Suhardono .
Balai Penelitian Veteriner, Dirjenak — DEPTAN, Bogor

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Problems of Health of Buffaloes Reared in Swampy Area in South Kalimantan ., Suhardono
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 10, No 2 (2000)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (256.06 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v10i2.743


The population of buffaloes reared in swampy area in the province of South Kalimantan is high, and show a very good condition. These animals, however, are fulnerable to several diseases. From the analysis of available data and of a field monitoring, some diseases are potential to occur at certain time of the year, such as clostridium, surra, and fasciolosis. The emergence of the diseases in this area associates with some factors, such as availability of water, weed (enceng gondok or Eichornia crassipes), vector/intermediate host (flies and snails), and reservoir host (deer and wild pig). The tide water in this swampy area influences the population of vectors/intermediate hosts, also provide a condition for a contact between buffaloes and the reservoir hosts when seeking for drinking water. Deterioration of the weed and grasses facilitate an ideal media for propagation of anaerobic bacteria (e.g: clostridium). Based on these characteristics of those factors it is highly suspected that during the dry season, before the lowest water tide, the transmission of parasitic diseases in buffaloes (Fasciolosis and Trypanosomiasis) is occuring, while for clostridial disease is transmitted during the high water tide.   Key word: Buffalo, fasciolosis, trypanosomiasis, clostridium, swampy habitat
Swamp Buffalo in South Kalimantan : Problem, Disease and Control Priadi, Adin; ., Suhardono; Natalia, Lily
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 16, No 4 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1104.524 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v16i4.842


In recent years, several studies have been carried out to evaluate and investigate the important diseases of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus carabanensis) in Kalimantan . More attention has been focused on the case of acute infectious diseases and sudden death in the buffaloes . Fasciolosis black disease, acute enteritis, especially fatal enterotoxaemia haemorrhagic septicaemia . and trypanosomiasis (Surra), are some of the important diseases found in these animals . Black disease caused by toxigenic Clostridium novyi occurs in the presence of the organism in the liver and the degree of liver fluke Fasciola gigantica infestation . In regions where black disease is enzootic, Cl. novvi can be isolated from livers of normal healthy animals . In Hulu Sungai Utara district, South Kalimantan, the prevalence of fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica in swamp buffalo was 77% in 1991 . A gross sudden change in diet due to seasonal changes could induce rumen and intestinal stasis, which provide a favourable environment for the rapid proliferation of commensal toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in the small intestine . Subsequent absorption of the toxin produced through the gut wall and its generalized dissemination culminated in a fatal enterotoxaemia . Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal disease affecting swamp buffalo, and caused by Pasteurella multocida B : 2 . The swamp buffalo is particularly susceptible for HS, and the reported greatest losses of swamp buffalo in Kalimantan due to HS is recorded in 1980s. The clinical signs of Surra in swamp buffalo were also found in certain areas in Danau Panggang area . Hulu Sungai Utara district . Vaccination is the accepted method for controlling Black disease, enterotoxaemia and HS. Multi component vaccine, alum adjuvant containing at least 5 types of clostridial toxoids and P. multocida B2 bacterin have been used and provide good protection to the animals . Control and treatment of liver fluke infestation is advisable. Vaccination is recommended annually and should be carried out regularly . In these days, the farmers concern about the availability of the grass in the Danau Panggang area . The primary feed grass (Oryza sativa forma spontanea L), of the swamp buffalo were not sufficient in the low-tide season. The over population of Pamocea canaliculata (golden snail), a pest for lake vegetations, was thought to be responsible for this phenomena . Growing forages as the source of animal feed may be an option to improve the current performance of the swamp buffalo in the area. Key words : Diseases, swamp buffalo, control, South Kalimantan
The immune responses on cattle and buffaloes infected with Fasciola gigantica before and after treatment ., Suhardono; Widjajanti, S; Estuningsih, S.E
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 4, No 4 (1999)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (179.779 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v4i4.171


