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Contact Name
Ray Wagiu Basrowi MKK
Contact Email
ray.basrowi@gmail.com
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+628119621313
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Editorial Address
Sekretariat ILUNI MKK FKUI dan Program Studi Magister Kedokteran Kerja (MKK) Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Komunitas, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia Jl. Pegangsaan Timur No.16, RT.1/RW.1, Pegangsaan, Kec. Menteng, Kota Jakarta Pusat, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10310
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Kota depok,
Jawa barat
INDONESIA
IJCOM
Published by Universitas Indonesia
ISSN : -     EISSN : 2798723X     DOI : https://doi.org/10.53773/ijcom.v1i2
Core Subject : Health,
IJCOM publishes original research articles, expert opinion, consensus, literature and systematic review as well as commentary focusing on various streams of community health sciences and occupational medicine including health and safety sciences and researches, community and occupational nutrition, community and public health, clinical epidemiology, marine and aviation medicine, public health administration, health management, health economics, health promotion, medical sociology/anthropology, social and family medicine. IJCOM also open for special edition and supplement volume publication
Articles 27 Documents
Determination of Occupational Disease in Worker with Liver Cirrhosis That Exposed by Vinyl Chloride Superimposed with Hepatitis B Infection Soemarko, Dewi Sumaryani; Prasetyo, Aditya Agung
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (305.183 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.11.78-83

Abstract

Background: Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases that characterized by the formation of regenerative nodules and fibrotic tissue. The etiology of liver cirrhosis are hepatitis C, hepatitis B, alcohol, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and can also be caused by chemicals in the workplace. The occupational diagnosis of Liver Cirrhosis that exposed by vinyl chloride superimposed with hepatitis B infection with was performed by using The Seven Steps of Occupational Diagnosis, a method that issued by PERDOKI (Indonesian Occupational Medicine Association-IOMA). The aim of this case report is to determine whether liver cirrhosis in this patient is an occupational disease or not.Case Presentation: Fifty years old man came to Emergency Room with complaints of vomiting black blood since 4 hours. Vomiting blood as much as 5 times with a volume of about 200 cc each time. One day before, patient admitted that his defecation is black, watery, and smell bloody. Volume of defecation was unknown. Three months before, patient complainted that the stomach often felt bloated, enlarged, and got full quickly. There was no icteric in eyes and body.This complaints (vomiting black blood and black stools) were often occured since 2017. In 2017, 2018 and 2020, this patient was hospitalized once while in 2019, the patient was hospitalized twice for this complaint. In 2017, when the complaint first appeared, the patient was declared to have hepatitis B and in 2019, the patient underwent an endoscopy and was said to have enlarged blood vessels in the esophagus, and an abdominal ultrasound was performed and was said to be suspected of liver cirrhosis.This patient works as a family owned chemical industry. The chemical produced is called zamitex, a mixture for paints. These chemicals contain formaldehyde, Vinyl Chloride, and CMC (Carboxymethyl Cellulose). This patient had worked in this field for 21 years, and was exposed to these chemicals. In addition, there are also dangers of heat, awkward positions, and psychosocial.Conclusion: Based on The Seven Steps of Occupational Diagnosis, Liver cirrhosis in this patient can be categorized as an occupational disease superimposed with hepatitis B infection. Liver cirrhosis in this patient can be caused by prolonged exposure to Vinyl Chloride. Vinyl Chloride is known to cause damage to the liver, especially to cause carcinoma of the liver. There is a synergistic effect between exposure to Vinyl Chloride and hepatitis B infection, exacerbating the condition of liver damage. However, because the exposure to Vinyl Chloride has been going on for a longer time, compared to hepatitis B infection, the condition of liver cirrhosis in this patient is still categorized as an occupational disease.
Thyroid Disease Among Workers Exposed To Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Vera; Ilyas, Muhammad
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (191.444 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.12.114-9

Abstract

Background: Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) is one of the Perfluoroalkyl acids family that can affect human health. It can act as an endocrine disruptors which interfered the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis and targeted the biosynthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones, which can caused thyroid diseases. To determine the causal relationship between PFOA and thyroid diseases, it is necessary to look for some evidence regarding this relationship. The search for evidence is also complemented by a seven-step occupational disease assessment to establish occupational diseases.Methods: The literature searching using the electronic database “PubMed”, “Cochrane”, and “Scopus” search engine. The keyword is “PFOA” “perfluoroalkyl substances” “perfluorooctanoic acid” “perfluorooctanoate” AND “thyroid disease” “thyroid function” “thyroid parameters” combined with MeSH and Title/Abstract terms. The inclusion criteria are research on humans, English language, free full article and the exclusion is duplicate articles.Result: From the five literature obtained, there are differences in results. Four articles stated that there are association between PFOA and thyroid diseases but one articles stated PFOA concentrations measured in this study were not associated with thyroid hormones.Conclusion: Althought most articles stated there are associations between PFOA and thyroid disease but it does not mean that PFOA can caused thyroid disease so it is still not clear the causal relationship between PFOA and thyroid disease especially in occupational setting.
Occupational Stress and its Relation to Grave’s Disease Mutiara, Ade; Soemarko, Dewi S; Widyahening, Indah S
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (165.386 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.14.72-7

