L. Meily Kurniawidjaja
Departemen Keselamatan Dan Kesehatan Kerja Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia

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Factors Related to Occupational Contact Dermatitis on Workers Exposed to Chemicals used at Industrial Automotive Company Wisnu Nuraga; Fatma Lestari; L. Meily Kurniawidjaja
Makara Journal of Health Research Vol 12, No 2 (2008): December
Publisher : Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Occupational contact dermatitis is one of skin disease in industrial settings which may reduce worker productivities. The occupational contact dermatitis occurs when workers are come into contact with chemicals at part of the worker’s body. This chemical contact could lead to an occupational contact dermatitis. The objective of this research is to investigate factors related to the occupational contact dermatitis at the worker who come into contact with chemicals used in industrial automotive company in Indonesia, Cibitung Jawa Barat. The study design is a descriptive research. The research subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling, and the total subjects were 54 person. The data were collected based on physical examination by a medical doctor, and the research questionnaire. Result from this study indicated that 74% (40 workers) experience dermatitis contact: acute dermatitis contact 26% (14 workers), sub acute 39% (21 workers), and chronic 9% (5 workers). Furthermore, data analysis using a multivariate statistical analysis indicated that there are three major factors related to the occurence of contact dermatitis: duration of contact, frequency of contact and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) particularly gloves. In conclusion, incidence rate of occupational dermatitis contact at industrial setting is 65%/100 worker, and prevalence rate of occupational dermatitis contact at industrial setting is 74%/100 worker. In order to minimize the occupational contact dermatitis it is recommended to raise the workers awareness, the correct type of gloves used specifically to the type of chemicals, as well as improving the workers knowledge.
Promosi Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Keterampilan Berpola Hidup Sehat pada Kelompok Senam L. Meily Kurniawidjaja; Dadan Erwandi; Ike Pujiriani
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 7 No. 9 April 2013
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (827.352 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v7i9.16

