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Atom Indonesia Journal
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Core Subject : Science,
Exist for publishing the results of research and development in nuclear science and technology Starting for 2010 Atom Indonesia published three times a year in April, August, and December The scope of this journal covers experimental and analytical research in all areas of nuclear science and technology. including nuclear physics, reactor physics, radioactive waste treatment, fuel element development, radioisotopes and radio pharmaceutical engineering, nuclear and radiation safety, neutron scattering, material science and technology, as well as utilization of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, industry, health and environment.
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Articles 452 Documents
ENC Measurement for ASIC Preamp Board as a Detector Module for PET System N. Nagara
Atom Indonesia Vol 42, No 2 (2016): August 2016
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (20.799 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2016.506


We developed a gamma ray detector with an LuAG:Pr scintillator and  an avalanche photodiode as a detector for a positron emission tomography (PET) system. Studies have been performed on the influences of gamma irradiation on application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) preamp boards used as a detector module. As a device used in nuclear environments for substantial durations, the ASIC has to have a lifetime long enough to ensure that there will be a negligible failure rate during this period. These front-end systems must meet the requirements for standard positron emission tomography (PET) systems. Therefore, an equivalent noise charge (ENC) experiment is needed to measure the front-end system's characteristics. This study showed that minimum ENC conditions can be achieved if a shorter shaping time could be applied. Received: 22 October 2014 ; Revised: 23 Februari 2016; Accepted: 3 March 2016
Application of Mutation Techniques in Sorghum Breeding for Improved Drought Tolerance S Human; Sihono Sihono; Parno Parno
Atom Indonesia Vol 32, No 1 (2006): January 2006
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (352.152 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2006.116


Sorghum is not native to Indonesia and has not yet as popular as other cereal crops. This crop has a big potential to be grown and cultivated owing to its wide adaptability and high productivity. Genetic variability of this crop is still low, thus, plant breeding program is required to support sorghum development in the country. The objective is to develop superior genotypes to improve sorghum production and quality, as food, animal feed or for industry. Research on sorghum improvement through induced mutations has been conducted at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Durra variety was used as parental material in the breeding program. Induced mutation was made by Gamma irradiation on seed treatments. The optimal radiation dose was to be around 300-500 Gy. Through selection processes and direct screening for drought tolerance, a number of ten putative mutant lines were obtained. In dry season, the mutant lines B-68, B-72, B-95 and B-100 produced grain yield of 4.55, 4.50, 4.20 and 4.62 t/ha, respectively. These yields were significantly higher than the original parent Durra (3.50 t/ha) and the control check varieties UPCA (2.68 t/ha) and Higari (3.75 t/ha). These promising mutant lines might be of useful for further sorghum research and development in Indonesia
Behavior of 137Cs Activity in the Sayung Waters, Demak, Indonesia M Muslim; H. Suseno; M.J. Pratiwi
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (64.392 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.588


The behavior of anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs in the water and sediment has been examined with regard to particle size, organic sediment, and other physical conditions in the Sayung estuarine waters of Demak. Previously, this estuary was used as shrimp culture brackish water ponds that were affected by serious erosion and intrusion. Furthermore, this regency rapidly industrialized over the last three decades. The activities of 137Cs in the six stations in water and sediment were in the 0.0116-0.4509 mBq/L and 0.3747-1.2442 Bq/kg ranges with mean activities of 0.2278 mBq/L and 0.8594 Bq/kg, respectively, depending on the prevailing physicochemical regime at the sampling station. The highest activities of aqueous 137Cs occurred in station 2 but the highest in sediment occurred in station 6 located closed to the main land of Sayung. Fast current effectively diluted 137Cs as a conservative radionuclide in seawater, thus the activity of 137Cs in seawater decreased when the current speed increased. This effect was caused in part by industrial pollutants that adsorbed 137Cs and precipitated onto the surface sediment. Organic matters and clay materials in sediment were not significantly effective at binding 137Cs in Sayung waters in the industrial coastal area, but the correlation increased in open areas separated by a breakwater (second group stations) and the location further from the beach or in open sea. This indicates that industrial pollutants are more effective at binding 137Cs than organic matters and clay materials. Fine grain size sediment is also more ineffective at binding 137Cs; it may be caused by the sediment's high total organic matter content.Received: 25 April 2016; Revised: 27 October 2016; Accepted: 8 November 2016
The use of 32P and 15N to Estimate Fertilizer Efficiency in Oil Palm Elsje L. Sisworo; Widjang H. Sisworo; Havid Rasjid; Haryanto Haryanto; Syamsul Rizal; Z. Poeloengan; Kusnu Martoyo
Atom Indonesia Vol 30, No 1 (2004): January 2004
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (61.944 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2004.141