Abstract

Background: Graves’ disease is an autoimmune thyroid gland disease that causes increased activity of the thyroid hormones. But, the mechanism by which the autoantibodies are generated is still unclear. Some theory suggests that daily life stress may be a risk factor that triggers Graves’ disease. The aim of this report is to enrol a systematically searching in order to get an answer about the risk factor of the Grave’s disease and the prevention measure.Methods: In this case report, a 47-year-old career woman with prominent occupational stress was diagnosed with Graves’ disease. Literature searching was done on database such as Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct with occupational stress, stressful life event, and Graves’ disease as the keywords. One article was selected and critically appraised. Results: One case-control study showed that patients with Graves’ disease had odds ratio (OR) of having stressful life events as big as 8.59; 95%CI = 2.35-20.80, and the number needed to harm (NNH) is 2.35.Conclusion: Occupational stress is a prominent risk factor for developing Graves’ disease. However, this is based on one article
The Importance and Challenges of Research and Publishing in Occupational Health During COVID-19 Pandemic Yosia, Mikhael; Basrowi, Ray Wagiu
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (88.369 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.15.89-93

Abstract

Nearing the end of the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, businesses and companies had decided to continue their operations and strive forwards, posing superfluous challenges to occupational health (OH) professionals in keeping workers safe against the continuous threat of infections. The novelty of COVID-19 results in a myriad of medical questions, all of which needs to be answered promptly and reliably through medical research followed by dissemination of answer through publications. Making the knowledge accessible through publications ensures that OH professionals and other relevant parties can collectively develop new policies, determine preventive action, the standard of procedures and care, and administer medical procedures – all of which eases the fight against pandemics in the workplace. Despite its complications and challenges, the author hoped that OH professionals realized the importance of research and publishing in the fight against this pandemic.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Paediatric Trainees in Belgium Alliet, Tine; Gestels, Thomas; Daelemans, Siel; Hoste, Levi
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (694.046 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.21.44-55

Abstract

Background and objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has put strain on the activities and well-being of health care workers. We aimed to measure the direct and indirect impact on a personal and professional level for paediatric trainees in Flanders, Belgium.Study design: Junior representatives of the Flemish Society for Paediatrics (Jong VVK) conducted a longitudinal study among their fellow paediatric trainees. The impact of COVID-19 on daily tasks, education and emotional well-being for the first (March-April 2020) and second wave (October-November 2020) of the pandemic were studied.Results: One hundred and nineteen surveys were completed in the first wave, representing data of 51% (119/233) of the total number of paediatric trainees in Flanders. Eighty surveys were completed in the second wave. Educational program changes occurred in 25% (30/119) of trainees and more than half (61%; 72/119) described the pandemic as an impediment for their educational progress. The perception of impaired education persisted for 30% of the responders (24/80) during the second wave. One out of three (30%; 35/119) felt their job was more exhausting than usual and 38% (45/119) perceived more stress at work. These numbers were comparable at both time points. Increases in stress paralleled with increased irritability in daily life and poorer sleep quality. Conclusions: COVID-19 had an important impact on the daily tasks, education and emotional well-being of the paediatric trainees. Medical training centres should be aware that there is a perception of impediment on the educational program of the paediatric trainee.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia In Farmer And Vegetable Seller Firly Ratsmita; Dewi S. Soemarko
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (54.133 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.22.84-8

Abstract

Background: One of the risk factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is chemical exposure at work. The aim is to determine the relationship between patient who work as a farmer and vegetable seller with the incidence of CLL.Case presentation: A-69-year-old man who has been working as a vegetable seller since 15 years and a chili farmer since 4 years ago. The patient was diagnosed with CLL. In his work as a vegetable seller and chili farmer, the patient gets five hazards ranging from physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards so it is necessary to analyze whether there is a relationship between the patient’s work and the current CLL disease.Discussion: There are seven steps needed in the enforcement of occupational diseases. In addition, additional examinations are needed to determine the biomarkers of pesticides that can cause disease. This requires control for farmers and vegetable sellers who may be exposed to pesticides found in vegetables and chilies. Conclusion: Vegetable seller and farmer have potential hazards, especially chemicals contained in pesticides which have a risk relationship with the incidence of CLL. However, to cause CLL, sufficient doses are required which are influenced by occupation, intensity of use and the type of specific chemical without the need for a long duration of exposure.
Optimizing The Resilience of Healthcare Workers Against The COVID-19 Pandemic Muchtar; Basrowi, Ray Wagiu
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (64.389 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.23.120-4

