaves against T47D breast cancer cells and to investigate their total flavonoid levels. Extraction using maceration method on old Eugenia polyantha Wight powder with methanol solvent, followed by purification and fractionation using ethyl acetate solvent. Cytotoxic activity using the MTT assay method. T47D cells were treated with each test sample with concentration of 31.25; 62.5; 125; 250; 500 and 1000 µg/mL. The absorbance was seen with an ELISA reader and viability cells (%) were calculated to obtain IC50. Determination of flavonoid levels with quercetin and analyzed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The result showed that the extract, purified extract, and ethyl acetate fraction of old Eugenia polyantha Wight had a cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 798.808 g/mL; 593.826 g/mL, and 171.946 g/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, the flavonoid levels were 1.60 mgQE/g, 9.3 mgQE/g, and 5.27 mgQE/g, respectively.
Potential Antibacterial Activity of Hydroxyapatite Composite And Green Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Against Streptococcus mutans Bacteria Lawarti, Riska Amelia; Cahyaningrum, Sari Edi
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.51059

Abstract

Dental caries is a common oral disease and the main bacteria causing it is Streptococcus mutans. Hydroxyapatite is a material consisting of calcium and phosphate components that have dual abilities as remineralizing and antibacterial agents. In addition to hydroxyapatite, phenolic compounds and tannins in green betel leaf extract also have antimicrobial functions. Tannins and phenols act as poisons for microbes by inhibiting the enzyme activity of interfering microbes. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical character and antibacterial activity of Streptococcus mutans from oral hydroxyapatite preparations and green betel leaf extract. In this study, hydroxyapatite and green betel leaf extract were used as oral preparations with variations in the addition of green betel leaf extract 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7 and 1 gram. The results of the FTIR analysis explain the absorption bands of the functional groups PO43-, OH and CO32- from hydroxyapatite, as well as the C=O and C-O groups from green betel leaf extract which have shifted the wave number, indicating that there has been a bond between hydroxyapatite and metabolite compounds in betel leaf extract. green. In PSA testing, the smallest particle size was indicated by the variation of hydroxyapatite composite and 0,3 gram green betel leaf extract, which was 690.08 nm. Testing the antibacterial activity of the hydroxyapatite-green betel leaf extract composite showed inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans bacteri.
Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Nanosilver as Anti Bacteria that Cause Dental Caries Lestari, Nanda Revita Dwi; Cahyaningrum, Sari Edi
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.51070

Abstract

The formation of dental caries is the result of the activity of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. Various attempts have been done to prevent dental caries. One of them is using oral preparations containing antibacterial compounds Hydroxyapatite-NanoSilver which is an active ingredient that can provide antimicrobial effects to prevent dental caries. This study aims to synthesize and characterize nanosilver hydroxyapatite as an antibacterial that causes dental caries. Physicochemical characterization and antibacterial test towards Streptococcus mutans bacteria with the active ingredient hydroxyapatite-nanosilver. In this study, hydroxyapatite-nanosilver materials with variations in nanosilver concentration of 4 ppm were used; 7 ppm; 10 ppm; 13 ppm; and 15 ppm. The results of FT-IR characterization showed the functional groups O-H, C=O, CO32-, and PO43-. The results of the PSA test showed that the hydroxyapatite-nanosilver formulation with a concentration of 10 ppm had the smallest nanoparticle size of 80.89 nm. Measurement of antibacterial activity test showed that the hydroxyapatite-nanosilver formulation was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The highest diameter of resistance to the growth of mutant Streptococcus bacteria in hydroxyapatite-nanosilver formulations is 22.5 mm at a nanosilver concentration of 4 ppm.
Tofu Liquid Waste Treatment Process Using Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with Cow Stool and Lactobacillus casei Addition Febriningrum, Panca Nugrahini; Astawa, I Nyoman Endra
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.51180

Abstract

Tofu liquid waste causes ecosystem damage due to its high organic matter content. Anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is a waste treatment in the absence of oxygen where there is a sedimentation process using activated sludge. This process converts organic material into methane gas, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. This study aims to determine the effect of addition of cow feces and Lactobacillus casei bacteria on decreasing levels of COD, TSS, VSS, pH and gas pressure. The research process was carried out in two stages of processing tofu liquid waste, namely the batch and continuous stages. Batch and continuous processes use an ABR reactor which has four chambers. Parameters measured include, COD, TSS, VSS, pH and Gas Pressure. The results obtained by the best batch process were obtained without the addition of bacteria, the ratio of cow feces and activated sludge was 1:4, the COD removal was 81.63%, the TSS removal was 1,300 mg/L, the VSS removal was 1,200 mg/L and the pH value final 8.0 for 6 days. The best processing time in the continuous process is 6 hours, the COD removal is 78.12%, the TSS removal is 600 mg/L, the VSS removal is 500 mg/L and the final pH value is 6.5. It can be concluded that the more cow feces added, the faster and greater the removal of COD, TSS, VSS and pH values ​​tended to increase in the treatment of adding bacteria.
Antibacterial Activity of N-hexane and Diethyl Ether Fraction of Piper betle L. Leaf Against Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli Bacteria Kunti Mulangsri, Dewi Andini; Ningrum, Ria Ayu; Imliyyah, Nafilatul
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.51850