Oil palm has become an important commodity for Indonesia reaching an area of 2.6 million ha at the end of 1998. It is mostly cultivated in highly weathered acid soil usually Ultisols and Oxisols which are known for their low fertility, concerning the major nutrients like N and P. This study most conducted to search for the most active root-zone of oil palm and applied urea fertilizer at such soils to obtain high N-efficiency. Carrier free KH232PO4 solution was used to determine the active root-zone of oil palm by applying 32P around the plant in twenty holes. After the most active root-zone have been determined, urea in one, two and three splits were respectively applied at this zone. To estimate N-fertilizer efficiency of urea labelled 15N Ammonium Sulphate was used by adding them at the same amount of 16 g 15N plant-1. This study showed that the most active root-zone was found at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at 5 cm soil depth. For urea the highest N-efficiency was obtained from applying it  at  two splits. The use of 32P was able to distinguish several root zones: 1.5 m – 2.5 m from the plant-stem at a 5 cm and 15 cm soil depth. Urea placed at the most active root-zone, which was at a 1.5 m distance from the plant-stem and at a 5 cm depth in one, two, and three splits respectively showed difference N-efficiency. The highest N-efficiency of urea was obtained when applying it in two splits at the most active root-zone.
Optimization of Ion Source Head Position in the Central Region of DECY-13 Cyclotron S Silakhuddin; I.A. Kudus
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 2 (2017): August 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (18.859 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.584


Optimization of the ion source head position of the DECY-13 Cyclotron in the central region has been carried out based on simulation process using a particle tracking program written in Scilab 5.2.1. The simulated particle was the H- ion that was accelerated in DECY-13 Cyclotron. The input for the program were the magnetic field and the electric field in the central region that were calculated by Opera-3D software package and TOSCA module. The optimized position of ion source head position is in a radius of 2 cm relative to the zero point of the magnet and at a distance of 4 mm relative to the puller. This result can be useful for determining the configuration of the parts in the central region when it is tested for generating the first ion beam in the future.
Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Amidoamine) Dendrimers Encapsulated 198Au Nanoparticles R. Ritawidya; A. Pujiyanto; Mujinah Mujinah; Witarti Witarti; Setiawan Setiawan; M. Ramli; D. Kurniasih; A. Yanuar; A. Mutalib; L.B. Kardono
Atom Indonesia Vol 38, No 3 (2012): December 2012
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (460.081 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2012.176


Brachytherapy or internal radiotherapy is one of many methods used for treatment of cancer. This modality requires an agent with radionuclides that emits α or β particle with a proper energy. 198Au (99% β max = 0.96 MeV and t1/2 = 2.69 days) is one of radionuclides that has been considered to be effective for the above-mentioned purpose. The purpose of this research was to synthesis and characterize poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles as a new brachytherapy agent. PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles was successfully synthesized by a bottom-up method using sodium borohydride as a reductor. Purification was then performed by a size exclusion chromatography in order to separate large Au nanoparticles that were formed outside the cavity of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers. Prior to the synthesis of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles, the synthetic procedure was first established by using a non-radioactive Au. The PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles produced was then characterized by using an UV-Vis spectroscopy, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analyzer (PSA), and an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Characterization results revealed that PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles that were prepared from a reaction mixture of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers and Au HAuCl4 with mol ratio of 2.8, was found to be a proper formula. It produced PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles with diameter of 1.743 nm, spheris, uniform and drug loading value of 26.34%. This formula was then used in synthesis using radioactive Au, 198Au. Characterization results of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles gave a radiochemical purity of 99.4% and zero charge. Received: 04 December 2012; Revised: 18 December 2012; Accepted: 20 December 2012
The Performance of Fine Resolution Neutron Powder Diffractometer at PTBIN-BATAN A. Fajar; H. Mugirahardjo
Atom Indonesia Vol 36, No 1 (2010): April 2010
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1207.823 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2010.5


We describe the performance of a fine resolution neutron powder diffractometer, DN3, which has been installed at the neutron guide (NG2) in the Neutron Guide Hall about 71 m away from the Multipurpose G. A. Siwabessy reactor core. DN3 has a multi-detector system which consists of 32 3He neutron detectors and soller-type collimation. The resolution curve of the instrument was found to have little variation over a wide angular region. The best resolution is Δ2θ (FWHM) of 0.23º and Δd / d of 5x10-3, where 2θ and d are scattering angle and d-spacing, respectively. The instrument provides sample environment of low temperatures using a cryostat having a temperature range of 10-300K. Several experimental results, interlaboratory comparison study and he next activities to improve the performance of DN3 equipment have also been discussed. Received: 15 October 2009; Revised: 12 April 2010; Accepted: 21 April 2010
Comprehensive Prediction of Thermosyphon Characteristics in Reactor Passive Cooling System Simulation Loop FASSIP-01 H. Tjahjono
Atom Indonesia Vol 43, No 3 (2017): December 2017
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (41.319 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2017.777


