Forest ecological study with special attention to leaf and litterfall nutrient status has been conducted in several forest types at Natuna Island, Riau Archipelago. Ten plots have been setup which distributed in several forest type areas. Fresh leaf was collected from some dominant tree within the plots, whereas fallen leaves collected from litter traps.Nutrient content especially for N, P, K and Ca analyzed from all combined species of both fresh and fallen leaves.Results of chemical analyses showed that all fallen leaves mineral element concentration, except for Ca,were lower than that in fresh leaf. Presentage of retranslocation of both nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be similar to some earlier studies in several tropical forests. Nitrogen and phosphorus were suspected to be limiting factors of forest growth in this area.
Ecological study with special attention to vegetation analysis has been done in the Bintan forest area, Riau Archipelago. Based on three sampling plots of 30 × 30 m, there were 73 tree (dbh ? 5 cm) species were recorded, belong to 64 genera and 32 families. The density is fairly high (1,485 individuals /ha) with total basal area relatively low (27.71 m2/ha). Its indicates that most of trees are small size. Similarity index among study sites are relatively low (< 25 %), indicates that there is strong relation between habitat and species composition. Out of the 6 most common tree species in the study area, only Dipterocarpus gracillis was dominant in 2 study sites. Overall species diversity is relatively low, which is characteristic of forest vegetation on small islands.
Kajian permudaan alami di kawasan hutan Taman Nasional Gunung HalimunâSalak, Jawa Barat telah dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengungkap pola dan proses ekologi serta suksesi hutan. Sebanyak 27 petak (10 m x 10 m) telah dibuat dan pada setiap petak dilakukan pengukuran terhadap anakan pohon (diameter 2â5 cm), yang meliputi diameter setinggi 50 cm di atas tanah, tinggi dan posisi di dalam setiap petak. Setiap jenis yang tercatat dibuat spesimen bukti ekologi, untuk identifikasi jenis. Dalam 27 petak tercatat paling tidak sebanyak 73 jenis anak pohon,yang terdiri atas 51 marga dan 29 suku. Macaranga triloba tercatat sebagai jenis dominan hanya pada 9 petak, sedangkan 4 jenis lainnya kurang dari 5 petak. lni menunjukkan adanya variasi komposisi jenis antar petak yang tinggi, yang berkaitan dengan kondisi habitatnya. Adanya penyebaran jenis tertentu pada habitat tertentu pula, menunjukkan adanya keterkaitan antara keberadaan suatu jenis dengan habitat tertentu. Ketinggian tempat dan penutupan kanopi diduga sangat berpengaruh terhadap terbentuknya tipe komunitas.
A phytosociological study has been conducted in the south-east slope of Mount Salak, Sukabumi, West Java.Vegetation data were analyzed using 21 plots made of 30 m x 30 m which covered various habitat conditions. Atotal of ninety seven tree species (dbh. Ã¢â°Â¥ 10 cm) were recorded belonging to 72 genera and 39 families. The mostdominant families occurred in the study area were Fagaceae, Hammamelidaceae and Euphorbiaceae, followed byTheaceae, Meliaceae and Sapindaceae. The dominance of those families was apparently from the contribution ofthe most dominant species Altingia excelsa and the other species such as the Schima wallichii, Castanopsis javanica,Pometia pinnata, and Lithocarpus korthalsii. Spatial distribution of the vegetation is affected by altitude and/orhabitat slope which develop forest community patterns, such as lowland forest, lower and upper slope forests, aswell as lower and upper mountain forests. The distribution of tree species also follows this pattern, i.e certainspecies only occur on certain (specific) habitat type.Keywords: species ekology, Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, phytosociology
A fertilization was set up in September 1993 in species-rich dipterocarp forest in the Barito Ulu study site in Central Kalimantan.The experiment was unusual in that previously reported fertilizer experiments have been made in montane forest. The following treatments were applied: control, +N, +P and +NP. There were five blocks of four 50m x 50m plots with a separate treatment for each plot. Fine litterfall was collected on all of the plots from May 1994 for one year. There was evidence of higher litterfall quantities and increased of P and N in the litterfall. All trees (> 10 cm dbh) were measured in August 1993 and in July 1994 and there was a clear girth increment response of some dipterocarp species to +NP and small size of trees to +N.
