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Enzymes Involving in Chocolate Processing Kiyat, Warsono El; Monica, Audrey; Qomariyah, Noor; Manurung, Brian Saputra
Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 6, No 1 (2018): J. Food Pharm. Sci (January-April)
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (369.988 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/jfps


Indonesia is one of the largest cocoa-producing countries in the world, but the productivity of Indonesian cocoa is relatively low compared to other cocoa-producing countries. Many cocoa beans are exported in raw form (raw cocoa beans) so they do not have high economic value. In addition, cocoa beans also can not be consumed directly and must be processed first. The processing of cocoa beans includes curing stage, breaking the fruit, fermentation, soaking and washing, drying, sorting, and storage to producing cacao almonds. The fermenting process of cocoa beans involves the role of the polyphenol oxidase to produce flavor precursor compounds. Furthermore, to improve the quality of the resulting chocolate, protease and carboxypeptidase can be used in the processing of cacao almonds to enhance flavor precursor compounds forming to produce chocolate with stronger flavor characteristics. Processed chocolates can be developed into confectionery with a soft or liquid filler by utilizing invertase to obtain a solid filler during processing that may turn into liquid during storage. Keywords : cocoa, chocolate, enzyme, processing.
Efektivitas Pengolahan Air yang Mengandung Amonia Konsentrasi Tinggi Menggunakan Konsorsium Probiotik Komersial dan Bakteri Sedimen Kolam Lele Ambarsari, Hanies; Syah, Iman; Nugroho, Rudi; Manurung, Brian Saputra; Suciati, Fuzi
Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol. 21 No. 1 (2020)
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1065.099 KB) | DOI: 10.29122/jtl.v21i1.3478


ABSTRACTNitrification is one of the most widely used methods to reduce ammonia concentration in wastewater.The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of high-concentrated ammonia nitrification by the consortium between commercial probiotics and bacteria from the sediment of the catfish pond. The study was conducted on batch system bioreactors with a working volume of 1 liter containing 100 mg/L ammonia solution and 50 grams sediment of catfish pond. This study used a treatment variation of the concentration of commercial probiotics and the bacterial isolate from the catfish pond sediment using glucose as the carbon source. The variations of commercial probiotics added to the bioreactor were 5 ml/L, 10 ml/L and 15 ml/L. The variations of glucose concentration were 0 g/L and 3,9 g/L. Analysis of ammonia concentration was carried out by spectrophotometry using the phenate method. The highest removal efficiency of ammonia was 92.35% in the bioreactor with a mixture of 15 ml/L commercial probiotics and 3.9 g/L glucose with the fastest ammonia rate was on the third day of the experimental period. The addition of glucose in the bioreactors could increase ammonia removal by 57.39%. The result of statistical analysis indicated that variations in the concentration of commercial probiotic indicated no statistically significant difference in ammonia removal (P> 0.05), while variations in glucose concentration showed a statistically significant difference in ammonia removal (P <0.05). Three isolates were successfully isolated on specific media for nitrifying bacteria. The result of bacterial identification showed that three isolated bacteria were Bacillus sp., Aeromonas salmonicida, and Burkholderia cepacia.Keywords: ammonia, nitrification, sediment of catfish pond, commercial probioticABSTRAKNitrifikasi merupakan salah satu metode yang paling banyak digunakan untuk mengurangi konsentrasi amonia pada limbah cair. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas penambahan sedimen kolam lele dan probiotik komersial dalam nitrifikasi amonia konsentrasi tinggi. Penelitian menggunakan bioreaktor sistem batch dengan volume kerja 1 liter yang berisi larutan amonia 100 mg/L dan 50 gram sedimen kolam lele. Perlakuan pada penelitian ini terdiri dari pemberian variasi konsentrasi probiotik komersial dan sedimen kolam lele dengan sumber karbon glukosa. Variasi probiotik komersial yang ditambahkan pada bioreaktor adalah 5 ml/L, 10 ml/L dan 15 ml/L sedangkan variasi konsentrasi glukosa adalah 0 g/L dan 3,9 g/L. Analisis konsentrasi amonia dilakukan secara spektrofotometri menggunakan Metode Fenat. Hasil penurunan rata-rata amonia tertinggi adalah sebesar 92,35% pada bioreaktor dengan campuran probiotik komersial 15 ml/L dan glukosa 3,9 g/L dengan laju penurunan ammonia tercepat pada hari ke-3 periode eksperimen. Penambahan glukosa pada bioreaktor mampu meningkatkan penurunan amonia sebesar 57,39%. Analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa variasi konsentrasi probiotik komersial tidak menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan pada penurunan amonia (p>0,05) sedangkan variasi konsentrasi glukosa menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan terhadap penurunan amonia (p<0,05). Tiga isolat berhasil diisolasi menggunakan media spesifik bakteri nitrifikasi. Hasil identifikasi dari tiga bakteri menunjukkan bahwa isolat tersebut adalah Bacillus sp., Aeromonas salmonicida dan Burkholderia cepacia.Kata kunci: amonia, nitrifikasi, sedimen kolam lele, probiotik komersial