Claim Missing Document
Check
Articles

Found 16 Documents
Search

KEDUDUKAN SYARIAT ISLAM DI NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM (NAD) DALAM SISTEM HUKUM NASIONAL Mohammad Irham
Mentari: Majalah Ilmiah Universitas Muhammadiyah Aceh Vol 12, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Aceh

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Pada era reformasi, Pemerintah Republik Indonesia  memberikan kembali kewenangan kepada Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (selanjutnya disebut NAD) untuk melaksanakan syariat Islam. Pemberian tersebut dikokohkan dengan payung hukum berupa UU RI Nomor 44 Tahun 1999 tentang penyelenggaraan Keistimewaan Aceh dan UU RI Nomor 18 Tahun 2001 tentang Otonomi Khusus Sebagai Provinsi NAD.Pemberian kewenangan dalam kedua peraturan tersebut kemudian ditindaklanjuti dengan langkah legalisasi (taqnin) syariat Islam yang hasilnya disebut qanun. Meskipun langkah legalisasi  syariat Islam masih diperdebatkan, baik dari kalangan pemikir muslim, maupun non-Muslim, namun tidak dapat disangkal bahwa legalisasi merupakan salah satu ciri periode modern perkembangan hukum Islam (fiqh). Pada periode inilah terjadi gerakan-gerakan baru di dunia Islam untuk menerapkan syariat sebagai ganti hukum positif, atau untuk menyelaraskan hukum positif agar sejalan dengan hukum syariat dengan mengadopsi berbagai pemikiran madzhab dalam bentuk legislasi. 
AVIFAUNA DIVERSITY AT CENTRAL HALMAHERA NORTH MALUKU, INDONESIA Mohammad Irham
ZOO INDONESIA Vol 21, No 1 (2012): Juli 2012
Publisher : Masyarakat Zoologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.52508/zi.v21i1.2355

Abstract

 Survei burung dengan menggunakan metode titik hitung dan jaring telah dilakukan di Halmahera, Maluku Utara di empat lokasi utama yaitu Wosea, Ake Jira, Tofu Blewen dan Bokit Mekot. Sebanyak 70 spesies burung dari 32 famili dijumpai selama penelitian lapangan. Keragaman burung tertinggi ditemukan di Tofu Blewen yaitu 50 spesies (Indeks Shannon = 2.64) kemudian diikuti oleh Ake Jira (48 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,63), Wosea (41 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,54) dan Boki Mekot (37 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,52 ). Berdasarkan Indeks Kesamaan Jaccard, komunitas burung di Wosea jauh berbeda dibandingkan lokasi lain. Gangguan habitat dan ketinggian memperlihatkan pengaruh pada keragaman burung terutama pada jenis-jenis endemik dan terancam seperti komunitas di Wosea. Beberapa jenis burung, terutama paruh bengkok seperti Kakatua Putih, menunjukkan hubungan negatif dengan ketinggian . 
NEW RECORD OF Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (RUDOLPHI, 1819) CHABAUD, 1975 (NEMATODA, ACUARIOIDEA) IN THE YELLOW VENTED BULBUL (Pycnonotus goivier) FROM EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA Dewi, Kartika; Irham, Mohammad; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M.; Kawakami, Kazuto
TREUBIA Vol 34 (2006): Vol. 34, December 2006
Publisher : Research Center for Biology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (766.577 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/treubia.v34i0.465

Abstract

Abstract not available
AVIFAUNA DIVERSITY AT CENTRAL HALMAHERA NORTH MALUKU, INDONESIA Irham, Mohammad
ZOO INDONESIA Vol 21, No 1 (2012): Juli 2012
Publisher : Masyarakat Zoologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (833.879 KB)

Abstract

 Survei burung dengan menggunakan metode titik hitung dan jaring telah dilakukan di Halmahera, Maluku Utara di empat lokasi utama yaitu Wosea, Ake Jira, Tofu Blewen dan Bokit Mekot. Sebanyak 70 spesies burung dari 32 famili dijumpai selama penelitian lapangan. Keragaman burung tertinggi ditemukan di Tofu Blewen yaitu 50 spesies (Indeks Shannon = 2.64) kemudian diikuti oleh Ake Jira (48 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,63), Wosea (41 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,54) dan Boki Mekot (37 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,52 ). Berdasarkan Indeks Kesamaan Jaccard, komunitas burung di Wosea jauh berbeda dibandingkan lokasi lain. Gangguan habitat dan ketinggian memperlihatkan pengaruh pada keragaman burung terutama pada jenis-jenis endemik dan terancam seperti komunitas di Wosea. Beberapa jenis burung, terutama paruh bengkok seperti Kakatua Putih, menunjukkan hubungan negatif dengan ketinggian . 
Divergensi DNA Mitokondria pada Burung Pijantung Kecil (Arachnothera longirostra) dari Indonesia Prijono, Siti Nuramaliati; Irham, Mohammad; Astuti, Dwi
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 13, No 2 (2017): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2130.881 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v13i2.3394

