Hartono Gunardi
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Adolescent rape: Characteristics and short-term impact Titis Prawitasari; Hartono Gunardi; Bambang Madiyono; Rosdiana S Tarigan
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 45 No 6 (2005): November 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi45.6.2005.246-50


Background Data in Indonesia show that adolescents still havethe highest rate for rape and other sexual assaults among agegroup. There are gender differences in adolescent rape and sexualassault, with female victims exceeding males with a ratio of 3:1.Sexual assault and rape can affect numerous children and oftenlead to short-term and long-term consequences.Objectives To determine the characteristics and short-term im-pacts of adolescent rape.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 31 adoles-cents who had been raped 1-9 months previously. Subjects andparents were assessed using Child Behavior Checklist, Draw aPerson, House Tree Person, and Raven’s Progressive Matrices todetermine psychological problems. History and physical examina-tion findings at the time of rape were reviewed.Results Thirty out of 31 female adolescents were 13-18 years old.Almost half of them came from low income families and large fam-ilies, two-thirds of all subjects were living with their parents. Nine-teen of 31 perpetrators were friends or acquaintances, only 4 wererelatives. Tears of hymen were found in 21 subjects and only 8 ofthem had non-genital injuries. Nine of 31 subjects had a high aver-age range in non-verbal processing. Most subjects had a greattendency to feel insecure, anxiety, depression, and had interper-sonal relationship problems. Regression and aggressiveness werefound in almost half of the subjects. All subjects felt that theirmothers were protective and half of them had dominant fathers.Conclusion Almost half of the adolescent victims come from low-economic status and large families, most of the assailants werefriends or acquaintances. Adolescent rape victims have ongoingbehaviour problems. The most common problems are anxiety,depression, and relationship problems
Comparison of serial blood lactate level between dengue shock syndrome and dengue hemorrhagic fever (evaluation of prognostic value) M. Tatang Puspanjono; Abdul Latief; Alan R. Tumbelaka; Sudigdo Sastroasmoro; Hartono Gunardi
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 47 No 4 (2007): July 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (538.111 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi47.4.2007.150-5


Background Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) mortality is still high.Monitoring of blood lactate level is important to evaluate shock.Objectives The study were to review the difference between bloodlactate level of DSS and that of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF),to correlate blood lactate level with hypoxia state as shock riskfactors (PaO 2 , oxygen saturation, and anion gap) and to determinethe cut-off point of blood lactate level to predict shock.Methods The study was carried out at the Department of ChildHealth, Medical School, University of Indonesia, CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, from January until July 2006.Three mL venous blood specimen was collected from all subjectsfor peripheral blood, blood gasses, serology, and blood lactateexaminations. This study consisted of a retrospective cohort anda cross sectional method. Data were analyzed with Chi-squaretest. Continous data tested using Mann-Whitney method. Toknow the correlation between blood lactate level and shock riskfactors we use logistic regression test.Results In DSS group, 73% shows hyperlactatemia (lactate =2mmol/L). Conversion of lactate means between two groups issignificantly different from day one to day two and three. Therewas a negative correlation between lactate level and pO 2 andoxygen saturation. Oxygen saturation is the only value that hasclinical correlation. Regressions analysis can be applied using Y= 7.05–0.05 X equation. The cut-off point of lactate level asmarker for shock by using ROC curve is 32.015 mmol/L with 70%sensitivity and 83.3% specificity.Conclusions Hyperlactatemia in DSS can be considered as a signfor unappropriate treatment of shock. Blood lactate level can beused as a biochemical marker for tissue hypoxia, to assess severityof the disease, as monitoring of treatment, and has prognosticvalue of DHF cases.
Stimulation and cognitive function in short-stature preschoolers Ika Citra Dewi; Rini Sekartini; Hartono Gunardi; Asrawati Nurdin
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 61 No 2 (2021): March 2021
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi61.2.2021.74-81


