DIDIK WIDYATMOKO
Pusat Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya Bogor, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia

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KOLEKSI TUMBUHAN TERANCAM KEPUNAHAN DI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR Kusuma, Yayan Wahyu Candra; Dodo, Dodo; Widyatmoko, Didik
Buletin Kebun Raya Vol 11, No 2 (2008): Buletin Kebun Raya Vol. 11 (2) Juli 2008
Publisher : Center for Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

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Abstract

Indonesia possesses 386 plant species that are categorized as threatened. Dipterocarpaceae contributes the largest number, reaching 36.79 % of the total threatened plant species, followed by Myristicaceae (13.73 %) and Nepenthaceae (6.99%). Of these 386 threatened species, 29.27 % are critically endangered, 17.88% are endangered, and 52.85 % are vulnerable. Bogor Botanic Garden recently maintains 68 threathened plant species if Orchidaceae and Nepenthaceae members are not included on the list. Two species have been regarded as extinct, namely Dipterocarpus cinereus and Calamus spectabilis, while two other species are regarded as extinct in the wild (Mangifera casturi, and Mangifera rubropetala). This information can be useful for everyone for different purposes, especially for those who concern in the conservation of threatened plant species in Indonesia.
KOLEKSI TUMBUHAN TERANCAM KEPUNAHAN DI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR Kusuma, Yayan Wahyu Candra; Dodo, Dodo; Widyatmoko, Didik
Buletin Kebun Raya Vol 11, No 2 (2008): Buletin Kebun Raya Indonesia Vol. 11 (2) July 2008
Publisher : Center for Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Indonesia possesses 386 plant species that are categorized as threatened. Dipterocarpaceae contributes the largest number, reaching 36.79 % of the total threatened plant species, followed by Myristicaceae (13.73 %) and Nepenthaceae (6.99%). Of these 386 threatened species, 29.27 % are critically endangered, 17.88% are endangered, and 52.85 % are vulnerable. Bogor Botanic Garden recently maintains 68 threathened plant species if Orchidaceae and Nepenthaceae members are not included on the list. Two species have been regarded as extinct, namely Dipterocarpus cinereus and Calamus spectabilis, while two other species are regarded as extinct in the wild (Mangifera casturi, and Mangifera rubropetala). This information can be useful for everyone for different purposes, especially for those who concern in the conservation of threatened plant species in Indonesia.
Kajian Pemilihan Jenis Tumbuhan Untuk Restorasi Hutan Berdasarkan Beberapa Parameter Fotosintesis Ahmad, Tinia Leyli Shofia; Setiadi, Dede; Widyatmoko, Didik
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 9, No 2 (2013): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (136.418 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v9i2.169

Abstract

Forest restoration is a process of ecosystem conditioning (soil, vegetation, and wildlife) in order to achieve similarpatterns and profiles to previous conditions and status before the ecosystem was disturbed, both in terms of speciescomposition and structure, and habitat functions. Restoration is a crucial part to maximize the conservation values ofbiodiversity and ecosystem functions. Eight different native plant species were assessed in this research while the photosyntheticparameters studied included the total chlorophyll content, carbohydrate content, CO2 sequestration capacity,leaf weight, leaf number, leaf area and leaf water content. Spectrophotometer was operated to analyse chlorophyllcontent, the Somogyi-Nelson method was used to calculate carbohydrate content, and leaf area was measuredusing the leaf area meter. The research results using the principal component analysis showed that each type of theplant species used for the restoration (2 years old after planting) had different characteristics in terms of photosyntheticparameters studied. Dacrycarpus imbricatus and Syzygium lineatum both had the highest carbohydrate contentsand the best abilities to absorb CO2. Sloanea sigun, Alstonia scholaris, Manglietia glauca, and Castanopsis argentea hadhigher total chlorophyll contents than others, while Altingia excelsa, M. glauca, A. scholaris, and Schima wallichii hadhigher water contents. A. scholaris, M. glauca, and S. sigun had heavier leaf weights. In contrast, M. glauca possessedthe widest leaves amongst the species observed.Keywords: forest restoration, photosynthetic parameters, native species
Populasi, Ko-okurensi dan Preferensi Habitat Areca macrocalyx di Pulau Waigeo-Papua Barat Widyatmoko, Didik
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2015): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3501.742 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v11i1.2160