Abstract

ABSTRACTA total of 781 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA ND2 gene was analyzed to investigate their divergence in the Arachnothera longirostra (Nectariniidae) birds in Jawa and Sumatera islands of Indonesia. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 27 birds consisted of 8 samples from T.N.G. Halimun, 6 samples from T.N.G. Gede Pangrango, 6 samples from T.N. Ujung Kulon, 1 sample from Dieng (Jawa), and 6 samples from Jambi (Sumatera). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each sample and used in PCR to amplify a single fragment of mDNA ND2 gene. Their DNA sequence data were compared with those from Johor (Malaya Peninsula) and Sabah-Sarawak Borneo (GenBank). There were 61 variable sites included 34 parsimony sites and 27 sequence haplotypes. Mean genetic distance or sequence divergences within bird populasions were ranged from the lowest (0.25 %) for Ujung Kulon to the highest (0.76 %) for G. Gede Pangrango; while mean genetic distance between populations were of 1.67% to 2.82 % for Java island vs Jambi (Sumatera), and 1.06 to 2.09 % for Java vs Borneo. Phylogenetic NJ tree showed that there were two main clades, i.e. 1) birds of Jambi (Sumatra), Johor (Malay Peninsula), Sabah-Sarawak (Borneo), and Ujung Kulon (Java), and 2) birds of G. Gede Pangrango, G. Halimun, and Dieng (Java). Past geologic event may influenced genetic divergence occurred within the populations. Moreover, geographic features such as mountain may played role for population isolation as showed on the Little Spiderhunter bird from G. Halimun, G. Gede Pangrango and Dieng.Key words: mitochondrial DNA, ND2 gene, Arachnothera longirostra, genetic divergence
Avifauna Diversity in Kangean Archipelago Irham, Mohammad
ZOO INDONESIA Vol 25, No 2 (2016): Desember 2016
Publisher : Masyarakat Zoologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Research on the avifauna of Kangean Archipelago were conducted between 2007-2008. Objective of the studies were to obtain new data on the species numbers and community diversity at the main islands in various types of habitat. Three methods were applied i.e. opportunistic observation, point counts and mist netting. Each method would be complemen-tary in order to get a complete list of Kangean avifauna, while point counts were intended to be used for community di-versity study. A total of 82 species were recorded from which some of them especially migrating birds were new to the island. The richest diversity was found in natural habitat i.e. natural forest (28 species, Shannon index = 3.07), open area (32 species, Shannon index = 3.18) and mangrove (34 species, Shannon index = 3.09). Avian diversity was poor at teak plantation with only 26 species observed (Shannon index = 2.86). The threats to avian communities were apparent at song birds such as white-rumped shama and hill mynah. Those birds were hardly encountered during the survey. To be con-cluded, Kangean archipelago were richer in avifauna diversity than previously known, however hunting pressure and illegal logging might become serious threats to its existence.
Analisis Gen Cytochrome Oxydase-1 (CO1) untuk Konfirmasi Status Taksonomi Burung Srigunting Sumbawa (Dicrurus, Dicruridae) Astuti, Dwi; Ashari, Hidayat; Irham, Mohammad; Sulandari, Sri
ZOO INDONESIA Vol 26, No 1 (2017): Juli 2017
Publisher : Masyarakat Zoologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (620.941 KB)

Abstract

Sekuen DNA dari gen cytochrome oxydase-1 (COI) diadopsi untuk membangun pengelompokan dan kekerabatan dari burung-burung srigunting (Dicrurus; Dicruridae). Tujuannya adalah untuk mengkonfirmasi apakah srigunting dari Sum-bawa merupakan spesies tersendiri atau merupakan bagian dari superspesies D. hottentotus. Sekuen DNA sepanjang 795-bp pada gen COI diambil dari delapan burung srigunting dari Sulawesi Tenggara (D. hottentotus leucops), enam srigunting dari T.N. Gn. Halimun, Jawa Barat (D. remifer), dan dua srigunting dari Sumbawa. Analisis Neighbor-joining (NJ) dilakukan untuk mengkonstruksi pohon filogeninya dengan mengkalkulasi semua substitusi basa (transisi dan trans-verse) pada software MEGA-5. Pohon NJ menunjukkan bahwa dua individu yang berasal dari Sumbawa jelas-jelas terpisah dari Dicrurus asal Sulawesi Tenggara (D. hottentotus) dengan didukung nilai bootstrap sebesar 100 % dan dipisahkan oleh nilai divergensi sekuen > 3,5%. Sedangkan D. remifer memisah jauh dari keduanya. Penelitian ini cenderung mendukung pendapat bahwa srigunting dari Sumbawa merupakan populasi yang berbeda dan tidak termasuk dalam grup D. hottentottus, tetapi termasuk dalam grup D. densus dari Nusa Tenggara dan kemungkinan besar adalah spesies monopiletik tersendiri sebagai D. bimaensis.
AVIFAUNA DIVERSITY AT CENTRAL HALMAHERA NORTH MALUKU, INDONESIA Mohammad Irham
ZOO INDONESIA Vol 21, No 1 (2012): Juli 2012
Publisher : Masyarakat Zoologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.52508/zi.v21i1.2355

