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Kasus Depresi Berulang pada Anak Usia Sekolah dengan Penolakan Bersekolah Puspitosari, Warih Andan; Pratiti, Budi
Mutiara Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Vol 7, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18196/mmjkk.v7i2.1677

Abstract

Depression in children is often under-recognized because not all children complain of sad feeling. The incidence of depression in prepuberty and adolescence is estimated 1.5-2.5% and 4-5% respectively. The clinical appearance is influenced by the child’s age and psychological experience such as irritability, decrease of school achievement, withdrawal from social or leisure activity, and feeling more of inward signs like depressed, guilty or useless feeling and suicidal ideation. The aim of this paper is to report a case of recurrent child depression with refusal of going to school with method depth-interview towards the child and his family. Result of this report case of recurrent depression in a school-aged child with refusal to go to school was reported. A 10-year old boy who was in 5th grade of elementary school refused to go to school for 3 months. Clinical appearance showed sad looking, withdrawal, irritability, difficulty to sleep, depressed feeling, and decreased school achievement. The psychosocial stressor was bullying done by his schoolmates. Two years prior to the condition when he was in the 3th grade, the child showed the same clinical appearance with a stressor of mistreatment from his teacher. He was given pharmacotherapy and behavioral therapy.Berbeda dengan Depresi pada orang dewasa, kasus depresi pada anak sering tidak terdiagnosis (uunderrecognised), karena tidak semua penderita Depresi pada anak mengeluh sedih. Insiden anak prapubertas diperkirakan 1,5-2,5% dan menjadi 4-5% pada masa remaja. Gambaran klinis yang tampak pada anak dipengaruhi oleh usia dan pengalaman psikologis anak, seperti lekas marah (iirritable), prestasi sekolah menurun, menyingkir dari kegiatan sosial atau aktivitas yang menyenangkan dan anak merasa murung (inward sign) seperti perasaan yang tertekan, rasa bersalah, rasa tak berharga, dan pikiran bunuh diri, tujuannya adalah melaporkan 1 kasus depresi berulang pada anak dengan masalah penolakan bersekolah, metoda yang digunakan wawancara mendalam terhadap penderita dan keluarga penderita. Dilaporkan 1 kasus depresi berulang pada anak usia sekolah dengan masalah penolakan sekolah. Seorang anak laki-laki berusia 10 tahun, klas 5 SD, tidak mau sekolah selama 3 bulan. Gejala klinis yang ada adalah tampak sedih, tidak mau keluar rumah untuk berinteraksi dengan teman-temannya, mudah marah (irritabel), sulit tidur, merasa tertekan, prestasi belajar menurun, menyakiti diri sendiri. Stressor psikososial adalah perlakuan nakal dari teman-temannya dalam bentuk ejekan dan perilaku kasar yang menyakitkan. Dua tahun sebelumnya pada saat duduk di kelas 3, anak pernah mengalami hal serupa dengan stressor perlakuan gurunya yang tidak baik. Diberikan farmakoterapi dan terapi perilaku pada penderita.
Comorbid of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Schizophrenia: A Case Report Pratiti, Budi; Aritonang, Jimmi
Scientia Psychiatrica Vol. 1 No. 1 (2020): Scientia Psychiatrica
Publisher : HM Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (104.855 KB) | DOI: 10.37275/scipsy.v1i1.1

Abstract

Abstract Introduction Schizophrenia was a chronic mental disorder that marked by abnormal social and impairment in reality testing ability. A person diagnosed with schizophrenia may experience amount of symptoms including hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking, bizzare speech and behaviour. Obsessive compulsive disorder are well known as a comorbid of schizophrenia. Comorbid OCD will affect treatment of schizophrenia and others mental disorder. Case Presentation A 14-year-old student Muslim boy from a rural household in Central Java, Indonesia who had 8 years of formal education and live with his parent was brought to emergency department of mental hospital by his parents who reported a one year history of excessive washing of his body, soaking his body for hours in bathtub and sleep in bathroom. The patient first fell in January 2019; over a six-month period he became progressively deteriorated, lost interest in his hobby, stopped going to school and reduced his food intake. After one week treatment of venlafaxine and risperidone, He became more cooperative and interactive to the examiner. At that time, the patient reported delusional beliefs about contamination, paranoid delusion and there were several indications of formal thought disorder, including derailment, neologisms, concrete thinking, circumstantiality, and illogicality. An intelligence test revealed average intelligence (IQ=100). The total score of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) 3 dropped from 42 to 24, the score on the Yates-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (YBOCS)4 scale dropped from 24 to 18, and the score on the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF)5 increased from 25 to 55. After discharge the patient adhered to his medication regimen and at three months after discharge his clinical improvement persisted; he was able to maintain is his personal hygiene and take care of his daily needs, but he remained socially isolated and was unable to return to school. Conclusion Obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia could happen together in one individual. The treatment should consider underlying condition and cognitive function, especially if patient in productive age.
Video Game Increases Depression in Students Humries, Edith; Pratiti, Budi; Wulandari, Patricia; Hidayat, Rachmat
Scientia Psychiatrica Vol. 1 No. 1 (2020): Scientia Psychiatrica
Publisher : HM Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (148.035 KB) | DOI: 10.37275/scipsy.v1i1.3

