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PENGARUH KONSENTRASI ASAM TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN MUATAN PERMUKAAN SELULOSA TERMODIFIKASI Pratama, Agus Wedi; Piluharto, Bambang; Indarti, Dwi; Haryati, Tanti; Addy, Hardian Susilo
ALCHEMY Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 15, No 2 (2019): Vol 15, No 2 (2019) Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia
Publisher : UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET (UNS)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20961/alchemy.15.2.33756.315-328

Abstract

Selulosa merupakan salah satu biopolimer melimpah yang banyak digunakan dalam berbagai bidang seperti kertas, energi dan material komposit. Hidrofilisitas, dapat diperbaharui, ramah lingkungan dan aman adalah sifat-sifat selulosa yang dapat berpotensi menjadi material maju. Berdasarkan sifat-sifatnya, selulosa dapat dimodifikasi untuk menghasilkan sifat fungsional yang sesuai dengan aplikasinya. Dalam penelitian ini, selulosa mikrokristalin (MCC) dimodifikasi melalui metode hidrolisis asam. Prinsip metode ini adalah penghilangan bagian amorf pada selulosa oleh asam, meninggalkan bagian kristal. Selain itu, ketika asam digunakan sebagai agen hidrolisis, maka akan menghasilkan muatan permukaan pada selulosa. Dalam penelitian ini, pengaruh berbagai konsentrasi asam pada struktur kimia, kristalinitas, morfologi dan muatan permukaan telah dikaji. Perubahan struktur selulosa dianalisis menggunakan Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), kristalinitas menggunakan X-ray Diffraction (XRD), morfologi menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) dan muatan permukaan menggunakan titrasi konduktomteri. Hasil analisis FTIR menunjukkan masuknya gugus sulfat pada struktur selulosa. Analisis XRD menunjukkan peningkatan kristallinitas dalam selulosa termodifikasi seiring bertambahnya konsentrasi asam. Hasil analisis morfologi menunjukkan partikel dalam selulosa termodifikasi (CM) lebih tersebar daripada MCC. Analisis titrasi konduktometri menunjukkan bahwa mengalami peningkatan muatan permukaan pada CM seiring dengan bertambahnya konsentrasi asam. Oleh karena itu, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengaruh konsentrasi asam sulfat pada hidrolisis selulosa memberikan dampak yang signifikan pada sifat fisik dan muatan permukaan.Effect of Acid Concentration on Physical Properties and Surface charge of Modified Cellulose. Cellulose is one of abundant biopolymer that many widely used in various applications such as paper, energy and composite material. Hydrophilicity, renewable, biodegradable, and safety are cellulose properties that can became potential of advance materials. In the utilization, cellulose can be modified its properties for different purposes. In this work, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was modified by acid hydrolysis method. The principle of this method is removed amorphous region of cellulose by acid and leaving crystalline phase. Moreover, when acid was used as hydrolyzing agent, it produce the surface charge on cellulose. In this research, the effect of various concentration of acid on the chemical structure, crystallinity, morphology and surface charge have studied. The chemical structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), crystallinity using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and surface charge using titration conductometric. The FTIR analysis result has successfully showed the entry of sulfate groups on the cellulose structure. The XRD analysis showed increasing crystallinity in Cellulose Modified (CM) with increase acid concentration. By morphology analysis, particles in CM more disperse than MCC. Analysis of conductometric titration shows that there is an increase in surface charge in CM as acid concentration increases. Thus, the effect of sulfuric acid concentration on hydrolysis of cellulose has a significant impact on physical properties and surface charge.
Identification of Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen and Diclofenac by Using Test Strip Based on Imobilized Spesific Reagent on Nata De Coco Membrane Ningtyas, Karisma Wulan; Zulfikar, Zulfikar; Piluharto, Bambang
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 16 No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (261.862 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v16i2.1520

