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STUDI PEMBENTUKAN ZONE JARINGAN PIPA DISTRIBUSI AIR MINUM KOTA SEMARANG (Wilayah pelayanan PDAM SEMARANG UTARA ) Nasrullah,, Nasrullah; Arief Budihardjo, Mochamad
TEKNIK Volume 28, Nomor 1, Tahun 2007
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (273.078 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v28i1.2073

Abstract

Semarang City’s drinking water distribution system in the North Semarang uses an interconnectionnetwork system. This causes difficulty in optimizing the network distribution supply and controlling thewater leakage. Semarang City’s drinking water provider is planning to divide the area in to 25 zones. Thisstudy purpose to plan one of the zone areas, which is zone 1. The existing condition on zone 1 shows thatthe water source is from Siranda distribution reservoir. The water flows by the gravitation. The distributionpressure on the pipe network is not even. Pressure drop between 3 to 7 m water columns at the peakcondition on the end of the furthest point in the network. The strategy in planning the network is by cuttingthe interconnection pipe, providing new pipes, closing the existing valves, adding new valves for isolatedareas, adding primary water meter and sub zone water meter and moving the interconnection pipes. Then,the distribution system is analyzed using Epanet 2.0 program that can show the effort of the changes after.The system shows that there is no more pressure drop on the area. The pressures are between 11-16 meterwater column and the water flow in the pipes are more alike, between 0,3 to 3 m/s. The PDAM can observethe distribution and the water leak more easily by using this system.
RISK ANALYSIS STUDY OF NOx, and SOx FROM TRANSPORTATION (CASE STUDY: MAIN STREETS OF D.I. JOGJAKARTA) Arief Budihardjo, Mochamad
TEKNIK Volume 28, Nomor 1, Tahun 2007
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (523.826 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v28i1.2047

Abstract

The air pollution problems have been progressively set attention to the world especially industrialcountries recently. These problems not only give affect at health like emphysema, bronchitis, and otherinhalation disease but also make plants and properties destruction causes very big loss. This research isconcerned with the risk level which is accepted by people who reside in roadside because most of airpollutants come from transportation facilities such as motor vehicle. The limitation of the research is airpollutants exposure such like NOx, and SOx which enter the body through respiration. This risk analysisresearch is broken down into four step as follow; hazard identification showing NO2, and SO2concentration in 15 sampling locations where the highest value of NO2 is 56,5 μg / m3 and SO2 is 28,87μg/m3. According to DIY Governor Regulation No. 153 Year 2002 about the value of ambient air qualitystandard, quality standard of NO2 is 400 μg / m3, and SO2 is 900 μg / m3. It can be concluded thatconcentration of NO2 and SO2 in 2005 within all sampling locations is still under of quality standard. Thestep of exposure assessment involves the exposed population including pedicab worker, park worker, andcloister merchant. From calculation, the intake range of NO2 enters the body is 0,0025-0,0075 mg/kg.dayand SO2 is 0,0008-0,0038 mg/kg.day. Third step is dose-response assessment to find out what will be facedby people if exposure of pollutants occurs in a certain dose. The last step is risk characterization, theresult of research is that risk value / Hazard Index (HI) less than 1 that still acceptable. It can besummarized that the ambient air quality of Jogjakarta especially NO2 and SO2 gas do not too adverse tohealth.
RISK ANALYSIS OF CO EMITED FROM MOTOR VEHICLES TO PEOPLE LIVING AND DOING ACTIVITIES IN ROADSIDE (CASE STUDY: JOGJAKARTA’S MAIN STREETS) Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief
Jurnal Presipitasi : Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan Vol 2, No 1 (2007): Vol 2, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (93.277 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/presipitasi.v2i1.19-24

