cover
Contact Name
-
Contact Email
apghnjgai@gmail.com
Phone
-
Journal Mail Official
apghnjgai@gmail.com
Editorial Address
The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Jalan Letjen S Parman Kav 87, Jakarta, Indonesia
Location
Kota adm. jakarta pusat,
Dki jakarta
INDONESIA
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
ISSN : -     EISSN : 28305442     DOI : -
Core Subject : Health,
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (APGHN) is the official journal issued by the Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (Perhimpunan Gastroenterologi, Hepatologi, dan Nutrisi Anak Indonesia). APGHN is issued four times in a year and published in English. Previously published in print form as Jurnal Gastrohepatologi Anak Indonesia (JGAI), APGHN is committed to promote scientific development in child’s health through high-quality publication and provides recent updates on pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition for health practitioners and scholars. APGHN accepts original articles, case reports, review articles, medical illustrations and clinical practice guidelines, all of which have been peer-reviewed carefully by our selected experts.
Articles 29 Documents
Risk Factors of Chronic Diarrhea in HIV-Infected Children Satrio W. Fathurrahman; Pramita Gayatri
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 1 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 1 May 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (372.369 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.1.2022.1-8

Abstract

Background. Chronic diarrhea increases mortality and other long-term morbidities in children. HIV-infected children are at higher risk of developing chronic diarrhea. Objective. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics, prevalence, and risk factors of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected children. Methods. Data were obtained retrospectively from medical records of HIV-infected children at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital (RSCM) from January 2014 until December 2016. The risk factors evaluated included age, nutritional status, dehydration status, HIV-infection phase, use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, and stool culture. All data that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were analyzed by bivariate followed by multivariate analysis, except for stool culture. Results. The prevalence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected children in RSCM was 12.98%. Analysis of 132 data showed that chronic diarrhea was significantly associated with low nutritional status (p=0.037; adjusted OR=5.737) and dehydration (p=0.026; adjusted OR=6.891) among HIV-infected children. Conclusion. Dehydration status and malnutrition are important risk factors for chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected children. These findings may also support that in managing HIV-infected children with diarrhea, one should first overcome dehydration and manage malnutrition to prevent the vicious circle of diarrhea – malnutrition – diarrhea.
Clinical Characteristic of Bloody Diarrhea in Under- Five Pediatric Inpatients Steven Christian Susianto; Alpha Fardah Athiyyah; Anak Agung Putri Nadia Paramitha; Eko Budi Koendhori; Khadijah Rizky Sumitro; Andy Darma; Reza Gunadi Ranuh; Subijanto Marto Sudarmo
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 1 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 1 May 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (325.457 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.1.2022.9-16

Abstract

Background: Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in under-five children. Bloody diarrhea comprises around 10% of all cases of diarrhea and may lead to severe complications until death. This study examined the characteristics of bloody diarrhea in children under five years old in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Surabaya from 2013 to 2017. Material and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data from Dr. Soetomo General Hospital's inpatients with bloody diarrhea from 2013 to 2017. Gender, age, nutritional status, clinical symptoms, degree of dehydration, and laboratory results were assessed, and the data were presented in percentage (%) Results: Fifty-six samples were included in this study. The main demographics were male (58,9%), aged 7-24 months (44,6%), and normal nutritional status (66,1%). Meanwhile, the most notable manifestations were stool mucous (55,3%), mild to moderate degree of dehydration (60,7%), and leukocytosis (62%). Eleven patients (39,2%) had temperatures ≥380C. Leukocytes were positive in 93.7% of the stools. Furthermore, amoeba was found in 46,8% of samples. The serum electrolyte result showed hyponatremia (18%) and hypokalaemia (15%). Conclusion: The primary demographics of bloody diarrhea in under-five children admitted to Dr. Soetomo General Hospital were males, 7-24 months of age, and with normal nutritional status. The most frequent manifestations were mucous in stool, mild to moderate dehydration, leucocytosis, as well as positive leucocytes and amoeba in the stool.
Clinical Manifestation of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome in Children with Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case Report Yudith Setiati Ermaya; Dyah Rahmawanti; Ina Rosalina; Dwi Prasetyo
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 1 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 1 May 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6225.367 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.1.2022.28-34