Abstract

Identification of ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac can be done by using simple method, it is called test strips. Test strip is made by immobilized specific reagents with entrapment technical on membrane matrix, which the used membrane nata de coco. Immobilization reagents with entrapment techniques aimed to trap reagent molecules in the space between the supporting material.The success of this imobilization can be seen from membran changing color after additional reagent and there is no leeching after additional sample on membrane. The used reagent for this identification is methyl red for ibuprofen and ketorpofen, copper acetate for ibuprofen, potassium iodide for ketorofen and mandelin for diclofenac. From the testing result can be seen that potassium iodide is the most specific reagent compare with the other threee other reagents. By using tes strip arranged with the strip made by this imobilization, test srtrip can be used to differentiate the tree other standard samples.   Keywords: entrapment, nata de coco membrane, reagent spesific, test strip.
PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI MEMBRAN DATAR ( FLAT MEMBRANE ) BERBASIS POLISULFON: STUDI PENGARUH PROSENTASI POLISULFON DALAM KOMPOSISI MEMBRAN Piluharto, Bambang; Sjaifullah, Achmad; Maryanto, Maryanto
Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 7, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Teknik membran ultrafiltrasi mempunyai peran sangat penting dalam kemajuan industri pangan, misalnya dalam proses pemekatan susu kedelai dari isolat protein kedelai. Material yang dipakai dalam teknik membran ultrafiltrasi pada umumnya bersifat hidrofobik karena tahan terhadap bahan kimia, sifat mekanik yang baik dan mempunyai kestabilan termal yang baik. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan pembuatan, karakterisasi dan optimasi membran berdasarkan variasi prosentasi polisulfon dalam membran. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukan bahwa melalui analisis morfologi, Struktur membran yang diperoleh berbentuk asimetrik, yang memiliki dua lapisan pori yang berbeda. Lapisan kulit yang lebih rapat dibanding sub lapisannya. Hasil uji  fluks air maupun larutan dekstran menunjukan bahwa semakin besar komposisi polimer dalam membran nilai fluksnya semakin turun. Kecenderungan sebaliknya teramati pada hasil uji permselektifitas membran. Nilai MWCO 580 kD dicapai oleh dua jenis membran dengan komposisi polimer 18% dan 20%. Dengan mempertimbangkan dua aspek utama kinerja membran yaitu fluks dan permselektifitas membran, membran dengan komposisi polimer 18% akan dipakai sebagai membran dasar untuk proses modifikasi membran pada tahap selanjutnya dengan teknik UV-fotografting.
Membran Blend Kitosan/Poli Vinil Alkohol (PVA): Pengaruh Komposisi material blend, pH, dan Konsentrasi bahan Pengikat Silang Piluharto, Bambang; Sjaifullah, A; Rahmawati, I; Nurharianto, Erix
Jurnal Kimia Riset Vol 2, No 2 (2017): Desember
Publisher : Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (607.455 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/jkr.v2i2.6195

Abstract

AbstrakMembran blend biodegradabel dengan kestabilan termal dan mekanik yang berasal dari gabungan kitosan dan PVA telah dihasilkan melalui dua tahapan. Pada tahap pertama dilakukan proses pelarutan kitosan dan poli vinil alkohol dan selanjutnya pencampuran kitosan/PVA dan asam oksalat sebagai agen pengikat silang. Asam asetat dan air dipilih sebagai pelarut untuk kitosan dan PVA. Beberapa variasi dalam proses seperti perbandingan konsentrasi kitosan:PVA, konsentrasi agen pengikat silang dan pH buffer, dijadikan sebagai parameter pada penelitian ini. Kerapatan hidrogel dan kuat tarik mengalami kenaikan seiring dengan peningkatan konsentrasi agen pengikat silang dan PVA dengan konsentrasi kitosan paling rendah. Namun derajat swelling memiliki trend yang berbeda dimana naiknya derajat swelling diperoleh seiring dengan peningkatan konsentrasi kitosan dengan kondisi konsentrasi agen pengikat silang dan PVA paling rendah. Keberhasilan proses blending  dan ikat silang ditunjukkan dari hasil spektra infra merah dimana analisa spektrum infra merah dari hidrogel kitosan murni dan hidrogel kitosan/PVA menunjukkan kenaikan intensitas serapan pada daerah amida (1600 cm-1 sampai 1670 cm-1), hal ini menguatkan dugaan terbentuknya ikatan silang antara asam oksalat sebagai crosslinker dengan kitosan. Kata kunci: membran blend, kitosan/PVA, asam oksalat, pengikat silang. AbstractBiodegradable blend membranes with thermal and mechanical stability based on combination of chitosan and PVA have been produced through two stages. In the first stage, chitosan and PVA are dissolved and further mixing chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol with oxalic acid as crosslinking agents. Acetic acid and water are selected as solvents for chitosan and PVA. Some variations in the process such as comparison of chitosan:PVA concentration, concentration of crosslinking agent and pH of buffer, are used as parameters in this study. The hydrogel density and tensile strength increased with increasing concentration of crosslinking agent and PVA with the lowest concentration of chitosan. However, the degree of swelling has a distinct trend in which the increase of degree of swelling is obtained along with the increase of chitosan concentration with the lowest concentration of crosslinking agent and PVA. The success of the blending and crosslinking process is shown by the results of infrared spectra where infrared spectrum analyzes from purified chitosan hydrogels and chitosan/chloride hydrogels show an increase in absorption intensity in the amide area (1600 cm-1 to 1670 cm-1), this reinforces the alleged crosslinking formation between oxalic acid as crosslinker and chitosan. Keywords: blend membrane, chitosan: PVA, crosslinker.
Preparation and Characterization of Polysulfone/Celullose Acetate (PSF/CA) Blend Membrane Syahbanu, Intan; Piluharto, Bambang; Khairi, Syahrul; Sudarko, S.; Hermanto, Toto
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 20 No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (176.932 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v20i1.8684