Abstract

Air pollution problems have been progressively set attention to the world specifically in industrial countries recently. This problem not only gives affect at health like emphysema, bronchitis, and other  inhalation disease  but  also  makes  plants  and  property  destruction  that  causing  loss. Research  concerning  in the  level  of  risk  which  is  accepting  by  people  who  living  and  doing activities  in  roadside  which most  of  air  pollutants  come from  transportation  facilities  such  as motor  vehicles.  This  research focuses  on  CO  exposure  which  penetrates  the  body  through respiration.  There  are  four  steps  in this  research,  first,  hazard  identification  showing  CO concentration  in  15  sampling  locations resulting  highest  CO  concentration  is  equal  to  17.250 µg/m3;  second,  exposure  assessment involves  population  exposed  that  are  Pedi  cab  worker, parking  man,  and  cloister  merchant  to know  CO  intake  each  person  using  calculation  of  CO  intake range from 1,0703-2,6089 mg/kg . day; third, dose-response assessment to know what people  will  be  experiencing  if  exposed  by  CO    at certain  dose;  fourth,  risk  characterization resulting  that  risk  value/Hazard  Index  (HI)  less  than  1. This  research  concludes  that  CO concentration of most main streets in Jogjakarta do not adverse to people’s health who living and doing activities in roadside
Identifikasi Aliran Sampah di Kota Semarang Melalui Pengelolaan Sampah Berbasis Masyarakat Ramadan, Bimastyaji Surya; Fauziyah, Fita; Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Syafrudin, Syafrudin
Jurnal Presipitasi : Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan Vol 16, No 3 (2019): November 2019
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (650.451 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/presipitasi.v16i3.117-125

Abstract

Community-based  waste  management  is a form  of  waste  management  recommended  by  the government because  it  is  very  effective  in  creating  a  zero-waste  society.  In  Indonesia,  community-based  waste management can be realized through the development of waste banks at the neighbourhoodlevels. In 2019, the City of Semarang has 48 units of active waste banks. Waste that is managed by the wastebank is plastic, paper and metal. However, there is organic waste which is also managed by several wastebanks. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the flow of waste through community-basedwaste management, in this  case of the  waste  bank,  in  the  city  of  Semarang.  The  method  used  is  in-depth  surveys  and  interviews related to the waste bank management system in the city of Semarang. The results showed that the activity of the existing garbagebank was able to reduce waste in the city of Semarang by 0.07% of the total garbage generation  in  the  city  of  Semarang.  This  research  can  be  used  as  a  reference  for  developing  better community-based waste management strategies, especially in Semarang City
STUDI POTENSI PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH KOTA SEBAGAI SALAH SATU ALTERNATIF PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH DI TPA DENGAN MENGUNAKAN AKTIVATOR EM4 (EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISM) Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief
Jurnal Presipitasi : Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan Vol 1, No 1 (2006): Vol 1, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (70.323 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/presipitasi.v1i1.25-30

Abstract

In  general,  waste  management  in  most  of  City  in  Indonesia  still  boundary  on collecting, transporting  and  dumping.  Solid  waste  are    collected,  transported  and  pulled  up  in landfill without any treatment. Needed a new paradigm that landfill is not a final estuary of city waste but place management of city waste. One of the problem faced is amount arise of organics city waste. Starting from this situation hence needed handling to arising organic waste. Composting represent  one  of  the  alternative  in  the  effort    to  reduce  the  amount  of  organics city  waste through  the  make  up  of  value  utilize  waste  become  worthwhile  compost  as fertilizer.  Natural composting of organics waste took a time to process. Effective microorganism (EM4) applicated in  organics  waste  composting  in  landfill  is  used  to  speed  up  compost  decomposition and improve the compost quality. Composting use all kinds of city waste that enter to the landfill, like residue of vegetables, fruits, leaves and sawmill waste. Composting city waste wrap up addition material that  is sawdust and  cow  manure. At this research, compost  variation  include natural control variation, organic waste and EM4, organic waste : sawdust and EM4 with comparation 7:3; 1:2; 5:7; 5:4 and 7:6. Organic waste:  cow manure and EM4 with comparition 1:2; 2:5; 6:5 and 7:6. Result of this research indicate that the overall compost variation has fulfilled standard of  quality  matured  compost  according to  SNI  19-7030-2004t.  Compost  with  EM4  has relative good  quality  than  natural  compost.  Besides,  overall  of  compost  variation  have  fulfilled hara standard of crop requirements, low cost of producing and yield high level of city waste reducing. Compost  variation of 7 organic city waste : 3 sawdust represent  most applicable composition compost  at  Boyolali  landfill  with  C-organic  24,52  %,  N-total  1,72  %,  Ratio  C/N 14,25,  P-total 1,20 %, K-total 1,66 %, Temperature 27,70 0C and pH 7,30 also compost level reduction 61,6 %.
PENGARUH PENCAMPURAN LUMPUR TINJA PADA PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH ORGANIK (STUDI KASUS TPA JERUKLEGI KABUPATEN CILACAP) Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Harsanto, Cahyo
Jurnal Presipitasi : Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan Vol 4, No 1 (2008): Vol 4, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (196.421 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/presipitasi.v4i1.62-68