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Pendirian grup senam masyarakat perkotaan sering dipicu oleh ancaman penyakit jantung koroner dan stroke (penyakit kardiovaskular). Banyak diantara mereka masih berisiko tinggi penyakit kardiovaskular antara lain berat badan lebih dan kadar kolesterol tinggi serta faktor umur dan genetik, tetapi faktor risiko penyakit kardiovaskular dapat diturunkan dengan pola hidup sehat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menilai pengaruh metode promosi kesehatan dengan pendekatan siklus rekognisi, analisis, perencanaan, komunikasi, persiapan, implementasi, evaluasi, dan kelanjutan dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan, sikap dan praktik ibu-ibu pesenam tentang pola hidup sehat. Penelitian ini menggunakan pretest and posttest design untuk menilai hasil intervensi pada 60 orang berusia rata-rata 58,26 tahun dan hampir semua (93,33%) adalah perempuan pada dua kelompok senam di Kelurahan Pulogadung selama 10 bulan. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan peningkatan nilai posttest (58%) pengetahuan peserta, peningkatan sikap dengan mau berbagi menu sehat dan mengisi alat pantau diri, serta peningkatan keterampilan berpola hidup sehat berupa menyusun menu sehat, bersenam minimal empat kali seminggu, tidur 7-8 jam perhari dan cukup istirahat. Selain itu, kelompok ini berhasil menyusun buku Masak Makanan Sehat. Disarankan kegiatanini dapat diterusan dengan penyajian dan diskusi makanan bijak secara berkala sekali dalam dua bulan dengan menggunakan dana yang terkumpul dari iuran sukarela.Urban exercise groups are often triggered by the perception of the severity and threat of coronary heart diseases and stroke (cardiovascular disease). But many of them are still high in cardiovascular disease risk i.e.overweight and high cholesterol. Cardiovascular disease risk factors can be reduced by healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of recogni-tion, analysis, planning, communication, preparation, implementation, evaluation and continuity health promotion strategy in enhancing the knowledge, attitude and practice of healthy lifestyle among the exercise group members. Pretest and posttest design was used to assess the effectiveness of 10 months intervention among 60 participants aged 58,26 (27-93) year old, most of them (93,33%) were ladies from two exercise groups in Kelurahan Pulogadung. The intervention improved the score of pre-posttest (58%), the willingness to share the healthy menu and to fill the healthy lifestyle self-monitoring form, and to practice healthy lifestyle e.g. cooking the prudent food, minimum 4 times a week exercise, 7-8 hours sleeping and enough leisure time. Additionally, this groups had successfully produced The Multiethnic Healthy Food Cooking book. It was concluded these health promotion model could enhance the healthy lifestyle of the exercise group members.
Pengendalian Risiko Ergonomi Kasus Low Back Pain pada Perawat di Rumah Sakit Kurniawidjaja, L. Meily; Purnomo, Edy; Maretti, Nadia; Pujiriani, Ike
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 46, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Perawat berisiko tinggi nyeri pinggang bawah. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai faktor risiko akivitas fisik dan sarana kerja yang dominan dapat menimbulkan low back pain (LBP) pada perawat di ruang Rawat Inap dan Unit Gawat Darurat Rumah Sakit di Jakarta serta memberikan rekomendasi pengendalian risiko LBP. Observasi dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi aktivitas berisiko tinggi LBP, metode rapid entirebody assessment (REBA) menilai tingkat risiko ergonomi, kuesioner dan Nordic body map menilai faktor risiko lainnya serta keluhan LBP, desain potong lintang untuk analisis asosiasi, pengukuran dan analisis untuk menilai alat kerja. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan prevalensi LBP cukup tinggi pada perawat UGD di RSUD Tarakan tahun 2013 (61,1%) dan perawat rawat inap di RS Bhayangkara tahun 2012 (31,8%), namun rendah pada perawat UGD di RSS bila dibandingkan dengan hasil survei global (43,1–87%); aktivitas yang dominan menimbulkan LBP adalah membungkuk dan angkat angkut pasien. Didapatkan hubungan yang bermakna postur membungkuk (p=0,031; OR=1,18–133,89), sudut lengkung punggung (p=0,024; OR=1,65-196,31), dan transfer pasien (p=0,011; OR=5,22–176,83) dengan tingkat risiko LBP. Simpulan, aktivitas fisik perawat dan sarana kerjanya dapat menyebabkan LBP sehingga disarankan menyediakan sarana kerja yang adjustable serta ‘meja’ dinding di toilet untuk pengukuran urin, memenuhi rasio perawat-pasien minimal, SOP, mendidik perawat agar mampu melakukan pengendalian.. Kata kunci: Ergonomi, low back pain, perawatErgonomic Risk Control on Low Back Pain among Hospitals' NursesAbstract Nurses are at high risk of low back pain (LBP). This study aimed to assess physical activities and working facilities as the risk factors that can lead to LBP in nurses in the wards and the emergency units of several hospitals in Jakarta  to provide recommendations for controlling the risk of LBP. Observations were performed to identify high-risk activities and the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) method was used to assess the ergonomic risk. Questionnaires and Nordic body map were also used to assess the other risk factors and LBP-related complaints. In addition, the cross-sectional design for association analysis, measurement and analysis to assess the working tools were also applied. The results showed that the prevalence of LBP among nurses was higher in the RSUD Tarakan emergency unit in 2013 (61.1%) and RS Bhayangkara wards in 2012 (31.8%). In the private hospital  emergency unit, the LBP is lower compared to the results of a global survey (43.1–87%). The dominant causes of LBP were bending and patient-lifting. A significant association was evident between the risk level of LBP and bending posture (p=0.031, OR=1.18–133.89), curved spine angle (p=0.024, OR=1.65–196.31), and patients transfer (p=0.011, OR=5.22–176.83). In conclusion, nurse physical activities and their work facilities can induce LBP. Therefore, it is suggested to provide adjustable facilities and wall-mounted tables in the toilets for urine measurements. Meeting the the minimum nurse: patient ratio, providing SOPs, and educating the nurses to control the risks of LBP are also needed.Key words: Ergonomic, low back pain, nurse DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v46n4.342
Persepsi Risiko Berkendara dan Perilaku Penggunaan Sabuk Keselamatan di Kampus Universitas Indonesia, Depok Ing Kurnia Salihat; L. Meily Kurniawidjaja
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 6 Juni 2010
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (206.879 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i6.167