Abstract

Research on population status, co-occurrence and habitat preference of the New Guinean palm Areca macrocalyx Zippelius ex Blume in hill forests of the Waigeo island (West Papua) was conducted in 2012 at six different habitat types: river bank, hill slope, hill top, intact, disturbed and converted forests. Population sizes varied spatially and were dominated by seedlings (62%) and juveniles (24%), indicating a growing population, in which recruitment and mortality were simultaneously continuous and density dependent. A. macrocalyx seemed to prefer specific habitats where river banks situated in the intact forest being the most suitable habitat. Although this palm still tolerated hill tops, the populations were suppressed and seemed to be sensitive to disturbance and changes in water table. A number of interrelating edaphic factors appeared to influence the abundance of this palm with a preference for well-drained soils with a high magnesium (Mg2+) content. High alkaline concentrations also corresponded to the density of the palm. Based on the association levels calculated using the Ochiai method, four tropical species (i.e. Licuala graminifolia, Tabernaemontana aurantiaca, Orania regalis, and Sommieria leucophylla) were positively associated with A. macrocalyx while ten other species were negatively associated. The palm tended to occupy sites with low-moderate C/N ratios where most sampled populations occurred in habitats with the average C/N values of lower than 10. Based on the r-squared values, exchangeable Mg2+ and Ca2+ appeared to have more influence on plant density and frequency than on canopy and basal area. Mortality was higher among the early growth stages but becoming very low in adult individuals. These findings suggest that edaphic factor is a determinant of the abundance and occurrence of the palm. To conserve the most important remaining populations, it is crucial to protect the most suitable sites and the existing-interconnected biotic factors in the reserve.  Keywords: Areca macrocalyx, population, co-occurrence, habitat preference, Waigeo island 
Kajian Arsitektur Pohon dalam Upaya Konservasi Air dan Tanah: Studi Kasus Altingiaexcelsa dan Schima wallichii di Taman Nasional G. Gede Pangrango Nuraeni, Eni; Setiadi, Dede; Widyatmoko, Didik
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 10, No 1 (2014): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (148.241 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v10i1.325

Abstract

Tree architectural model is basically a tree construction as a result of meristematic growth pattern. Tree architectureis closely associated with water and soil components, i.e. rainfall, throughfall, stem flow, infiltration, surface run-off,and erosion. For Altingia excelsa (Rasamala) plots, the results showed that the daily average of the rainfall intensityobserved was 9.67 mm, stem flow 0.03 mm, canopy throughfall 5.43 mm, infiltration 0.51 ml/mm2/second,surface run-off 3.45 mm, and erosion 5.66 kg/m2. For Schima wallichii (Puspa), the daily average of rainfall was9.67 mm, stem flow 0.04 mm, canopy throughfall 4.02 mm, infiltration 0.49 ml/mm2/second, surface run-off 8.18mm, and erosion 12.71 kg/m2. Compared to A. excelsa, S. wallichii significantly had larger values in someparameters measured, i.e. stem flow, surface run-off, and erosion, indicating that on land sopes of 70% of theMount Gede Pangrango National Park, individual plants of S. wallichii seemed to be well adapted. However,individuals of A. excelsa possessed a more spreadly branching model, larger vertical width, denser canopy, andskewed bark channels capable for slowing down the stem flow and canopy throughfall. Consequently plants of A.excelsa would generally be able to hold and conserve water and soil better than S. wallichii plants.Keywords: Tree architectural model, stem flow, throughfall, surface run-off, infiltration, erosion
Pertumbuhan dan Alokasi Biomassa pada Tanaman Artemisia annua L. Rahman, Wiguna; Widyatmoko, Didik
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 11, No 1 (2015): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3501.742 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v11i1.2159