Abstract

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KOMBINASI FEEDING BIOSTARTER DAN AIR DALAM ANAEROBIK DIGESTER Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief
Jurnal Presipitasi : Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan Vol 6, No 2 (2009): Vol 6, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (425.902 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/presipitasi.v6i2.27-34

Abstract

The research was conducted to investigate how much biostarter and water adding influence to biogas which is produced from organic waste degradation process of market and restaurant organic waste by anaerobic process. In this research, biostarter acts as catalyst to quicken organic waste degradation process while water addition function as moisturizer substrates factor in digester. Contribution of biostarter and water combination addition, be able to yield a lot of biogas which contains methane gas is significant. Research was set as laboratory scale experiment using batch system with fifth variations of treatment observed. The variations aim to determine a most effective variation which has capabilities to yield a lot of volume biogas, methane gas and the high efficiency of quality slurry reduction on a brief HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time). The result of the  research indicates that methane gas percentage in biogas at every variant range from 21.89 - 30.78 %, acid substrate level 5.47 - 7.41, which still at a preferable range for bacteria to live and efficiency of slurry quality reduction at every variant especially at its organic content range from 15.29 - 93.92 %
RISK ANALYSIS STUDY OF NOx, and SOx FROM TRANSPORTATION (CASE STUDY: MAIN STREETS OF D.I. JOGJAKARTA) Arief Budihardjo, Mochamad
TEKNIK Volume 28, Nomor 1, Tahun 2007
Publisher : Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (523.826 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/teknik.v28i1.2042

Abstract

The air pollution problems have been progressively set attention to the world especially industrialcountries recently. These problems not only give affect at health like emphysema, bronchitis, and otherinhalation disease but also make plants and properties destruction causes very big loss. This research isconcerned with the risk level which is accepted by people who reside in roadside because most of airpollutants come from transportation facilities such as motor vehicle. The limitation of the research is airpollutants exposure such like NOx, and SOx which enter the body through respiration. This risk analysisresearch is broken down into four step as follow; hazard identification showing NO2, and SO2concentration in 15 sampling locations where the highest value of NO2 is 56,5 μg / m3 and SO2 is 28,87μg/m3. According to DIY Governor Regulation No. 153 Year 2002 about the value of ambient air qualitystandard, quality standard of NO2 is 400 μg / m3, and SO2 is 900 μg / m3. It can be concluded thatconcentration of NO2 and SO2 in 2005 within all sampling locations is still under of quality standard. Thestep of exposure assessment involves the exposed population including pedicab worker, park worker, andcloister merchant. From calculation, the intake range of NO2 enters the body is 0,0025-0,0075 mg/kg.dayand SO2 is 0,0008-0,0038 mg/kg.day. Third step is dose-response assessment to find out what will be facedby people if exposure of pollutants occurs in a certain dose. The last step is risk characterization, theresult of research is that risk value / Hazard Index (HI) less than 1 that still acceptable. It can besummarized that the ambient air quality of Jogjakarta especially NO2 and SO2 gas do not too adverse tohealth.
Peningkatan Stabilitas Lereng Lapisan Tanah Liat Penahan Lindi TPA dengan Penambahan Limbah Bangunan Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief
Jurnal Presipitasi : Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan Vol 15, No 2 (2018): September 2018
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (721.32 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/presipitasi.v15i2.152-157