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Kematian dan cedera akibat kecelakaan lalu lintas telah menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat di seluruh dunia termasuk Indonesia. Di lingkungan Universitas Indonesia, setiap tahun terjadi peningkatkan kejadian kecelakaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat hubungan antara persepsi risiko keselamatan berkendara dengan perilaku penggunaan sabuk keselamatan pada mahasiswa Universitas Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan semi kuantitatifdan desain penelitian potong lintang. Partisipan adalah 98 mahasiswa Universitas Indonesia di Kampus Depok, berusia 18 - 25 tahun yang mengendarai kendaraan sendiri. Faktor internal yang membentuk persepsi risiko keselamatan berkendara secara bermakna adalah pengalaman (nilai p = 0,000) dan kepercayaan (nilai p = 0,008), sedangkan faktor eksternal yang signifikan adalah pengaruh teman (nilai p =0,000). Responden yang mempunyai persepsi risiko keselamatan berkendara yang buruk berisiko tidak menggunakan sabuk keselamatan 72 kali lebih besar [OR 72,46 (15,26; 344,02)] daripada responden yang mempunyai persepsi risiko terhadap keselamatan berkendara yang baik. Perlu dilakukan upaya meningkatkan persepsi risiko antara lain melakukan hazard communication dengan menggunakan pengalaman teman sebagai salah satu sumber informasi bagi individu, disebarluaskan melalui website, pemutaranfilm kejadian kecelakaan, dan membuat papan informasi yang diletakkan pada gerbang utama, meliputi informasi secara berkala dan berkelanjutan tentang kejadian kematian, cedera, dan luka-luka akibat kecelakaan lalu lintas.Kata kunci: Persepi risiko keselamatan, perilaku, sabuk keselamatanAbstractDeaths and injuries caused by traffic accidents has become a public health problem not only in Indonesia but throughout the world. Based on the data of UPTK3LH University of Indonesia, there is increasing incident and accident in campus within the university each year. The aim of this study is to see the relationship between perception of risk driving safety with safety belts usage behavior among the University of Indonesia students, using semi-quantitative approachand cross-sectional research design. Participants were 98 students of University of Indonesia Depok aged 18 to 25 years who drive their own vehicles. With 5% a, 80% power of the test and SPSS 10:00 software, obtained significant internal factors shape the perception of safety risks are the driving experience (p value = 0.000) and confidence (p value = 0.008), whereas a significant external factor is the influence of friends (p value =0.000). Respondents who have bad perceptions of the driving safety risk have a chance of 72 times [OR 72.46 (15.26; 344.02)] for not using safety belts compared to respondents who have a good perception of driving safety risk. Efforts are required to increase the risk perception include hazard communication by using the experience of a friend as one source of information for individuals, spread through websites, film screenings of an accident scene, and create information boards placedat the main gate, from the death scene information, injury, and injuries due to traffic accidents. The most important things is regular socialization.Key words: Safety risk perception, behaviour, safety belt
Filosofi dan Konsep Dasar Kesehatan Kerja Serta Perkembangannya dalam Praktik L. Meily Kurniawidjaja
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 1 No. 6 Juni 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (219.293 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v1i6.284

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Kesehatan kerja merupakan masalah setiap individu karena bekerja dibutuhkan semua orang sebagai sumber pendapatan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup. Sejak lama diketahui bahwa bekerja dapat menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan atau penyakit. Sebaliknya, kesehatan dapat mengganggu pekerjaan. Artikel ini bertujuan memberikan pemahaman tentang konsep, praktik dan manfaat kesehatan kerja bagi para pekerja dan pemberi kerja. Kesehatan kerja se- harusnya tidak hanya terfokus pada diagnosis dan pengobatan klinis, tetapi juga mengerjakan rekognisi hazard, penilaian risiko dan intervensi untuk menghilangkan atau meminimalkan risiko. Lingkupnya diperluas untuk mencegah penyakit dengan cara: (1) penempatan pekerja pada pekerjaan/ jabatan yang sesuai (fit) dengan status kesehatan dan kapasitas kerjanya. (2) program promosi kesehatan pekerja; (3) perbaikan lingkungan kerja; (4) perbaikan pekerjaan; (5) pengembangan pengorganisasian pekerjaan dan budaya bekerja.; dan (6) surveilans kesehatan pekerja. Indonesia telah meratifikasi konvensi dan rekomendasi ILO yang berhubungan dengan kesehatan kerja. Ada profesional dari multidisiplin dan organisasi profesi melakukan kesehatan kerja di lapangan tersebut, dan banyak pengandil yang lain.Kata kunci: Kesehatan kerja, ahli kesehatan kerja, lingkup kesehatan kerjaabstractOccupational health (OH) is everybody responsibility, because work is human being and decent work is human right, Many work related diseases were documented and stimulated people to do something to overcome it. The objective of this article is to explain the concept, practice and benefit of the occupational health for wokers and employers. The occupational health should not only focus on clinical diagnostic and therapy, but should do hazard recognizing, risk assessment and intervention to eliminate or minimize the risk (risk management method), and widen its scope to prevent diseases by (1) placing the worker in a task adapted to his health status and working capacity; (2) workers’ health promotion program;(3) the improvement of the working environment; (4) the improvement of work; and (5) the development of work organization and working cultures; (6) workers health surveillance. Indonesia had ratified ILO con- ventions and recommendations related to OH. There are professionals from multidiscipline and organizations conduct OH in the field, and many other OH stakeholders.Key words: Occupational Health, OH professionals, scope of OH
The Renal Toxicity of Welding Fumes in Heavy Equipment Manufacturer Workers Mulyana Mulyana; Nuri P. Adi; Meily Kurniawidjaja Kurniawidjaja; Vani N. Pratami; Andi Wijaya; Irawan Yusuf
Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy Vol 4, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (185.075 KB) | DOI: 10.15416/ijcp.2015.4.3.199

