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The Poverty in Indonesia: Concept, Approach, and the Reduction Strategies Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 5, No 1 (1991)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

Apparently, the policy of raise poverly in Indonesia start to change. In PJPT I, the strategy to raise the poverly acupied the position “Side stream of development” only. That is, the effort to raise the poverly only applied the components of macro economic policy to maintain the growth of the economy in high position. In PJPT II this effort occupy the position “main stream of development”. That is, not only does the effort depend on “trickle down effect’, but also through direct attack that concern to destitude people. The poverly phenomenon is complex problem and multidimensional, that’s not merely concern with welfare aspect (materially). Therefore, in order to the raising of poverly run effectively, we have to look the dimension of poverly as a whole. Complexity of poverly problems vary from place to place. Therefore, it is needed an accurate strategy and it must consider the characteristic of poverly and the potency that suitable to be developed. 
Peranan Kota Kecil dalam Pengembangan Wilayah Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 10, No 2 (1996)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

Tulisan ini berusaha untuk mengidenfitikasi peranan kota kecil (small towns) dalam pengembangan wilayah, terutama wilayah pedesaan. Bahasan dimulai dari pertama, konsep keterkaitan; kedua pendekatan peranan kota kecil dalam pengembangan wilayah pedesaan, dan diakhiri dengan bahasan megenai pendekatan saling ketergantungan antara kota kecil dengan pedesaan. Pengetahuan mengenai keterkaitan dapat membantu dalam mengidentifikasi sifat dan dampak interaksi antar kegiatan ekonomi. Secara teoritis, keterkaitan baik antar sektor maupun dalam sektor dapat terjadi melalui berbagai cara. Keterkaitan secara vertikal, yakni keterkaitan yang tercipta karena kerja sama atau hubungan antara perusahaan kecil dengan perusahaan besar. Keterkaitan dapat terjadi pula melalui keterkaitan konsumsi (consumption linkages) dan keterkaitan produksi (production linkages). Bentuk keterkaitan lainnya adalah keterkaitan keruangan, yang mencerminkan luasnya pengaruh sebuah perekonomian dan sebagai petunjuk adanya interaksi ekonomi antar wilayah. Berdasarkan pada serangkaian kajian mengenai keterkaitan desa kota, setidaknya ada dua hal yang perlu diperhatikan. Pertama, pertumbuhan kegiatan sosial ekonomi di pedesaan dan kota kecil merupakan dua hal yang saling bergantung. Oleh karenanya, kajian mengenai keterkaitan desa – kota disamping perlu dilihat dari perspektif kota, juga perlu dilihat dari pespektif desa. Kedua, keterkaitan desa – kota, di samping bervariasi antara wilayah satu dengan lainnya, secara internal juga menunjukkan variasi keterkaitan antar kelompok masyarakat, tergantung dari konteks regional, ekonomi, dan sosial. 
Development and Poverty: Critical Review of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Shift of Economic Growth to Empowerment Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 12, No 2 (1998)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

There had been some changes of poverty preventation strategy for the government of the New Order. In the development process, the change of the strategy from economy growth method to the implementation of “Presidential Decree of Underdeveloped Territorial Program (IDT) “actually emphasized on the increased attention to the poor. It was proved that the combination of various programs could decrease the poverty rate both quantitatively and significantly. However, because the pattern of the top-down and the feature of the charity remained to dominate on the overall strategy, the poor could not have develop significantly independent. Thus, poverty preventation strategy in the future must emphasize on the development of the poor’s creativity, initiative, and capability based on the mobilization of the local resources, so it can make the poor develop and grow independently. In such a way, ontinual development will reasonably run. A change of strategy needs the reshuffle of political structure to democracy.
Urbanization and Slum Residential Area in Cities: a Theoretical Review Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 4, No 2 (1990)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

This paper aims to explain the inter relationship between urbanization and slum and squatter settlement phenomena in urban areas, focusing on two cases in Jakarta and Yogyakarta. Marginality theory and dependence theory are to explain the two phenomena above, because these theories have different assumption and different explanations about slum areas. Thus, the solutions offered are different too. The result of Tadjuddin and Taylor research into the slum and squatter settlement in Yogyakarta and Jakarta suggest that the phenomena of the slum settlement in this cities could not be explained by a single theory, either marginality theory or dependence theory.
Orientation Use of Houses in Rural - Urban (A Case Study in the Eastern District of Kartasura, Sukoharjo 2001) Amin, Choirul; Dilahur, Dilahur; Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 14, No 2 (2000)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