The immune responses of cattle and buffaloes against the infection of liver flukes Fasciola gigantica were observed by ELISA. Six cattle and 6 buffaloes were infected orally with 700 metacercariae of F. gigantica, 2 cattle and 2 buffaloes were remained uninfected as control animals. Serum blood samples were collected weekly and the antibody levels were monitored before and after treatment. The results showed that the antibody level on cattle increased after 2 weeks post-infection, then gradually increased until reaching the peak at II weeks after infection. In the contrary, the antibody level on buffaloes appeared slower than on cattle, it increased after 13 weeks of infection and reach the peak at 25 weeks after infection. When the antibodylevels reach the peak, both groups of infected animals were treated with triclabendazole. After treatment, the antibody level oncattle was immediately decreased at one week of treatment, and gradually decreased up to the lowest antibody level at 7 weeks after treatment. The response of the treatment on buffaloes showed almost similar pattern, the antibody level decreased after one week of treatment, then remained constant for about 4 weeks, and reach the lowest antibody level at 7 weeks after treatment. It is concluded that the immune responses against the infection of F. gigantica in cattle and buffaloes are different, but the response of the treatment with triclabendazole are similar.   Key words: Fasciola gigantica, cattle, buffaloes, antibody levels, triclabendazole
Population dinamics of Lymnaea rubiginosa in rice fields and its infection with larvae of trematodes Copeman, D.B; ., Suhardono
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 5, No 4 (2000)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (564.13 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v5i4.189


Field of irrigated rice paddy was the most suitable habitat as breeding site of snail Lymnaea rubiginosa, the intermadiate host of Fasciola gigantica and other trematodes. Fluctuations in the population of fresh water snail, L. rubiginosa in irrigated rice fields and their infection with L. rubiginosa and other trematodes were studied in five villages in the subdistrict of Surade, provivine of West Java. Snail were sampled based on time collection (half man hour) each site of collection. The samples of the snails were further counted and examined for the presence of larval trematodes. The result indicated that snails died during the dry season except those in persistent aquatic refuges such as streams and springs. Surviving snails recolonised rice fields near villages by passive transfer with water from refuges early in the wet season. Some recolonosation may also have resulted from haching of snail eggs deposited in habitats which had not been dried for more than a few weeks. Recolonisation with snails of further rice fields from a village occurred during the later period of the wet season. No snail infected with F. gigantica was found in the distance of more than 200 m from a village. Snail with the highest prevalence of infection occurred in rice fields which received effluent from a cattle pen were fertilised with bovine faeces. Each snail was only infected with one species of tramatodes. Infection with echinostone larvae was most common.   Kay words: L. rubiginosa, trematode infection, population dynamic
Reliable preservation methods of mitochondrial DNA analysis for larvae and adult flies of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae). ., Suhardono; Muharsini, S; Wardhana, April H
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 8, No 4 (2003)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (354.072 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v8i4.400


The Old World Screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana is known as a myiasis agent in Indonesia. The aim of the study is to establish a reliable preservation methods for molecular analysis of insect. Cytochrom b (CB) and Cytochrome Oxidase sub unit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA were used as markers. Drying method was used to preserve adult flies, while the larvae were kept in 10% formalin and 80% ethanol with or without soaked using hot water prior preservation. Two samples of each preservation were tested. Four primers were used to amplify samples using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR product were then purified and sequenced. Sequence data analysis of all samples suggested no differences between all preservation methods except using 10% formalin. Preservation samples using 10% formalin is not suitable for collecting mitochondrial DNA of insect. The best methods was using 80% ethanol with killed using hot water prior preservation. This method was able to extract a stabile mitochondrial DNA.   Key words: Chrysomya bezziana, preservation, formalin, ethanol, mitochondrial DNA
Improvement of Public Awareness on Fasciolosis as Zoonosis Disease Estuningsih, S E; Widjajanti, S; Martindah, Eny; ., Suhardono
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 15, No 3 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1544.021 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v15i3.825


Fasciolosis is commonly suffered by the ruminants such as cattle and buffaloes, and as one of the most important parasitic disease . The prevalence of fasciolosis in ruminants is related to the contaminated feedstuff and water supply with metacercariae, the infective larvae of trematode genus Fasciola spp ., such as Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica. In Indonesia, the prevalence of this disease in ruminants could be up to 90%, and there is no case report on human being . However, the occurrence of this disease in human should be anticipated, since many cases have been reported in human in the other countries, such as South America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and South East Asia (Thailand and Vietnam), as "Food-borne infection" and as one of the most important issues in public health . Ironically, the farmers and the extension agents in Indonesia do not aware on the danger of this disease neither to the animals nor to human, so they also do not care on how to prevent and control the disease. This phenomenon appears maybe because fasciolosis is a chronic disease without any significant clinical signs and quite difficult to be detected . Thus, it is very important to improve the public awareness on fasciolosis both in ruminants and its possibility in human being . The endemic areas can be defined by epidemiological surveillance using accurate early diagnostic test, so that strategic and sustainable fasciolosis control in the endemic areas could be implemented . This program will be succeeded if there is strong integrated collaboration among the farmers, the extension agents, the researchers and the decision makers in the related departments . Key words : Fasciolosis, zoonosis, public awareness
Parasitaemia pattern and mortality of mice infected by Indonesian Isolate of Trypanosoma evansi. DH, Sawitri; Subekti, Didik T.; AH, Wardhana; ., Suhardono
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 18, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2410.495 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v18i4.334