Background Normal-height children generally have better cognitive function than growth-stunted, short-stature children. Children’s cognitive function reportedly improves with stimulation. However, a correlation between stimulation and cognitive function in children with a history of short stature remains unclear. Objective To assess correlation between stimulation and cognitive function in normal-height vs. short-stature preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was performed in four sub-district areas in Jakarta. Preschool-aged children and their primary caregivers from previous studies on short stature were eligible for inclusion. An Indonesian version of a questionnaire was used to assess stimulation. A psychologist assessed verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and full-scale IQ (FSIQ) with the Indonesian version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and Chi-square tests, and P values <0.05 were considered to be significant. Results Of 62 subjects, 64.5% had normal height and 35.5% had short stature. Both normal-height and short-stature children had similar IQ outcome and history of stimulation. The stimulation was significantly correlated with FSIQ in normal-height children (r= 0.316; P=0.047), but not short-stature children (r=0.049; P=0.828). However, the percentage differences in VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ between normal-height and short-stature children were not significant (P=0.409, 0.119 and 0.877, respectively). Conclusion There is a significant correlation between stimulation and IQ in normal-height children. Short-stature preschoolers were not worse in terms of IQ than normal-height preschoolers. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to provide regular and adequate stimulation to their young children.
The role of hearing capability test as a screening test for the possibility of hearing disorder in children with speech delay Fatmawaty Fatmawaty; Hartono Gunardi; Ronny Suwento; Abdul Latief; Rulina Suradi; Irawan Mangunatmadja
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 46 No 6 (2006): November 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (307.364 KB) | DOI: 10.14238/pi46.6.2006.255-9


Background Hearing disorder may cause speech delay so thatevery child with speech delay should undergo hearing test. Thegold standard for audiometric test is otoacustic emission (OAE)and brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA). They havehigh sensitivity and specificity, but the availability is limited andexpensive. Hence, both tests are not available at the primary healthcare centers. In 1997, the Department of Health, Republic of Indo-nesia, established a simple subjective test instrument, i.e. the hear-ing capability test (HCT).Objective To asses the accuracy of HCT compared to the goldstandard hearing tests (OAE and/or BERA).Methods This study was a cross sectional study on 89 childrenaged less than 5 years who had speech delay and came to theGrowth and Development Outpatient Clinic or the General Outpa-tient Clinic, Pediatric Neurology Clinic of the Department of ChildHealth, Cipto Mangunkusumo (CM) Hospital; and Center for EarCare and Communicative Disorders (CECCD), Department of ENT,CM Hospital, during March to August 2005.Results HCT sensitivity and specificity were 92.9% and 27.7%,respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictivevalue (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likehoodratio (NLR) were 84%, 50%, 1.9, and 0.7, respectively.Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of HCT as a screeningtest of hearing disorder in children with speech delay were 93%and 28%, respectively. Based on this result, HCT should only beused as screening test and not as a diagnostic test
Microbiological profiles and prognostic factors of infection mortality in febrile neutropenic children with malignancy Yuni Astria; Hindra Irawan Satari; Hartono Gunardi; Hikari Ambara Sjakti
Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 61 No 5 (2021): September 2021
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/pi61.5.2021.283-90


Background Post-chemotherapy febrile neutropenia results in high morbidity and mortality in children with malignancy. Many prognostic factors, such as microorganism patterns, as well as the use of antibiotics and antifungals can affect the outcomes. However, limited study is available in Indonesia. Objective To determine the microbial profiles, antibiotic sensitivity, and other factors that influence mortality from febrile neutropenia in pediatric malignancies with infections. Methods This retrospective cohort and descriptive study of 180 children with 252 episodes of neutropenic fever was done in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, between 2015 and 2017. Medical history of possible predictive prognostic factors, including microorganism patterns and antibiotic sensitivity, were recorded. Prognostic factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression tests. Results The most common bacteria was Gram-negative (54.5%), while Candida sp. was the most common fungal infection (82.5%). Klebsiella sp. was mainly sensitive to amikacin (85.71%), while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to ceftazidime (75%), as well as amikacin and gentamicin (100% sensitivity in combination). Staphylococcus sp. was mainly sensitive to amoxi-clav and ampi-sulbactam (76.9%). Almost all fungal groups were susceptible to fluconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole (80-100%). Prognostic factors that increased mortality risk were central venous cannulation (RR 1.947; 95%CI 1.114 to 3.402), wasting (RR 1.176; 95%CI 1.044 to 1.325), severe wasting (RR 1.241; 95%CI 0.975 to 1.579), and hematologic malignancies (RR 0.87; 95%CI 0.788 to 0.976). Conclusion Central venous cannulation and wasting are significant prognostic factors of increased mortality in children with febrile neutropenia. Gram negative bacteria along with Candida sp. is the most common pathogen in such condition.