Kartasura, seen formspace point of view, has special position because it is located in the corridor intersection between Semarang – Surakarta – Yogyakarta. Which becomes three central developing cities in central part of Java. This study is carried out in border town area in east part of Kartasura, which consist of four village – Pabelan, Gonilan, Gumpang, and Makamhaji. That are growing fast due to the effect of urban characteristic from Surakarta. The orientation phenomena of the use of house (OPR), the urban population that led to the commercial use is an interesting fact dealing with the influence of urban activities in those areas. The goal of this study is to know the kindsand the spread of the space of OPR population in east part of Kartasura and the factors, which is studied, is the houses in the research areas and the respondents are the owner of the houses. The sampling uses systematic proportional random sampling. The location of house sample (UMS, UNS, Islamic Boarding Shcool of Assalam), health services (RSIS and RSO), and commercial services (ALFA, UMS stores). All of them are located in Pabelan and Makamhaji. While industrial center consist of PT Tyfountex and small industries around it in Gumpang. Every central activities is divided into two cluster based on the relative distance from central activities (far and near), so as a whole there are four clusters which made up of two clusters in service center and the other in industrial center. Sample at every cluster is taken proportional about 2,5% based on homogenity consideration, whether the selecction of house sampling is taken randomly. The numbers of samples as a whole 175 respondents. The collected data are prensented in the form of frequency and cross table. Qualitative data analysis uses logical thought, deductive induccctive, analogy and comparison, while quantitative data analysis is done using frequency table analysis and cross table. The use of both analysis is sadapted with the data and goal of the study. The result of this  study shows that 1) OPR population in east part of Kartasura consist of three kinds, commercial OPR, non commercial, and combination. While the spreading space of the kind of OPR follows the concept of distance decay principle – the nearer relative distance of the house to the center of activities, the more commercial orientation the use of the house is. 2) External factor, which influence OPR, is the developing urban activities such industry, commerce, education, and health instrument. While the internal factor which influence to OPR is the size of land ownership.
Mengkaji Rational Comprehensive Planning Theory dalam Konteks Indonesia Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 10, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

Akhir-akhir ini, setidaknya sejak lima tahun terakhir banyak kalangan yang menyangsikan relevansi dan keandalan teori dan praktik perencanaan kota konvensional (Rational Comprehensif Planning/ Prosedural Planning) yang selama ini dianut. Diperkirakan tidak lebih dari 30 persen dari materi yang tertuang dalam rencanaa-rencana kota di Indonesia yang dapat diimplementasikan. Tulisan ini dimaksudkan untuk mengkaji teori dan praktik Rational Comprehensif Planning dalam konteks Indonesia. Rational Comprehensif Planning (RCP) merupakan model perencanaan yang sangat dipengaruhi oleh Classical Scientific Method yang dilandasi oleh pendangan postivisme dan Cartesian – Newtonian. RCP ditegakkan atas asas rasionalitas. Dalam lingkup perencanaan identik dengan menggunakan pendekatan keilmuan (scientific approach) di dalam proses penganalisaan dan cara pemecahan masalah. Dengan demikian, rasionalitas menuntut dasar pertimbangan yang sistematik dan evaluasi yang tepat terhadap berbagai alternatif cara untuk mencapai tujuan. Untuk dapat menerapkan rasionalitas dalam proses perencanaan maka di samping diperlukan perencanaan yang ‘serba tahu’ dan mampu mensintesiskan semua persoalan yang muncul, juga dibutuhkan informasi yang lengkap dan menyeluruh dalam cakupan perencanaan. Di Barat RCP sudah mengalami fase krisis, di Indonesia model perencanaan ini sedang mengalami masa puncak dengan RUTRK-nya. Di sini terlihat bahwa kita tertinggal cukup jauh dalam hal perkembangan pemikiran tentang perencanaan. Sejak lima tahun terakhir muncul berkembang beberapa paradigma lain yang lebih berorientasi pada kkomitmen kerakyatan, sebagai akibat ketidakpuasannya terhadap RCP yang dianggap kurang berhasil menyelesaikan konflik tata ruang di kota yang cenderung intensitasnya semakin meningkat.
Spatial Function Diversity in Kampung Sangkrah, Surakarta City Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 13, No 2 (1999)
Publisher : Forum Geografi