Abstract

The Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is a rare familial disorder with manifestation that varies from asymptomatic to a life-threatening emergency. The PJS is caused by mutations of the tumor suppressor gene STK11 in embryonic cells, which is traditionally characterized by the development of melanotic macules and intestinal polyps. This case is about a boy, five years old, admitted to the emergency unit with a chief complaint of dark-red blood stool, pale appearance, abdominal pain, and nausea. Upon physical examination, there were multiple black spots on the lips and buccal mucosa (melanotic macules). Laboratory findings showed hemoglobin levels of 5.9 g/dL and a hematocrit of 18.7%. Multiple polyps at the fundus, corpus, antral, ileocecal, terminal ileal, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum were identified from the endoscopy examination. There were signs of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding in the pylorus of the stomach and the middle part of the descendent colon from the scintigraphy, respectively.
A 10-year-old Boy with Giant Choledochal Cyst: A Case Report Ninung RD Kusumawati; Juwita Pratiwi
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 1 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 1 May 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6205.034 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.1.2022.35-40

Abstract

Choledochal duct cyst is a rare congenital anomaly in the form of cystic dilatation of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. The clinical symptoms of choledochal cysts are generally due to bile stasis, stone formation, recurrent superinfection, and inflammation. This case depicts a 10-year-old boy presented with a chief complaint of an enlarged abdomen that was rapidly growing, sub-febrile fever and yellowing of the sclera. A choledochal duct cyst was shown in the abdominal ultrasonography. Laboratory examination showed an increase in liver function test, hypoalbuminemia, and prolonged coagulation profile. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a significant cystic dilatation of the common bile duct extending to the common hepatic duct. Surgery was performed twice, first to drain the cyst and second to perform complete excision and anastomoses to the jejunum, as fluid continued to refill the cyst.
Autoimmune Hepatitis Fatima Safira Alatas; Gryselda Hanafi; Lestari Kanti Wilujeng; Nielda Kezia Sumbung
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 1 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 1 May 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (442.045 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.1.2022.17-27

Abstract

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a condition caused by self-perpetuating immune response towards hepatocytes in liver. In children, AIH may progressed more rapidly compared to adults. Thus, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are the key for successful management of AIH. Five main characteristics of AIH include female predominance, increased IgG or hypergammaglobulinemia, circulatory autoantibody seropositivity, and hepatitis interface from the histological finding. Liver biopsy is needed to evaluate the degree of damage and to confirm the diagnosis. The standard regiment for AIH include prednisone (or prednisolone) and azathioprine. Other alternative treatments available for non-responder, such as mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, budesonide, rituximab, and infliximab. AIH treatment is recommended to be taken minimally for 2-3 years before attempting treatment termination.
Demographic Characteristics of Children with Biliary Atresia in dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang Ninung RD Kusumawati; Ratna S Ritonga; Christian Kevin; Sherynne Sulaiman; Silviani S Siahaan; Juwita Pratiwi
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 2 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 2 August 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (182.33 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.2.2022.1-7

Abstract

Background: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive fibrosing obstructive cholangiopathy involving both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary system; resulting in obstruction of bile flow and neonatal jaundice. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia and Kasai procedure improves patients outcome. Data form several studies revealed that BA is the most common cause of neonatal cholestasis (25%) and the leading cause of end-stage liver disease in pediatric population. The aim of this study is to determine the outcome and characteristics of children with biliary atresia in dr. Kariadi General Hospital, Semarang. Methods: In this study, a retrospective database analysis of 80 infants diagnosed with biliary atresia was conducted. Patient’s demographic data including age, sex, age at disease onset, were collected from year 2018 to 2022; including all comorbidities and complications. Data regarding procedure performed for each patient and their outcome were included in this study. Results: Eighty children were included in this study. The mean age of children referred with biliary atresia was 1.89 month, while the mean age at diagnosis was 2.5 month. Most of the patients were girls. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection comorbidity in patients with biliary atresia is quite high, which were reported at 82%. Children diagnosed with biliary atresia and cytomegalovirus infection resulted in worse prognosis than those without. Conclusion: Our study support the theories that biliary atresia may be caused by the exposure of external environment during perinatal period such as viral infection. The prognosis of patients with cytomegalovirus comorbidity is worse than that without.
Characteristics of Pediatric Patients with Diarrhea in Indonesia: A Laboratory-based Report Lia Amanda; Karin Nadia Utami; Andria Amanda Pulungan; Diar Riyanti Rudiatmoko; Fatima Safira Alatas
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 2 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 2 August 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (192.545 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.2.2022.8-15