Trypanosomiasis (Surra) is one of the parasitic diseases is endemic and deadly for horses and buffalo in Indonesia.The etiology of the disease is a Trypanosoma evansi. Some T. evansi isolates had been isolated and cryopreservated. Those isolates had not been studied for their differences in virulence, particularly with regard to the pattern of parasiteaemia and their ability to promote mice mortality. Therefore in this study the differences in virulence was studied. DDY mice were divided in to 19 groups according to each isolate to be tested. Each group consisted of 5 mice. Infection were carried intraperitoneally at a dose of 104 Trypanosoma/mice. Mice were examined every two days. Blood samples were taken from tail’s peripheral blood and were examined under light microscope. Parasite were quantitatively counted using Naubauer chamber.  Parasitemia and mice survival were observed for 30 days or until all mice died.The results indicated that there was significant difference among the isolates.Through out the nineteenth isolate scan could be grouped into 3 different biotypes associated with patterns of parasitemia and their ability to kill mice. Biotype1 was the most virulent with the ability to promote mice mortality ≤ 8 days post-infection (dpi). The biotype2 and 3 were the lowest compared to biotype 1. Biotype2 had an undulating parasitaemia, where as biotype 3 showed persistently high parasitaemia with the ability to promote mice mortality ≥ 14dpi. The results also indicate the presence of mixed infections of biotypes that exist in one isolate of T. evansi. Key Words: Trypanosoma evansi, Biotype, Virulence, Mixed infection, Parasitaemia
The effect on infection of irradiated Fasciola gigantica (liver flukes) on goats (Capra hircus Linn) blood values Tuasikal, Boky Jeanne; ., Suhardono
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 11, No 4 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (84.901 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v11i4.543


This experiment was carried out to study the effect of infection Fasciola gigantica irradiated by using 60Co to goat’s blood values. Twenty local male goats, ten to twelve old months, 15-20 kg of body weight were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups consisting of four replications. Three groups received irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica using 45, 55 and 65 Gy respectively. One group was the positive control (goats were infected by non-irradiated metacercariae) and another one was the negative control (goats were not infected by metacercariae). Each goat received 350 metacercariae. Body weight, Eosinofil, PCV and Hb were measured every weeks for 20 weeks. The result indicated that pathogenicity of irradiated Fasciola gigantica was reduced. In all parameters, among  negative control group and three irradiation-groups showed non significant (P>0.05). Key Words: Fasciola gigantica, Irradiated, Eosinofil, Packed Cell Volume, Haemoglobin
Extension program on the control of bovine fasciolosis in West Java, Indonesia Frank, B; Partoutomo, S; Widjajanti, S; Kusumaningsih, A; Martindah, Eny; ., Suhardono
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 3 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (145.181 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i3.119


An extension program to control fasciolosis in cattle and buffalo was undertaken in collaboration with officers of the District of Livestock Services (DLS) and farmer organizations in the Surade district of West Java. Control strategies were based on results of extensive epidemiological studies on fasciolosis in this area over the past 4 years. Recommendations included: (1) preventing animals grazing harvested rice fields adjacent to a village or cattle pen; (2) feeding stock only the top two-thirds of freshly cut rice stalks; (3) mixing cattle or buffalo faeces with manure of ducks or chicken naturally infected with Echinostoma revolutum, before using them as fertilizer in rice fields; and (4) a single treatment with triclabendazole in July, about 6 weeks after harvest of the last seasonal rice crop. Farmers were surveyed in January 1996 to determine their level of knowledge about fasciolosis. The extension program commenced in February, soon after planting the second seasonal rice crop in four villages. At first, leaflets were distributed to farmers, and posters were displayed in each village to provide basic information. Following discussions with village leaders, groups of farmers met in each village to discuss the advantages they saw in each strategy, ways they could implement them, and to identify socio-economic constraints that needed to be overcome. Taped interviews were prepared for a local radio station and the farmer groups. In August, final survey was conducted to determine the change in knowledge and attitudes that had occurred as a result of the extension program. Bennett’s hierarchy was used at each stage to evaluate the effects of inputs and activities. Farmers adopted the techniques of cutting and feeding rice-stems 2/3 above water-level, and isolating cattle from rice-fields during harvest time, as these appeared to be beneficial in social and economic terms; but they rejected the two other practices where they perceived that socio-economic costs exceededbenefits.   Key words : Fasciolosis control, extension program, cattle, buffalo