Passive cooling mechanism for a nuclear reactor has been proven to be very important since the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor accident that was caused by active cooling system malfunction due to total loss of electrical power source. In the Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety of BATAN, the cooling mechanism was studied by using a natural circulation test loop named FASSIP-01 that applied thermosyphon mechanism of water inside pipes of 1” diameter. This study aimed to analytically predictthe thermal characteristics of the loop including its response time towards steady condition usingthe MATLAB calculation program. This prediction derived the influence of several parameters such as the heat transfer coefficient of the cooler side (h-cooler), the heater power, the elevation difference between the heater and cooler(DZ), and the effects of the insulation thickness of pipe (IT) on the flowrate, temperature, and the heat power distribution across all components in the loop. The result showed that byavoiding boiling condition, for transferring the heater power of 1000 W and 2000 W,the needed h-cooler exceeds 200 and 400 W m-2°C-1, respectively. For a h-cooler of 200 W m-2°C-1, the circulation flow rate increased from 0.04 to 0.06 kg/s-1 for heater power increase from 1000 W to 2000 W. Those flow rates were decreased to 0.037 and 0.052 kgs-1 by increasing h-cooler to 1000 W m-2°C-1.The results were in agreement with other studies on rectangular loops in the literature.The time needed to reach 95 % towards steady state was predicted to be more than 13 hours. Reduction of this time to less than five hours was possible by reducing the heater tank volume from 100 L to 30 L or by modifying the starting heater input power.
Effectiveness of Gamma Rays in Attenuating Rodent Malaria Parasites of Plasmodium berghei in Blood of Mice M. Syaifudin; Darlina Darlina; T. Rahardjo; D. Tetriana; S. Nurhayati; H.N.E. Surniyantoro; T. Kisnanto
Atom Indonesia Vol 39, No 1 (2013): April 2013
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (131.682 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2013.219


Malaria is a major public health problem in Indonesia. Therefore, an effective vaccine against this disease is actively being sought by using gamma rays to attenuate the parasites. However, the safety and efficacy of the resulting vaccine are dependent on the precise irradiation dose. The aim of this research was to determine the exact time when the parasites are attenuated by gamma ray exposure. Mice blood containing Plasmodium berghei of 5,0 X 107 parasites/ml was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 150, 175 and 200 Gy (doses rate of 380 Gy/h) and then was injected intraperitoneally to mice at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h post irradiation. The parasitemia (parasite density) in mouse blood was observed starting with day 2 and repeated every 2-4 days up to 28 days. The survival of the mice was also observed during the experiment. The results showed that the pre-patent period advanced with exposing infected blood to 150 and 175 Gy irradiations, suggesting some degree of attenuation. The amount of radiation required to render the parasites non-viable is about 175 Gy for an inoculum of a number of parasites, but a delay of 4 h resulted in the death of parasites. There was no difference in the infectivity of irradiated parasite injected 1 h and 2 h post irradiation in terms of parasitemia and the survival of mouse. For a dose of 200 Gy which was injected 2 h post irradiation, no parasitemia was found in the blood and animals which died after times varying from 1 to 4 weeks. We concluded that irradiated parasites should be injected into the host within 1 h after irradiation.Received: 16 January 2013; Revised: 23 April 2013; Accepted: 24 April 2013
Force Constants of Cu Crystals from Diffuse Neutron Scattering Measurement T. Sakuma; S.R. Mohapatra; H. Uehara; R. Sakai; Xianglian Xianglian; H. Takahashi; N. Igawa; K. Basar
Atom Indonesia Vol 36, No 3 (2010): December 2010
Publisher : PPIKSN-BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (145.615 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/aij.2010.28


Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on Cu crystals was performed at 10 K and 300 K. Oscillatory forms were observed in the diffuse scattering intensities. The observed diffuse scattering intensities are analyzed by including the correlation effects among thermal displacements of atoms in the theory. Using the values of correlation effects among neighboring atoms and the values of Debye-Waller temperature parameter, force constants among first, second and third nearest neighboring atoms have been evaluated. The result of correlation effects in Cu crystals are compared to that of ionic crystal and semiconductor. The relation between correlation effects and the inter-atomic distance is not depending much on the crystal binding types. Received: 12 October 2010; Revised: 22 October 2010; Accepted: 16 December 2010

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