Abstract

Background: Diarrhea is still a common health problem in Indonesia, with high morbidity and mortality rate. The severity of diarrhea is associated with age, nutritional status, and cause of diarrhea. This study aims to describe the characteristics and laboratory findings, particularly stool analysis, in pediatric patients with diarrhea. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using data from patients aged 0 to 18 with diarrhea who underwent stool analysis in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between 2012 and 2016. Results: The average age of children with diarrhea was 45 months, with most patients (55,6%) being under two years old children. More than half of the patients were boys (58.8%). Two-thirds of the patients (67%) presented with watery stool diarrhea. The interpretation of stool analysis indicated that nearly half of the patients (48%) experienced diarrhea due to bacterial infection, followed by fat malabsorption (20.8%). Similar results were also seen in the stool analysis of children aged 0-24 months, with the prevalence of bacterial infection (35.2%) and fat malabsorption (30.2%) being the most commonly identified etiology of diarrhea. Conclusion: In Indonesia, children under two and male gender were more frequently reported to experience diarrhea. The primary manifestation of pediatric diarrhea was watery stools, while the most common etiology was bacterial infections.
Hypergastrinemia in Children : A Case Report Edbert Wielim; Nielda Kezia Sumbung; Ariani Dewi Widodo
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 2 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 2 August 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (241.496 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.2.2022.16-21

Abstract

Gastrin is an important hormone in the gastrointestinal system that promotes gastric acid secretion. Gastrin hormone is produced by the G-cells in the antrum of the stomach. Besides stimulating gastric acid secretion, gastrin also induces the proliferation of the gut epithelial cells, tissue remodelling, and angiogenesis. Gastrin levels higher than 100-150 pg/ml are known as hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia may cause the hypersecretion of stomach acid, which, if not treated properly, may leads to refractory peptic ulcer, severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), diarrhea, or death due to complications of refractory peptic ulcer. This case presented a 12 years old boy with a chief complaint of severe epigastric pain in the past month, accompanied by nausea, especially during supine position. The patient had a previous history of esophagitis. He showed no significant changes upon empirical PPI treatment. However, slight improvements were observed after the administration of Helicobacter pylori treatment. The gastrin level in this patient was 198 pg/mL. Upon discharge, the patient was still given PPI treatment. During the follow-up visitation, patient complaints had improved significantly, and the patient was planned to undergo routine evaluations of gastrin.
Gastroinstestinal Bleeding in Pediatrics Muzal Kadim
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 2 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 2 August 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (224.416 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.2.2022.28-36

Abstract

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) may occurs in infants and children. Most etiologies of GI bleeding are mild and self-limited, but may advance into life-threatening condition if not treated properly. Upper GI bleeding and lower GI bleeding can be classified based on bleeding sites that is above or below Treitz ligament. Causes of GI bleeding in infants and children varies according to their age and bleeding sites. Some conditions may be misunderstood as GI bleed such as consumption of certain red coloured food. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in children includes complete history taking, thorough physical examination, laboratory examination, radiological examination, and other supportive modality such as endoscopy. Early diagnosis and proper therapy can improve outcomes and prevent severe conditions.
Intussusception in Five Months Old Infant, A Rare Cause Colocolica without Pathologic Lead Point: A Case Report Yusri Dianne; Mutiara Annisa Amadea; Yorva Sayoeti
Archives of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Vol. 1 No. 2 (2022): APGHN Vol. 1 No. 2 August 2022
Publisher : The Indonesian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (308.734 KB) | DOI: 10.58427/apghn.1.2.2022.22-7

Abstract

Intussusception is a common cause in gastrointestinal obstruction and one of condition in which early treatment is critical. Given the risk of acute bowel ischemia, intussusception represents an abdominal emergency in the pediatric population. The symptoms are generally related to intestinal obstruction, as intussusception accounts for up to 50% of pediatric small bowel obstructions in some series. Colocolica intussusception is an uncommon type of intussusception in children that is usually associated with a pathological lead point. This report depicts a five-months-old female baby with a chief complaint of bloody stool 7 hours before admission, accompanied with non-bilious vomit. Patient exhibited the classic triad of intussusception and upon the radiologic examination, a colocolica was noted. Patient then underwent urgent exploratory laparotomy, and the colocolica was reduced through manual reduction (milking technique).

Page 1 of 3 | Total Record : 29