Ecological study has been conducted in the forest area of Natuna Island to reveal the structure and composition oftree species. In the 10 plots of 20 x 40 m each, there were 141 species of trees, with a density of 504 trees / ha and12.35 m2/ha of basal area, which was distributed in three forest types. Myrtaceae was the most common family,followed by Euphorbiaceae and Dipterocarpaceae. On the other hand Arthrophyllum javanicum recorded as themost common species together with Syzygium aemum and Ilex pleiobrachiata. The existence of each of the common speciesvaries in each forest type that shows there was a correlation between the condition of the habitat and the presence ofspecies.Keywords: floristic composition, structure, the Natuna Besar, Riau
ABSTRACTVegetation Analysis of Natural Forest in Ternate Island, North Maluku. A vegetation analysisof the Ternate natural forest has been conducted by establishing 9 plots of each 30-m x 30-m.All trees (dbh. eâ10 cm) within all plots were measured, their positions were determined, andtheir species were identified. In total there were 68 tree species recorded within plots belongingto 34 families. Trichospermum morotainense was the most common species, followed byAlbizia falcataria, Elmerilla ovata, Cordia mixa, and Macaranga longicaudatum. Almost allof the common species such as A. falcataria, Tristiopsis canarioides, Pometia pinnata, E.ovata and Intsia bijuga were found as emergent or canopy trees. According to the ordination(DCCA) analysis there were at least three tree species associations which were related tohabitat characteristics (conditions). However the populationâs dominant species varied amongsites, which might be related to the habitat characteristics and/or effects of human activities inthe past.Keywords: Vegetation, natural forest, Ternate, North Maluku
ABSTRACTVegetation Analysis of Lowland Forest in Batanta Island, Raja Ampat, Papua. A vegetationanalysis of Batanta lowland forest has been made by setting up 17 plots of each 30-m x 30-mdistributed in 3 study sites were Yenanas (5 plots), Yensawai (7 plots) and Wailebet (5 plots).All trees (dbh. eâ10 cm) within all of 17 plots were measured, and determined their positions,and identify their species. In total there were 171 tree species recorded within plots andbelonging to 108 genera and 40 families. Pometia pinnata was the most common speciesfollowed by Anthocephalus macrophyllus, Pangium edule, Toxotrophis illicifolius, andKoordersiodendron pinnatum. Almost all of common species such as Pometia pinnata,Anthocephalus macrophyllus, Celtis hidebrandii and Intsia bijuga were observed as theemergent and/or canopy trees. According to ordination analysis there were five communitytypes, AporusaâPometia, Antocephalus-Toxotrophis, Sterculia-Grewia, Ficus-Antocephalus,and Duabanga-Pterocymbium communities. However floristic compositions varied amongplot sites, which might be a characteristic of vegetation of Papua and the nearby small islands.Keywords: Vegetation, lowland forest, Raja Ampat, PapuaKata kunci: Vegetasi, hutan dataran rendah, Raja ampat, Papua
A study on litterfall and their nutrient content has been conducted in the Barito Ulu research station, Central Kalimantan. Five plots of 50m x 50m were established to describe the forest structure and floristic composition. In each plot 10 of 1m x 1m litter-traps were emplaced on 25-28 April 1994, and litterfaii (ieaves, branches, flowers+fruits and miscellaneous) was collected twice at the mid and the end of month from May 1994 until May 1995. The litterfall chemical analyses were made for sampbs collected in May, June, July 1994 (dry season) and November and December 1994 and January 1995 (wet season). The mean annual total litterfall in the five plots was 8,4 t ha yr< (range 7,3-9,5). The total litterfall was highest in October 1994 coinciding with the later part of dry season. The litterfall mineral-element concentrations and accession were below or within the range reported for other tropical forests. On the basis of Vitousek litter nutrient concentration hypothesis phosphorus tended to be more efficiently used than nitrogen. This means that growth of forest would be expected to be more limited by phosphorus. However the results of fertilization experiment in this forest suggested that primary production of forest might be more limited by nitrogen. This is a new information that primary production of lowland tropical forest was also limited by nitrogen. The results in detail of the fertilization experiment will be published separately.
Ecological studies of peat-swamp forest was conducted in the Tanjung Puting National Park,Central Kalimantan. One-hectare permanent plot has been establishes in order to describe the forest structure and floristic composition. Within 1-ha plot 141 species of tree (dbh >10 cm) and saplings (dbh 5-10 cm) belongs to 84 genera and 43 families recorded. Glutta wallichii, Neoscortechinia philippinensis and Gonystyllus bancanus were dominant tree species, whereas Baccaurea racemosa was very dominant for sapling stage.Trees density 2 2 was 728 /ha with basal area of 43.01 m /ha whereas density of sapling was 904 /ha with basal area of 3.8 m /ha. Most (30.7 %) of trees with dbh 10 - 30 cm and only 2.23 % of them reach up to dbh > 50 cm. There are three canopy layers that are I-layer was 26.8-33.6 m,II-layer was 17.8-26.8 m and Ill-layer was 9.8-17.6 m high.