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Abstract

The objective of this article is to understand the variety of space functions and the values underlying them, in kampung Sangkrah, Surakarta municipality. The study uses the inductive analysis based on the naturalistic method research. The result of the research shows that space in the kampung Sangkrah is multifunctional. The multifunction of space is resulted from the dialetical relationship between the relatively strong social relations and the limited space available to aommodate the various ativities of the kampung inhabitants. This dialetical relationship creates common norms called space tolerance, which the result in the variety of space function.
Masalah Penyediaan Lahan dalam Pengembangan Kota Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 7, No 2 (1993): December 1993
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v7i2.4807

Abstract

Masalah di perkotaan sesungguhnya berakar dari keterbatasan penyediaan lahan. Di lain pihak permintaan akan lahan semakin bertambah sejalan dengan pertambahan jumlah penduduk dan aktifitas perkotaan. Masalah yang muncul kemudian adalah harga laban yang meningkat dengan cepat diikuti dengan munculnya spekulan-spekulan lahan, merebaknya konflik sosial sebagai akibat dari penggusuran dan pembebasan tanah serta konflik kepentingan masing-masing sektoral dalam penggunaan lahan. Oleh karena masalah lahan di perkotaan demikian komplek, maka diperlukan strategi yang terpadu dan menyeluruh yang dapat mengakomodasikan berbagai kepentingan masyarakat dan aspek terkait yang diperlukan.
Beberapa Implikasi Perkembangan Kota pada Rural Urban Fringe Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 8, No 1 (1994): July 1994
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v8i1.4816

Abstract

Persentase penduduk Indonesia yang bertempat tinggal di perkotaan sejak tahun 1920 sampai 1990 telah meningkat dengan cukup pesat. Pada tahun 1920 persentase penduduk kota sebesar 5.8 persen, pada tahun 1990 meningkat menjadi 30.97 persen, dan perkiraan tahun 2000 menjadi 38.3 persen. Implikasi utama dari persoalan diatas semakin meningkatnya permintaan akan ruang untuk menampung fungsi-fungsi baru di perkotaan. Sedang dipihak lain persediaan lahan dikota semakin terbatas. Oleh karena itu pemekaran fungsi-fungsi kota ke daerah pinggiran kota menjadi keniscayaan. Semakin meningkatnya intensitas pemekaran kota ke daerah pinggiran kota menimbulkan beberapa persoalan. Pertama, munculnya fenomena "under bounded city" yang tak jarang memicu munculnya "goal conflict" dalam perencanaan tata ruang antar wilavah yang berdekatan. Kedua, untuk kota-kota di pulau Jawa. Pemekaran kota yang semakin meningkat sedikit banyak akan mengancam prestasi swa sembada beras yang telah diraih, karena sebagian besar lahan potensial untuk pertanian dan suplai beras di Indonesia dihasilkan dari Pulau jawa. Dengan mempertimbangkan sektor pertanian dan pengembangan kota maka disarankan dua strategi yang berbeda untuk pengembangan kota-kota di jawa dan luar jawa. Pengembangan kota-kota di jawa disarankan lebih menekankan strategi yang berorientasi pertanian dengan cara memproteksi lahan pertanian potensial di pinggiran kota. Sedangkan pengembangan kota-kota di luar jawa disarankan menerapkan strategi yang berorientasi kekotaan, dengan memberi prioritas pada pengembangan fungsi kota.
The Poverty in Indonesia: Concept, Approach, and the Reduction Strategies Musiyam, Muhammad
Forum Geografi Vol 6, No 2 (1992): December 1992
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.23917/forgeo.v6i2.396

Abstract

Apparently, the policy of raise poverly in Indonesia start to change. In PJPT I, the strategy to raise the poverly acupied the position “Side stream of development” only. That is, the effort to raise the poverly only applied the components of macro economic policy to maintain the growth of the economy in high position. In PJPT II this effort occupy the position “main stream of development”. That is, not only does the effort depend on “trickle down effect’, but also through direct attack that concern to destitude people. The poverly phenomenon is complex problem and multidimensional, that’s not merely concern with welfare aspect (materially). Therefore, in order to the raising of poverly run effectively, we have to look the dimension of poverly as a whole. Complexity of poverly problems vary from place to place. Therefore, it is needed an accurate strategy and it must consider the characteristic of poverly and the potency that suitable to be developed.