Abstract

Blend polysulfone (PSF)/cellulose acetate (CA) membranes have prepared by phase inversion method. In here, CA was prepared from bacterial cellulose by acetylation reaction. Various temperature of coagulation bath were used as variable to investigated water uptake, water flux, porosity and thermal properties of membranes. As comparison, the CA commercial (CCA) was also investigated with the same parameters. As the result, the functional group analysis by FTIR show that CA has successfully prepared from bacterial cellulose. The parameters include water uptake, water flux and porosity have the similar trend. The parameters increase with increasing of temperature of coagulation bath. The other hand, CCA membrane have similar trend to CA membranes for parameter of water water uptake, water flux and porosity. However, CCA membrane is higher than CA membranes for all parameters. Thermal analysis by Differential Scanning (DSC) showed that all blend membranes with different temperature of coagulation bath have single transition glass temperature (Tg) that indicated that molecular homogeneity. Keywords: blend membrane, phase inversion, coagulation bath, water flux, porosity.
Polysulfone Membrane with UV-Photografting Technique and it Application at Soya Milk Filtration Processing Piluharto, Bambang; Sjaifullah, Achmad; Rahmawati, Istiqomah; Maryanto, Maryanto
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 14 No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (772.36 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v14i1.480

Abstract

In the separation process of solution containing protein, interaction between membrane surface and protein can cause fouling irreversibely. So, efficiency of filtration process will decline. In this research, to improve the effeciency of filtration was done by modification of membrane using UV-photografting technique. Acrylic acid had been introduced topolysulphone membrane via this technique. The hydrophylic membrane was obtained. The membrane performance was evaluated in soymilk fouling test. The first step of research had obtained PSF membrane optimation about PSF 18%. In second step, the research was focused on the modification and characterization of PSF membrane by UV-Fotografting tehchnique. In this technique, monomer concentration and radiation time was used as variable. As the result, PSF membrane had been modificated succesfully by UV- photografting tehchnique with optimum condition in 15 minutes time radiation and concentration of acrylic acid 5%. Performance of modified membranes (flux and permselectivity) were better than unmodified membranes. The fouling test showed that the modified membranes have reduced fouling degree significantly. Keywords : Ultrafiltration membrane, UV-photografting, flux and permselectivity, fouling
CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFONATED POLYSULFONE/BENTONITE HYBRID MEMBRANES Piluharto, Bambang; Indahsari, R.; Haryati, Tanti; Syafi’i, Imam
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 13 No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (349.616 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v13i1.630