Abstract

Artemisia annua L. is known as one of the plants producing artemisinin, i.e. active compound that is used for anti-malaria theraphy. This plant has potency to be cultivated in Indonesia through seedlings and cuttings. The objective of  this study was to compare growth and biomass allocation of plants from seedlings and cuttings. The experiment was set using  Completely Randomize Design with one factor. The factor is type of plant propagation which cutted plant derived from three different ages of mother plants (1.5, 2, and 2.5 months after planting) and seedlings as control. The result showed that growth and biomass alleviation of the cuttings plants are more rapid than the seedlings. However, the cutting plants were flowering earlier than the seedling. At three months after planted, more than 70% of the cutting plants population have flowered. It is implied that the plants from cutting will loss about 70% of its yield potency than the seedling. On the other hand, there was no significant effects of the ages of mother plants on growth and biomass of the cutted plant (p>0.05). Therefore, seedlings were more effective than cutted plant on A. annua cultivation. Keywords: artemisia annua L., biomass allocation, cuttings, growth, seedlings. 
The Effects of NPK fertilizer, Manure and Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) on the Growth, Biomass and Artemisinin Content of Artemisia annua L. Rahman, Wiguna; Widyatmoko, Didik; Lelono, Arthur A.
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 10, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Biologi Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (257.569 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v10i2.2107

Abstract

Most artemisinin is extracted from an annual herb Artemisia annua L. but the cultivation in Indonesia is limited bythe low yield of the artemisin incontent that is not economically beneficial to industry. Improvement on cultivatedvarieties and cultivation techniques is therefore needed. This work aims to improve the cultivation techniques byevaluating the application effects of NPK, manure, and VAM on the artemisinin yield of A. annua. The experimentwas set using a Split Split Plot Design involving three factors. First factor was the application of four dosages ofNPK (0 kg ha-1 as a control; 40:40:40 kg ha-1; 80:80:80 kg ha-1; and 120:120:120 kg ha-1). Second factor wasmanure addition (using 0 ton ha-1 and 150 tons ha-1). Third factor wasthe application of mycorrhiza (0 g plant-1and15 g plant-1). The experiment was divided into three different groups based on the seed sources (Bandung, Cibodas,and Tawangmangu plants) using similar treatments. The results showed that the plant growth (Relative GrowthRates/RGR of plant heights and number of branches), leaf yield, and total plant biomass were much affected byNPK. The addition of manure has less significant effect on those parameters. Only VAM seems to influence theartemisinin content. The highest artemisinin yield (5 kg ha-1) was relatively low when compared to the productionin USA, China, and Brazil. However the result shows that a low fertilizer input of 40:40:40 kg NPK ha-1 and aninoculation of VAM were recommended for cultivating A. annua resulting a significantly high yield of artemisinin.Keywords: Artemisia annua L., Artemisinin content, NPK, Manure, VAM, Plant Growth, Biomass
Keanekaragaman dan Pola Sebaran Spesies Tumbuhan Asing Invasif di Cagar Alam Pulau Sempu, Jawa Timur Abywijaya, Ilham Kurnia; Hikmat, Agus; Widyatmoko, Didik
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 10, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Biologi Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v10i2.2103

Abstract

The presence of invasive alien plant species has been known to cause various negative impacts on ecosystems in theinvaded conservation area. This research aims to identify diversity and distribution pattern of invasive alien plantsspecies in Sempu Island Nature Reserve, and to determine the most influential environmental factors to theirdispersion. The methods used were the combination of quantitative vegetation analysis and rapid assessmenttechnique followed by the principal component analysis. As many as 10 invasive alien plants species (belonging to 7families) have been identified within this conservation area, e.g., Pistia stratoites, Ageratum mexicanum, Vernoniacinerea, Cyperus rotundus, Passiflora foetida, Centotheca lappacea, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Hedyotiscorymbosa, and Lantana camara. All invasive alien plant species found in the sampling plots had a clumpeddistribution pattern. The most influential environmental factors to the invasive alien plants dispersion were landslope and distance from shoreline.Keywords: distribution pattern, environmental factors, invasive alien plants, Sempu Island Nature Reserve
Plant- â Diversity and Composition in Mount Nok and the Waifoi Forest of the Waigeo Raja Ampat Islands: with Special Reference to The Threatened Species Widyatmoko, Didik
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 6, No 2 (2010): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (443.392 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v6i2.3159