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Abstract Introduction The effects of exposure to violence in newspaper and electronic media to children and adolescents were being an awareness various parties, namely, researchers, health practitioners and policy makers. Depression is a mental problem that is always found due to exposure to video games. Method This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional research design. The subjects of the study were teenagers aged 15-18 years, students of Vocational School Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS 16. Data analysis to assess the relationship between length and video game content with depression levels (Children’s Depression Inventory -2) used Independent student T-test analysis and linear regression analysis. Results The study subjects consisted of 4.3% men and 95.7% women. There were no significant differences between subjects with male and female sex related to CDI-2 score, p> 0.05. The sexes of men and women have CDI-2 scores of 26.92 ± 5.02 and 26, 42 ± 3.32, respectively. There is a significant relationship between the intensity of playing video games with a CDI-2 score. Research subjects who had the intensity of playing video games for more than 2 hours a day had a higher mean CDI-2 score (28.62 ± 2.62, p <0.05) when compared to research subjects who played video games for less than 2 hours per day (26.13 ± 3.38, p <0.05). There was a significant relationship between video game content and the average CDI-2 score. Research subjects who played violent video games had higher CDI-2 scores (29.91 ± 2.07, p <0.05) when compared to groups who played video games with non-violent game themes (26, 29 ± 3.37 , p <0.05). Based on linear regression analysis, there is a relationship between the intensity of playing video games with the average CDI-2 score (β = 1.87, SE = 0.72, p = 0.01). Meanwhile, for video game content there is no relationship between video game content containing violence and the average CDI-2 score (β = 1.91, SE = 1.21, p = 0.11). Conclusion There is a relationship between the intensity of playing video games with the average CDI-2 score.
Haloperidol and Risperidone Induce Apoptosis Neuronal Cell : Invivo Study Panserga, Ester G; Kristanto, Cecep S; Pratiti, Budi; Wulandari, Patricia
Scientia Psychiatrica Vol. 1 No. 1 (2020): Scientia Psychiatrica
Publisher : HM Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (271.205 KB) | DOI: 10.37275/scipsy.v1i1.5

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Abstract Introduction Antipsychotics are drugs that are widely prescribed for mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and psychosis. Recent in vitro studies show antipsychotics play a role in the initiation of neuronal cell apoptosis. This study aims to determine the effect of haloperidol and risperidone on neuronal cell apoptosis in Wistar white rats. Methods Male wistar rats aged 8 weeks (n = 30) were used in this study. Wistar rats were randomized into 6 groups. Group A: 5 wistar rats as a control without induced schizophrenia, aquades and drugs. Group B: 5 Wistar-induced psychotic mice (using 30 mg / kgBB ketamine, intraperitoneal injection for 5 days) and aquadest. Group C: 5 rats were induced psychotic and were given haloperidol or 0.05 mg / kgBB orally, for 28 days. Group D: 5 mice were induced psychotic and were given haloperidol 0.1 mg / kg orally, for 28 days. Group E: 5 mice were induced psychotic and were given risperidone 0.05 mg / kgBB orally, for 28 days. Group F: 5 mice were induced psychotic and given risperidone 0.1 mg / kgBB orally, for 28 days. Apoptosis of neuronal cells in the ventral tegmental area was assessed by caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The colored area will be calculated as a total percentage using the imageJ program. Results Risperidone and haloperidol increase caspase-3 activity, but haloperidol increases caspase-3 activity more than risperidone. Conclussion Risperidone and haloperidol induce apoptosis of neuronal cells and tardive dyskinesia in Wistar rats with psychotic models.
Tension Type Headache Comorbid with Moderate Depression : A Case Report Pratiti, Budi
Scientia Psychiatrica Vol. 1 No. 2 (2020): Scientia Psychiatrica
Publisher : HM Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.37275/scipsy.v1i2.12

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Abstract Introduction. Tension type headaches (TTH) are generally caused by psychological factors and psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders and depression are more often associated with TTH than other disorders. This case report discusses the tension type headache accompanied by depression and its management. Case Presentation. Miss Y, a 17 year old girl, 2nd in birth order, an undergraduate student living in a boarding house with her sister and coming from a low socio-economic background, came to Dr. Sardjito General hospital, Indonesia with complaints of severe headache since 2 months ago. Family history shows that there is a conflict in the patient's parents which makes the patient disappointed. In the examination found inferiority feelings, guilt and worry will disappoint everyone. She was then agreed to do cognitive behavior therapy and take medication according to doctor's orders. After 8 sessions, she developed confidence and started to carry out daily similar sessions at home. Conclusion.Tension-type headache in this case is accompanied by a dominant psychological factor. Collaboration between pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in treating patients with tension type headaches is a fairly effective choice.
Psychodynamic Approach, Social Cognitive and Neurobiology Aspect of Tantrum Behaviour in Children Pratiti, Budi
Scientia Psychiatrica Vol. 1 No. 3 (2020): Scientia Psychiatrica
Publisher : HM Publisher

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.37275/scipsy.v1i3.18

Abstract

Abstract One form of emotional expression in the form of explosive anger in children is known as tantrum behaviour, which can be categorized as bad behaviour based on the perspective of some parents. This is very much related to the problem of child despair, which is caused by the way parents are not quite right in responding to tantrums, so the child reacts inappropriately. Parental responses make children increasingly undisciplined, even this provides opportunities for children to find certain ways to get their desires in a negative way. The child's inability to communicate is one aspect of tantrum studies. This communication is more translated as an expression of emotion and better known as tantrum. This article review will discuss temper tantrum behaviour in children along with a review of various theoretical points of view.