Abstract

Liner merupakan komponen terpenting dalam fasilitas tempat pengolahan akhir (TPA) sampah  untuk mencegah lindi mencemari tanah. Bahan yang sering digunakan sebagai liner adalah tanah lempung yang memiliki permeabilitas rendah. Salah satu tanah lempung alami yang dapat digunakan sebagai liner TPA adalah bentonit. Bentonit memiliki permeabilitas yang sangat rendah, namun stabilitas gesernya tidak begitu kuat sehingga berpotensi mengalami keruntuhan apabila digunakan di daerah lereng.Di sisi lain, limbah bangunan yang berupa pecahan batu bata, campuran pasir dan semen, serta beton memiliki kuat geser yang tinggi dan berpotensi sebagai campuran bentonit. Pada penelitian ini, limbah bangunan sebanyak 5%, 10%, dan 15% ditambahkan pada bentonit untuk meningkatkan kekuatan geser bentonit sehingga didapatkan campuran bahan semi kedap dengan stabilitas yang lebih tinggi dan permeabilitas rendah. Hasil uji stabilitas geser yang dilakukan pada tegangan normal  50 kPa , 100 kPa, dan 200 kPa menunjukkan bahwa semakin meningkatnya konsentrasi campuran bahan bangunan, maka semakin meningkat pula nilai tegangan geser yang dihasilkan
POLA PERSEBARAN NITRAT DAN PHOSPHAT DENGAN MODEL AQUATOX2.2 SERTA HUBUNGAN TERHADAP TANAMAN ENCENG GONDOK PADA PERMUKAAN DANAU (STUDI KASUS DANAU RAWA PENING KABUPATEN SEMARANG) Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Huboyo, Haryono Setiyo
Jurnal Presipitasi : Media Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Teknik Lingkungan Vol 3, No 2 (2007): Vol 3, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Diponegoro

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (119.526 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/presipitasi.v3i2.58-66

Abstract

Rawa Pening meets with environment degradation like other lakes in Indonesia which is caused by pollutant from the outside especially nitrate and phosphate. Degradation that is happened in this  time is  water  hyacinth  blooms  (enceng  gondok)  on  the  surface  of  the  lake.  This  makes Rawa Pening’s function become annoyed such as  PLTA, tourism, fishery, and irrigation. This degradation keeps  going  and  tends  to  increase  so  that  it  is  necessary  to  do  nitrate  and phosphate monitoring for next time. The taking of sample has done at three points: upstream (S1),  middle (S2), and  downstream  (S3)  which  are  used  as  an  observed  data.  Method  used  research is predicting nitrate and phosphate concentration for ten years later by Aquatox 2.2. Model  validation  done  with compare  observed  result  and  model  result.  Mean  error  from  this validation  less  than  5%  so that  the  model  supposed  describe  the  field  conditions.  Simulation model  result  that  obtained for  ten  years  later  are  nitrate  0,037  mg/L  (S1);  0,035  mg/L  (S2); 0,032 mg/L (S3) and phosphate 0,296 mg/L (S1); 0,274 mg/L (S2); 0,262 mg/L (S3). Dispersion pattern of simulation model result made by dividing lake into three segment, then search current velocity  to  get  dispersion distance.  This  pattern  showed  that  nitrate  and  phosphate concentration progressively decline from S1 to S3. Based on this pattern is knowable enceng gondok  amount  estimation  also  progressively decline  from  S1  to  S3.  The  calculation  sum  of enceng gondok estimation in upstream is about 66 plants and in downstream is about 43 plants. The width of enceng gondok progressively decline according to the amount of enceng gondok in every contour. But the density of enceng gondok not decline because the differences of every contour  area.  Support  energy  of  Rawa  Pening  surface area  to  enceng  gondok  is  about 180.594,59 m² and support energy of the  enceng gondok’s total is about 14.054 plants. Wet longitudinal section daily loads of Rawa Pening is about 6.319.405,41 m².