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Exposure to welding fumes in the workplace has been associated with decreasing renal function. We studied renal function parameters in men workers from heavy equipment manufacturer exposed to welding fumes. This study aimed to evaluate renal function status among worker exposed to welding fumes. A case-control design, random study, was conducted among welder (35 subjects) and nonwelder (35 subjects) with more than 1 years experience in the same job task in a heavy equipment manufacturer. All subjects were completed physical examination, informed consent, questionnaire and laboratory tests. Renal function was easured as creatinine serum using enzimatic method. Urinary heavy metals level was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparisson analysis between group was performed to determined median level for each variable. Linear regressionmodel was developed to predict renal function function parameter status urinary heavy metals level as variable. This study showed there were higher creatinine serum, chromium, iron, manganese and nickel in welder than non welder(p<0.05). After multivariate analysis, urinary nickel is a predictor for renal function status among welder. Exposure to welding fumes was significantly correlated with renal function status in welder. Nickel is the predictive variable for renal function. Although statistically significant but in clinical field needs carefully interpreting data.Keyword: Nickel, renal function, welder, welding fumesToksisitas Renal Uap Las pada Pekerja Industri Alat BeratPajanan uap las di tempat kerja telah dihubungkan dengan penurunan fungsi ginjal. Dalam penelitian ini, kami menguji status fungsi ginjal pada pekerja pria yang terpajan uap las di industri alat berat. Penelitian ini mengevaluasi status fungsi ginjal pada pekerja terpajan uap las, dengan desain kontrol kasus, acak, dilakukan pada 35 subjek pengelas dan 35 bukan pengelas yang telah bekerja paling tidak 1 tahun dengan jenis pekerjaan yang sama di industri alat berat. Seluruh subjek telah melakukan pemeriksaan fisik,pengisian form kesediaan setelah penjelasan, kuesioner, dan pemeriksaan laboratorium. Pemeriksaan kadar kreatinin dilakukan dengan metode enzimatik. Pemeriksaan kadar logam berat dalam urin dengan inductively copled plasma mass spectrometry. Dilakukan analisis perbandingan untuk membedakan nilai median antar kelompok. Dilakukan juga analisis multivariat untuk menentukan variabel prediksi. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa status fungsi ginjal pada pekerja las lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan bukan pengelas. Nikel urin merupakan variabel prediksi yang bermakna terhadap penurunan fungsi ginjal. Walaupun secara statistik diketahui bermakna, namun dalam penggunaan klinis harus dilakukan interpretasi dengan hati-hati.Kata kunci: Fungsi ginjal, nikel, pengelas, uap las
PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP, DAN PERILAKU PEKERJA SEKTOR PELAYANAN KESEHATAN DALAM PENCEGAHAN COVID-19: TINJAUAN SISTEMATIS Ahmad Mabruri; L. Meily Kurniawidjaja
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health Vol 6, No 1 (2021): Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Health
Publisher : Universitas Darussalam Gontor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21111/jihoh.v6i1.6274

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Pekerja Sektor Pelayanan Kesehatan (PSPK) mempunyai risiko tinggi untuk tertular COVID-19. Diperlukan penelitian mengenai pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku sebagai dasar perumusan kebijakan dan program pengendalian dan pencegahan COVID-19. Tujuan dari tinjauan sistematis ini untuk mengidentifikasi dan menelaah melalui sintesis naratif hasil penelitian terkait hubungan faktor sosiodemografi, pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku PSPK dalam menghadapi pandemi COVID-19. Tinjauan sistematis ini menggunakan metode PRISMA. Dari penyaringan abstrak dan teks lengkap didapatkan tujuh jurnal. Seluruh jurnal menggunakan metode penelitian cross sectional dan data dikumpulkan secara daring terdiri dari karakteristik sosiodemografi, pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku PSPK dalam pencegahan COVID-19. Dari tujuh hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa mayoritas responden memiliki pengetahuan dan perilaku yang baik, sedangkan untuk variabel sikap, tidak semua penelitian menunjukkan hasil yang baik, ada beberapa penelitian yang mendapatkan hasil sikap yang kurang baik.Kata Kunci: tenaga kesehatan; COVID-19; pengetahuan; sikap; perilaku
Lung Function Status of Workers Exposed to Welding Fume: A Preliminary Study Mulyana Mulyana; Nuri Purwito Purwito Adi; Meily L Kurniawidjaja; Andi Wijaya; Irawan Yusuf
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 8, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18585/inabj.v8i1.196