Abstract

ABSTRACTKeragaman â dan Komposisi Tumbuhan di Hutan Gunung Nok dan Waifoi Waigeo KepulauanRaja Ampat: Dengan Perhatian Khusus Pada Species yang Terancam Kepunahan RajaAmpat merupakan kepulauan di Papua Barat yang terdiri atas sekitar 610 pulau; empat diantaranya merupakan pulau besar (Waigeo, Salawati, Batanta, dan Misool). Ekspedisi danstudi ekologi dilakukan di Gunung Nok dan Hutan Waifoi (Pulau Waigeo) pada tahun 2007.Tujuan ekspedisi ini adalah untuk mempelajari komposisi dan keragaman beta (â-diversity)flora Gunung Nok dan Hutan Waifoi yang merupakan area penting di Cagar Alam Pulau WaigeoTimur; mengkaji status populasi dari spesies-spesies endemik atau yang terancam kepunahan;serta mempelajari karakteristik habitat flora endemik atau terancam kepunahan . Survei komposisidan kelimpahan populasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode cuplikan sabuk transek(transect belts) dan kuadrat yang disusun secara sistematis bergantian di ke dua sisi sabuktransek di dua lokasi penelitian. Formasi dan keragaman beta vegetasi Gunung Nok diobservasidengan cara menetapkan titik-titik pengamatan berdasarkan perbedaan karakteristik komunitasvegetasi di sepanjang gradien gunung. Identitas spesies dan posisi keberadaannya dalamstrata kanopi dicatat dan diobservasi. Sebanyak 554 records tumbuhan berhasil dikoleksi darilokasi penelitian; lima spesies merupakan tumbuhan endemik Waigeo (Guioa waigeoensis,Alstonia beatricis, Calophyllum parvifolium, Schefflera apiculata, dan Nepenthes danseri)yang semuanya berkategori terancam kepunahan, sedangkan 42 spesies merupakan endemikNew Guinea. Dendrobium dan Bulbophyllum merupakan dua marga anggrek yang palingberagam berdasarkan jumlah spesies yang ditemukan.Kata kunci: Keragaman ?, komposisi tumbuhan, spesies terancam kepunahan, Gunung Nok,Hutan Waifoi, Waigeo
Komunitas Floristik dan Suksesi Vegetasi Setelah Erupsi 2010 di Gunung Merapi Jawa Tengah Afrianto, Whisnu Febry; Hikmat, Agus; Widyatmoko, Didik
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 12, No 2 (2016): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1304.649 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v12i2.2895

Abstract

ABSTRACTSuccession dynamics (as a complex interaction and relationship between environment and species) is a crucial ecological process for managing and restoring habitats and ecosystems. This research was conducted at several locations based on the damage levels occurred due to the 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi: heavily damaged site was chosen at the Cangkringan Resort (consisting of both open and covered areas) and the Kemalang Resort, medium damage site was located at the Dukun Resort, and minor damage/relatively intact site was situated at the Selo Resort. A total of 135 plant species belonging to 64 families were recorded from all locations during the study. The Mount Merapi eruption occurred in 2010 had significantly impacted on the floristic community structure and condition. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to analyze the relationships between environmental variables and the existing plant species conditions. The results indicated that different abiotic environment conditions (variables) significantly influenced species compositions and conditions. The covered area (?= 0:49; p= 0.002; F= 10:35) and the elevation factor (?= 0:32; p= 0.002; F= 7:08) provided the highest impact on vegetation conditions. Meanwhile, the relationships and correlations between edaphic factors and floristic community conditions varied from site to site.Key words: Abiotic environment, floristic community, succession, Mount Merapi, restoration