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Uji Kecepatan Pertumbuhan Fusarium spp. pada Media Organik dan Media Sintetis ., Nurbaya; Kuswinanti, Tutik; ., Baharuddin; Rosmana, Ade; Millang, Syamsuddin
bionature Vol 15, No 1 (2014): April
Publisher : Fakultas MIPA UNM

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (915.744 KB) | DOI: 10.35580/bionature.v15i1.1548

Abstract

Fusarium spp., adalah jenis cendawan yang dapat menginfeksi pembentukan gubal pada tanaman gaharu. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kecepatan pertumbuhan dengan jumlah spora yang dihasilkan cendawan pada media cair organik dan media cair sintesis, yang dapat dijadikan media inokulasi terbaik dalam pembentukan gubal pada tanaman gaharu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media air kelapa sebagi media organik memperlihatkan rata-rata jumlah spora tertinggi sekitar 8.83 spora/ml, sedangkan media CDA sebagai media sintetik memperlihatkan rata-rata jumlah spora terendah sekitar 6.85 spora/ml.
CONTROL OF COCOA POD BORER AND PHYTOPHTHORA POD ROT USING DEGRADABLE PLASTIC POD SLEEVES AND A NEMATODE, Steinernema carpocapsae Rosmana, Ade; Shepard, Merle; Hebbar, Prakash; Mustari, Anita
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 11, No 2 (2010): October 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Cocoa pod borer (CPB; Conopomorpha cramerella) and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR; Phytophthora palmivora) are serious pest and disease on cocoa plantations in Indonesia. Both pest and disease have been controlled with limited success using cultural practices such as pruning, frequent harvesting, sanitation, plastic sleeving, and chemical pesticides. An experiment was conducted on cocoa plantings in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi during the wet season of 2008/09 to test the effect of pod sleeving (with transparent degradable and non-degradable plastic bags) and nematode application on CPB and PPR infestation. The nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (10,000 active juveniles per pod) was sprayed three times at intervals of 10 and 20 days. Pod damage by CPB was observed at harvest time, while PPR disease incidence was evaluated every week until harvest time. Results showed that all pods in the field were infested by CPB as indicated in control samples. Pod sleeving using both non-degradable and degradable plastics significantly reduced pod damage by CPB, from 62.3% in the control treatment compared to 8.4% in the CPB treatment. A combination of pod sleeving and nematode application had a synergistic reduction of pod damage by CPB resulting in totally healthy pods. Pod sleeving with degradable and non-degradable plastics also reduced pod damage by PPR significantly. Pod sleeving with non-degradable plastic suppressed the disease incidence almost zero until 6 weeks after sleeving and the rate of disease incidence was 3.6% per week. However, with degradable plastic, the disease suppression was even longer (7 weeks after sleeving), indicating that the degradable plastic is more effective. Combination of sleeving and nematode application slightly increased PPR infection. Sleeved pods in general had lower rates of PPR infection compared to pods treated with nematode or untreated pods (control). In these two applications, the rate of disease incidence was 7.8% and 8.3% per week respectively. The study implies that biological control using entomopathogenic S. carpocapsae and degradable plastic sleeves are effective and environmentally-friendly to control C. cramerella and P. palmivora on cocoa.
Identification of a Disease on Cocoa Caused by Fusariumin Sulawesi Rosmana, Ade; Hikmawati, Hikmawati; Asman, Asman
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