Abstract

Sulfonated polysulfone membrane is one of the alternative membranes as replacing Nafion membrane for the fuel cell application. This membrane was prepared by introducing sulfonic group in the polysulfone structure backbone, so that provides the ionic membrane. However, more ionic groups in the SPSF membrane lead to loss mechanical stability. This study aims to prepare the hybrid membrane from SPSF and bentonite. In here, various of bentonite concentrations were used as variable to study water uptake and ion-exchange capacity properties. As the results, increasing bentonite concentrations lead to increase water uptake and ion-exchange capacity. By the functional group analysis, proved that adding bentonite in SPSF did not change structure of SPSF, means that interaction between SPSF and bentonite were physical interactions.
Silica Gels from Coal Fly Ash as Methylene Blue Adsorbent: Isotherm and Kinetic Studies Sulistiyo, Yudi Aris; Andriana, Nida; Piluharto, Bambang; Zulfikar, Zulfikar
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis 2017: BCREC Volume 12 Issue 2 Year 2017 (August 2017)
Publisher : Department of Chemical Engineering - Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.758 KB) | DOI: 10.9767/bcrec.12.2.766.263-272

Abstract

A lot of dye pollutants were released in the aquatic environment as waste from industrial coloring process. This research aimed to study silica gels (SG) as a potential adsorbent to remove the dyes. The SG can be synthesized from coal fly ash (FA), which is industrial solid waste rarely utilized, using the sol-gel method. Its properties were then characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and isothermal ads-des N2. As a result, FTIR spectra and XRD diffractogram exhibited the successfully SG synthesized from FA with the amorphous structure. The image analysis using SEM demonstrated that SG particles are spherical. The isotherm type, based on isotherm ads-des N2, is type II without hysteresis loop which represents the nonporous material SG with the surface area and pore diameter of 25.977 m2/g and 1.52 nm, respectively. The adsorption capacity performance of SG to remove methylene blue (MB) as a basic dye is 62.70 % which is higher than FA, following Langmuir isotherm adsorption model. The kinetics of adsorption rate of SG are based on the pseudo second order models accelerated by 3.37 times faster than FA. 
Effect of Addition of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) on Coagulation Basin to Characteristics of Cellulose Acetate Membranes Rofiqoh, Siti; Indarti, Dwi; Piluharto, Bambang
Jurnal ILMU DASAR Vol 17 No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (252.307 KB) | DOI: 10.19184/jid.v17i2.2687

Abstract

The aim of recearch is study the effect of MSG in coagulation basin on cellulose acetat membranes properties. It was preparated by phase inversion technique. As the result showed that the higher the concentration of MSG in coagulation basin, which is character of membrane permeability coefficients and lower water flux. Dextran rejection of 11, 40, 100-200, and 500 kDa increased. The morphology analysis has shown that sub layer membranes structure with 2% MSG addition more uniform than 0,5% MSG addition.Keywords: cellulose acetat, phase inversion, MSG, coagulation basin
Optimisation of Extractant and Extraction Time on Portable Extractor Potentiometric Method for Determining Phosphate in Soil Sukaton, Anggia Rose; Siswoyo, Siswoyo; Piluharto, Bambang
UNEJ e-Proceeding 2016: Proceeding The 1st International Basic Science Conference
Publisher : UPT Penerbitan Universitas Jember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Phosphorus is one of the nutrients which is needed by plants in large amounts. Fertilisation is a popular solution for supplying a sufficient amount of phosphorus in the soil. However, phosphorus can pollute water bodies and lead to eutrophication if fertilisation is carried out without considering prior information about the soil condition. Thus, analysis of phosphorus needs to be done before fertilisation. This paper is reporting a result in development an alternative strategy for analysing the phopsphorus in soil agriculture using potentiometric method. The aims of this research were to find the optimum condition of extractant and extraction time for determining phosphate, one form of phosphorus, in soil and evaluate a portable extractor potentiometric (PEP) method for determining phosphate in soil. Measurement of phosphate was undertaken by using cobalt working electrode, silver-silver chloride reference electrode and 0,025 M potassium hydrogen phtalate at pH 4 as ionic strength adjuster. Evaluation of PEP method was carried out by comparing this method with both the conventional potentiometric (CP) and the standard spectrometric (SS) methods. It was found that Kelowna was the optimum extractant for measuring phosphate potentiometrically in soil by CP method. Extraction time of 10 minutes was the optimum time for extracting phosphate in soil using Kelowna extractand solution. The result also shown that correlation between PEP and CP method was 0.883 whereas correlation between PEP and SS method was 0.924. Linear response characterisation of both PEP and CP method has obtained slope of (-28.47) and (-23.67) mV per decade respectively, in other hand the PEP and CP has resulted the detection limit 0.72 ppm and 0.83 ppm respectively. Repeatability for both PEP and CP method were less than 5%.