Abstract

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers have physical and psychosocial pressure in carrying out their work. The requirement for healthcare workers in dealing with the pandemic is so high, the identification process for the resilience of healthcare workers is not going well. The purpose of this article is to review about how to optimize the resilience of healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 outbreak working conditions. Methods: This literature review is conducted in October 2021. Research related to the resilience of healthcare workers during COVID-19 Pandemic by using valid keywords, including resilience, healthcare workers, COVID-19 through ProQuest, ScienceDirect and SpingerLink. Results: A total of 10 articles were selected for the literature review. The process of self-reflection is one of the important things for healthcare workers. Optimizing relisience of healthcare workers by carrying out an efficient division of tasks to reduce workloads, give more attention to their needs, provide training and knowledge about digital applications to increase capacity in carrying out their work, provide mental health support for healthcare workers and creating a safe and comfortable work environment for them. Conclusions: Maintaining health during the COVID-19 pandemic is an important thing that needs to be done by healthcare workers. Stress management is an important factor in dealing with a pandemic. Create an assessment of the resilience of healthcare workers by detecting gaps, determining priorities, developing plans to prevent psychosocial hazards at all levels both individual and organizational levels.
Indonesian Health Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic Fahrial Syam, Ari
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 2 (2021): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (68.982 KB) | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i2.25.41-3

Abstract

Burnout in health workers causes physical and emotional fatigue; it is a condition of a long-term affective state and is an outcome of cumulative and chronic exposure to stress, particularly work stress. Burnout was especially evident in hospitals with limited availability of medical staff. Mental burdens are higher because they face more patients infected by the coronavirus, followed by the trauma of witnessing deaths among patients. These conditions may weaken the immune system, increasing vulnerability to COVID-19 and higher risk of severe symptoms that can cause death. When talking out of context of the pandemic, burnout can also be associated with various other diseases, including IBS.4 Burnout was associated with a 2.41-fold elevated prevalence of IBS after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including job strain.
The Impact of COVID-19 Among HIV Key Population as Informal Workers Thomas, Caroline; Thomas, Catherine; Mone Iye, Claudius Novchovick
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 3 (2022): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI and PRODI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i3.27.137-45

Abstract

Background: HIV cases are still increasing in Indonesia. With the spread of COVID-19, HIV key populations are experiencing undesirable outcomes in social, financial, access to health and food resources. The study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 among key populations & PLHIV in Indonesia. Method: Yayasan Peduli Hati Bangsa conducted a participatory research in October to December 2020 to capture and assess the impact of Covid-19, combining and adapting the formats of a ‘Citizen’s report card’, a ‘Community assessment’, and a qualitative survey. Results: Out of 15 participants who were PLHIV and key populations, mostly perceived that COVID-19 had impacted them financially, especially for those who work in informal sectors. Food assistance from the Government was provided at least once a month and the nutritional value was perceived as substandard. Having said that, participants did not consider the nutrition as crucial, as long as they had something to eat. Most of the participants observed that mental health issues were related to their physical health and financial adequacy. Additionally, sources of anxiety arose from the uncertainty in financial income. Lastly, the government was perceived as overly prioritizing COVID-19 while neglecting other health services.Conclusion: Participants in this study wished that government would improve the healthcare and assistance programs for the vulnerable ones affected by COVID-19. Equal and well-targeted distribution of assistance, as well as provision of access to jobs, were the ones that need to be majorly improved by the government.
Literature Review: Cancers Among Workers Exposed To Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Jahja, Felicia Erika; Ilyas, Muhammad
The Indonesian Journal of Community and Occupational Medicine Vol. 1 No. 3 (2022): ijcom
Publisher : ILUNI MKK FKUI and PRODI MKK FKUI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.53773/ijcom.v1i3.28.179-88

Abstract

Introduction: Cancer is a disease with a high mortality rate in Indonesia. One of the chemical exposures that can cause cancer is perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride/perfluoro octane sulphonate (PFOS). PFOS is a chemical that is widely used due to its diverse functions, including use in fire extinguishers, waterproof materials in food boxes and furniture, and household hygiene products. Long-term exposure to workers affected by PFOS is suspected to be one of the risk factors for cancer. Methods: The author conducted a literature search of online search engines in 3 sources PubMed, Google Scholar, and JSTOR databases. The inclusion criteria in this study are articles in English, full text available, and conducted on the working population. The author has not restricted search within the last 5 years due to the limited reference of the topic. Results: Out of a total of 5 articles examined, the authors found the incidence of bladder cancer in workers as much as 1.28 times, there was even a death rate of 12.77 times in workers with PFOS exposure due to bladder cancer, although the results did not statistically significantly. Other studies have shown increased levels of PFOS in the blood but were not associated with changes in other laboratory examinations associated with health problems in workers. Conclusions: The results of the literature study found no significant association in cancer occurrence based on the length of PFOS exposure in workers. The literature search results also found no direct association between PFOS exposure to possible health problems.

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