Abstract

Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are still cause of superficial and systemic infections. Fractionation of green betel leaf extract was carried out to obtain simpler compounds than the crude extract. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of the n-hexane fraction and the diethyl ether fraction of green betel leaf against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The extract of green betel leaf was fractionated with n-hexane and diethyl ether. The n-hexane fraction (HF) and diethyl ether fraction (DF) were tested for antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method and the concentrations used were 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; and 2.5 mg/disc. Chloramphenicol paper disc 30 µg/disk as a positive control and DMSO as a negative control. Data analysis was carried out descriptively by observing the inhibition zone around the paper disc which indicated the presence of antibacterial activity. The inhibition zone has measured the diameter of the inhibition area. The test results showed that there was antibacterial activity in the HF and DF of green betel leaf against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, indicated by the presence of an inhibitory zone around the paper disc at all concentrations. The average diameter of the inhibition area produced against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 10.89–12.58 mm and 7.28-11.93 mm for green betel of HF and6.51–11.89 mm and 8.43–15.18 mm for green betel of DF, respectively
Isolation and Identification of Secondary Metabolic Compounds from Mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata) and their Bioactivity Against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria Ligina, Anisa Sandhya; Sudarmin, Sudarmin
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.53296

Abstract

Bacteria are often found as the cause of disease in the human body because they are pathogenic. One of the bacteria that cause infectious diseases is Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Mangrove plants that are rich in secondary metabolites are used to obtain antibacterial substances that can play a role in inhibiting bacterial growth. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of secondary metabolites of alkaloids in mangrove plants (Rhizophora mucronata) and to determine the antibacterial activity of alkaloid compounds in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria. The research method was carried out by remaceration and isolation of alkaloid compounds, analysis of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography, and characterization tests using FT-IR and UV-Vis. The results of the analysis showed the presence of isoquinoline-derived alkaloids supported by FT-IR absorption at 3317 cm-1 indicating the N-H functional group which is a characteristic of alkaloids and the UV-Vis wavelength of 230 nm. These compounds can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by 2 nm and Escherichia coli by 0 nm. The inhibition obtained against Escherichia coli bacteria was caused by the cell membrane layer of gram-negative bacteria consisting of 3 layers so that it was resistant to antibacterial and difficult to penetrate. Staphylococcus aureus only has a single layer, so it is more easily penetrated by antibacterials by causing lysis and inhibiting DNA intercalation.
Antibacterial Activity of Cajuputi Oil (Melaleuca leucadendron) Microcapsules Against Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria Applied to Cotton Fabric Fibers Sulistiyani, Indania Febry; Prasetya, Agung Tri
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.53445

Abstract

Essential oils were sensitive and easily degraded when exposed to oxygen, heat, and light. The microencapsulation technique is very suitable to protect the properties and activity of essential oils. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of coating material composition on cajuputi leaf oil microcapsules. The microcapsules consist of core material and coating material. Cajuputi leaf oil was chosen as the core material for microcapsules because it has antibacterial activity with dominant components of 1,8-cineol of 55.43% and α-terpineol of 16.76%. Microcapsule coating materials used were maltodextrin and gum arabic with a ratio of 7:1; 6:2; 5:3; 4:4; 3:5; 2:6; and 1:7. From the results of the study, the microcapsules that had the best formulation were in the ratio of the coating material to 6:2 with a yield value of 82.35%; water content of 2.08%; particle size of 1.0512 m; and controlled release of 46%. Microcapsules with the best formulation tested by SEM produced irregular shapes, tested for the antibacterial activity of Staphylococcus aureus having an inhibition zone of 15 mm. The microcapsules with the best formulation were then immobilized into cotton fabric fibers with the help of polyurethane which was retested using SEM. The results of this cotton cloth will be used as a coating on cloth masks so that it has antibacterial properties.
Separation of Cerium, Neodymium, and Lanthanum from Rare Metal Concentrates by Calcining and Leaching Using Hydrochloric Acid Alfawwazi, Abdul Fattah; Setyadji, Much.; Jumaeri, Jumaeri
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 11 No 1 (2022)
Publisher : Universitas Negeri Semarang

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15294/ijcs.v11i1.53964

Abstract

The separation of Ce, La, and Nd elements from rare earth metal (REOH) concentrates from monazite sand processing needs to be done because the uses of La and Nd in the industry are very large. This research was conducted to determine the optimization of leaching in the separation of Ce, La, and Nd. The method used to separate the elements Ce, La, and Nd from the rare earth metal concentrate is through calcination at a temperature of 600°, 800°, 1000°C for 2 hours and without calcination, followed by a leaching process using 0.9 M HCl solvent at a temperature of 75°C. Variations made are the ratio of solid and liquid ratio and variations in time (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 minutes), and the stirring speed is fixed at 150 rpm. From the results of FT-IR and XRD analysis, it is known that calcination can convert REOH concentrate into REO. Residual analysis of leaching results using XRF showed that the increase in calcination temperature with a solid and liquid ratio and leaching time could affect the leaching efficiency results. The highest leaching efficiency for the element La was obtained at a calcination temperature of 1000°C with a time of 10 minutes, which was 73.20%. Meanwhile, the optimum condition for the best leaching process for Nd is at a calcination temperature of 1000°C with a contact time of 5 minutes with a leaching efficiency of 49.68%.

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