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BACKGROUND: Exposure to welding fume in the workplace was associated with lung function disorders and occupational asthma. In this study, we determined lung function parameters in men workers exposed to welding fumes from heavy equipment manufacturer. This study is a preliminary study of biomonitoring program in worker exposed to welding fume as our main study. METHODS: A study with case-control design, random study, was conducted among welder (59 subjects) and non-welder (34 subjects) with more than one year experience in the same job task in a heavy equipment manufacturer. All subjects completed physical examination, informed consent, questionnaire and lung function status. Lung function status was measured by spirometer with vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FCV), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and ratio of FEV1/FVC as test parameters. Linear regression model was developed to identify the risk factor of lung function parameter status using age, working period and smoking status as variables. RESULTS: This study showed that there were significant lower VC, FVC and FEV1 in welder than non-welder, but not difference in ratio of FEV1/FVC. However, there was no significant difference among welder from foundry and fabrication plan. By multivariate analysis, working period was found as a risk factor for lower parameters in lung function among welder. CONCLUSION: Lung function parameters status were significantly lower in welder than non-welder, and working period was the most important indicator for lung function status evaluation among welder. KEYWORDS: vital capacity, VC, forced vital capacity, FCV, forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, lung function, ratio of FEV1/FVC, working period 
KEPATUHAN PERILAKU CUCI TANGAN TENAGA KESEHATAN PADA MASA PANDEMI COVID-19: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Wahyuni Wahyuni; Meily Kurniawidjaja
PREPOTIF : Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol. 6 No. 1 (2022): April 2022
Publisher : Universitas Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.31004/prepotif.v6i1.2907

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Introduction: Health care handwashing behavior can significantly reduce health care-related infections (HAI) incIuding Covid-19. It is an effective, easier and cheaper step, but many factors affect it so that the compIiance of hand washing heaIth workers during the Covid-19 pandemic is stiII quite Iow. The purpose of this study is to anaIyze factors that affect the compIiance of handwashing heaIth workers during the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: This study is a systematic review using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta AnaIyses) method using two articIe search engines nameIy Pubmed and Science Direct, using the keyword "CompIiance OR Adherence AND Hand hygiene OR Hand washing AND HeaIthcare worker AND Covid-19" which is sought both separateIy and simuItaneousIy. ResuIts: the variabIe factors most often found to affect compIiance with heaIth care handwashing behavior are knowIedge, gender, age, and attitude, foIIowed by training variabIe, profession, supervisor support, hand washing faciIities, patient capacity/workIoad and sociaI/co-worker support and other factors. Conclusion: knowIedge factors, gender, age and attitude are the most common factors found to affect compIiance with the hand washing behavior of heaIth workers. It is necessary to prevent, controI and intervention programs carried out by hospitaIs to improve handwashing compIiance of heaIth workers by giving attention to these factors so that the spread of Covid-19 in heaIth workers can be reduced.
FAKTOR RISIKO GANGGUAN OTOT DAN TULANG RANGKA AKIBAT KERJA PADA PEKERJA PERKANTORAN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Nurul 'Afifah Hijami; L. Meily Kurniawidjaja
PREPOTIF : Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol. 6 No. 1 (2022): April 2022
Publisher : Universitas Pahlawan Tuanku Tambusai

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.31004/prepotif.v6i1.2972

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Gangguan otot dan tulang rangka akibat kerja (Gotrak) menjadi salah satu penyakit yang paling umum terjadi. Tujuan studi ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor risiko gotrak pada pekerja bagian perkantoran. Studi ini merupakan studi systematic review menggunakan metode PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses) dengan dua mesin penelusuran artikel yaitu PubMed dan Science Direct. Penelusuran dalam studi ini menggunakan kata kunci “Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder OR MSDs OR Wmsds AND Office Worker”. Variabel faktor risiko gotrak pada pekerja perkantoran yang paling banyak ditemukan yaitu postur janggal, jenis kelamin, usia, faktor psikososial, durasi kerja, desain tempat kerja, tuntutan kerja, lama kerja, dan diikuti beberapa faktor risiko lainnya. Postur janggal, jenis kelamin, dan umur merupakan variabel faktor risiko yang paling banyak ditemukan mempengaruhi kejadian gotrak. Perlu dilakukan pengendalian untuk menurunkan kejadian gotrak pada pekerja perkantoran dengan memperhatikan faktor-faktor variabel yang ada.