A disease presumed to be caused by Fusarium was observed in cocoa open fields with few or without shade trees. Within the population of cocoa trees in the field, some trees had died, some had yellowing leaves and dieback, and the others were apparently healthy. In order to demonstrate Fusarium species as the causal pathogen and to obtain information concerning the incidence of the disease, its distribution and its impact on sustainability of cocoa, isolation of the pathogen, inoculation of cocoa seedlings with isolates and a survey of disease has been conducted. Fusarium was isolated from roots and branches, and inoculated onto cocoa seedlings (one month old) via soil. Symptoms appeared within 3-4 weeks after infection. These symptoms consisted of yellowing of leaves beginning from the bottom until the leaves falldown, and browning internal of vascular tissue. Darkened vascular traces in the petiole characteristic of vascularstreak dieback infection were absent. The occurrence of Fusarium in the field was characterized by the absence of obvious signs of fungal infestation on root of infected trees, yellowing of leaves on twigs, dieback, and tree mortality in severe infestations. Disease incidence could reach 77% and in this situation it was difficult for trees recover from heavy infections or to be regenerated in the farm. The study proves that Fusarium is a pathogen causing dieback and the disease is called as Fusarium vascular dieback (FVD). Its development is apparently enhanced by dry conditions in the field. Key words: Fusarium sp., vascular disease, dieback, FVD, Theobroma cacao L.
Eksplorasi Fusarium Spp yang Berasosiasi Dengan Aquillaria Spp di Kabupaten Nunukan Kalimantan Utara N, Nurbaya; Kuswinanti, Tutik; B, Baharuddin; Rosmana, Ade; Millang, Syamsuddin
Prosiding Seminar Biologi 2015: Seminar Nasional Mikrobiologi Kesehatan dan Lingkungan
Publisher : Prosiding Seminar Biologi

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Abstract

Fusarium spp adalah salah satu isolat cendawan yang berasosiasi dengan tanaman Aquillaria spp untuk menghasilkan gaharu sebagai hasil hutan bukan kayu. Penelitian ini mengambil sampel dari batang Aquillaria spp yang menunjukkan gejala pembentukan gaharu yang tumbuh secara alami pada ketinggian yang berbeda, mulai dari ketinggian 0-2000 mdpl, yang ada pada empat Kecamatan yaitu: Kecamatan Nunukan Selatan (0-100 mdpl), Lumbis (100-500 mdpl), Krayan Induk (1000-1500 mdpl), Krayan Selatan (1000-2000 mdpl) di Kabupaten Nunukan Kalimantan Utara. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai isolat-isolat Fusarium pembentuk gaharu dari batang Aquillaria spp. Isolat Fusarium diperoleh dengan mengamati pertumbuhan morfologi cendawan pada media PDA. Hasil yang diperoleh diidentifikasi secara molekuler menggunakan jenis primer LSU. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada batang Aquillaria spp yang tumbuh pada ketinggian 0-100 mdpl terinfeksi oleh F. solani, ketinggian 100-500 mdpl terinfeksi oleh Fusarium sp, F. fujikuroi dan F. oxysporum, ketinggian 1000-1500 mdpl terinfeksi oleh F. solani, sedangkan Aquillaria spp yang tumbuh pada ketinggian 1000-2000 mdpl terinfeksi oleh F. solani, F. oxysporum dan F. ambrosiumKata Kunci: Aquillaria spp, cendawan, eksplorasi, Fusarium.
Abundance of arthropod in the various intensity of pesticide applied on shallots crop Local Palu Jaya, Kasman; Ratnawati; Sjam, Sylvia; Rosmana, Ade; Tresnaputra, Untung Surapati; Sudewi, Sri
Jurnal Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Tropika Vol. 22 No. 1 (2022): MARCH, JURNAL HAMA DAN PENYAKIT TUMBUHAN TROPIKA: JOURNAL OF TROPICAL PLANT PE
Publisher : Universitas Lampung

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23960/jhptt.12233-40

Abstract

Excessive use of pesticides confers several ecological and environmental consequences. In this research, we evaluated arthropod occurrence on shallot crops in Palu Valley, Central Sulawesi as an impact of pesticide application in different frequencies. Almost all farmers used synthetic pesticides for controlling pests and diseases where 46.7%, 43.3%, 10.0% of them applied in high, moderate, and low frequency, respectively. By comparing to the last application, the first reduced arthropod diversity index, evenness index, and abundance by 13.8%, 6.7%, and 70.6%, while the second by 7.3%, 2.3%, and 33.5%, respectively. Analysis of the dynamic abundance of pests and natural enemies in seven weeks observation indicated that the pests abundance at low and moderate levels was no different. Whereas predator abundance at low frequency was significantly different with moderate and high rate and between the last two not distinct and the presence of parasitoids was not observed at all, it means the natural enemies were susceptible to pesticides. These data showed the negative impact of pesticides application to arthropods including pests resistance and natural enemies lost; therefore it is necessary to minimize the use of pesticides and integrated pests.