Abstract

 Survei burung dengan menggunakan metode titik hitung dan jaring telah dilakukan di Halmahera, Maluku Utara di empat lokasi utama yaitu Wosea, Ake Jira, Tofu Blewen dan Bokit Mekot. Sebanyak 70 spesies burung dari 32 famili dijumpai selama penelitian lapangan. Keragaman burung tertinggi ditemukan di Tofu Blewen yaitu 50 spesies (Indeks Shannon = 2.64) kemudian diikuti oleh Ake Jira (48 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,63), Wosea (41 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,54) dan Boki Mekot (37 spesies, Indeks Shannon = 2,52 ). Berdasarkan Indeks Kesamaan Jaccard, komunitas burung di Wosea jauh berbeda dibandingkan lokasi lain. Gangguan habitat dan ketinggian memperlihatkan pengaruh pada keragaman burung terutama pada jenis-jenis endemik dan terancam seperti komunitas di Wosea. Beberapa jenis burung, terutama paruh bengkok seperti Kakatua Putih, menunjukkan hubungan negatif dengan ketinggian . 
Variasi nukleotida gen COI pada Burung Sempidan (Genus Lophura) Astuti, Dwi; Irham, Mohammad; Ashari, Hidayat
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 14, No 1 (2018): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v14i1.3668

Abstract

ABSTRACTGallopheasant birds (Genus Lophura) belonging to Phasianidae family. L. inornata and L.ignita were 2 of 5 species in Indonesia. This study was aimed to determine the genetic variation and diversity of those two bird species based on DNA sequences of COI gene. Total genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and wet meat from 5 individuals (4 individuals L.inornata hoogerwerfi and 1 individual L. Ignita). Amplification of COI gene by PCR produced a single fragment of about 860 bp. The 785 bp of DNA sequence data from 5 birds were analyzed to determine its genetic variation and diversity, both of at intra and inter-species levels using MEGA 5 software. Genetic distance between individual bird (intraspecific) of L.i. hoogerwerfii ranged from 0.00 to 0.0013 ± 0.0012, whereas between 2 species (L. hoogerwerfii vs L. ignita) ranged from 0.0467 ± 0.0078 to 0.0481 ± 0.0080. Three individuals of L. i. hoogerwerfii have the same DNA sequence haplotype (HLh1) and one individual has one haplotype that was very different from the other 3 individuals (HLh2), so from 4 indi-vidual birds there were only 2 haplotypes with 0.400 ± 0.237 haplotype diversity (Hd) value. Nucleotide substi-tution / differences occured in 4 nucleotide sites (site 320, 711, 738, and 779) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) was 0.00204 ± 0.00121. Between two species (L.i.hoogerwerfii and L. ignita) occured 39 - 404 nucleotide subsitu-tion sites. The average number of codon encoding amino acid was 261 with a value of codon bias was 0.314. The existence of a nucleotide substitution indicated that there were genetic variations in both intraspecies and interspesies levels. Genetic variation and diversity of L.i. hoogerwerfii were low. Information from this re-search is useful for conservation of this bird.Keywords: DNA sequence, COI, genetic variation, Lophura inornata hoogerwerfii, L. ignita.
Ornithological observations from Maratua and Bawean Islands, Indonesia Burner, Ryan C.; Shakya, Subir B.; Haryoko, Tri; Irham, Mohammad; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M.; Sheldon, Frederick H
TREUBIA Vol 45 (2018): Vol. 45, December 2018
Publisher : Research Center for Biology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/treubia.v45i0.3445

Abstract

Indonesia’s many islands, large and small, make it an important center of avian diversity and endemism. Current biogeographic understanding, however, is limited by the lack of modern genetic samples for comparative analyses from most of these islands, and conservation efforts are hampered by the paucity of recent information from small islands peripheral to major, more commonly visited  islands. In November and December 2016, we visited Maratua, an oceanic coral atoll 50 km east of Borneo, and Bawean, a volcanic island on the Sunda continental shelf 150 km north of Java, to survey birds and collect specimens for morphological and genetic analysis. We detected many of the birds on Maratua’s historical lists and added several new resident and migratory species. Notably, we did not detect the Maratua White-rumped Shama (Copsychus malabaricus barbouri). On Bawean, we found the forests to be nearly silent and detected remarkably few resident land-bird species overall. The           severe population reduction of C. m. barbouri on Maratua and the drastic reduction of forest birds on Bawean probably result from overexploitation by the cage-bird trade in the first case and a combination of the cage-bird trade and pellet-gun hunting in the second.