Telah diselidiki pengaruh nikethamide terhadap sleeping time phenobarbital pada 8 ekor albino rat, strain laboratorium sendiri; di mana terIihat perpanjangan sleeping time pada suntikan nikethamide 10 menit sesudah suntikan phenobarbital.Juga terlihat perpanjangan sleeping timeÂ pada female rat bila dibanding dengan malerat.Oleh karena itu dalam penggunaan nikethamide sebagai antidoturn keracunan barbiturat masih diragukan sesuai dengan pendapat sebagian buku, dan untuk lebih rnemastikan nikethamide adalah kontra indikasi perlu pengumpulan data klinik yang lengkap
Seven patients of open tibial fractures type III C were treated in the Emergency Unit, Sardjito hospital from 1990 to 1995. Three patients underwent early amputation and four patients ultimately required secondary amputation from three to twelve days after vascular repair intervention.Open tibial fractures associated with vascular trauma need an immediate decision between early amputation and limb salvage. Prospective studies are important before a well-defined protocol or objective criteria for early amputation can be considered.Key word : open fracture Ã¢â¬â tibial fracture Ã¢â¬â lower fracture Ã¢â¬â type Ill C Ã¢â¬â amputation
The amputation and reconstructive procedure of the management of open tibial fracture type III is still of interest and controversy because the amputation effort is considered as a punishment of primary treatment but a reconstructive method in massive lower extremity trauma is difficult. The MESS is a scoring system that can be applied to mangled extremity and help one determines which mangled limb will eventually come to amputation. The record of 28 open tibial fracture type III patients had been reviewed at the SARDJITO hospital 1990-1995. All seven open tibial fracture type Ill C patients with MESS of greater than seven were amputated. According to four tables of blind comparison analyzing MESS value those patients of more than seven was found to have a positive predictive of 100 % that may be best treated by primary amputation. In conclusion the MESS is an early and accurate predictor for identifying the extremity that may be best treated by amputation or reconstruction.Key words : open fracture - MESS - tibial fracture - amputation - mangled extremity
All open fractures especially open fracture of the lower leg grade III A and III B, should be assumed to be contaminated, therefore they tend to be infected. The time of intervention is one of the risk factors of infection complication.A descriptive analysis has been conducted aiming at evaluate the occurrence of infection and the time of treatment on patients with open fracture of the lower leg grade III A and III B. In this study 102 cases (80 males and 22 females) who had open fracture of the lower leg grade III A and III B were admitted to Dr. Sardjito General hospital, Yogyakarta. Patients were evaluated according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Out of fifty-four cases underwent intervention before 8 hours after injury (within golden period) 25 cases (46,29%) had been infected. The rest (48 cases) who had treatment after 8 hours since trauma, 83,33% (40 cases) were infected.A statistical analysis (X2 = 13,520, df=1 and p < 0,001) showed that there was significant difference of infection complication of open fracture of the lower leg grade III A and III B and the intervention between within and beyond golden period.Key words: open fracture - tibia fracture - infection - golden period - debridement
Hoffa Fracture is a fracture at femoral condyle caused by direct injury of the knee at flexion position; there fore the articular surface is broken. Distal fragment of fracture can be displaced or undisplaced. The Hoffa fracture is divided into three types according to prognostic implication. Type I, the intra articular fracture line reaches the supracondyle of the femur and some of the soft tissues still attached to the distal fragment. Type II, intra articular fracture without any attachment of the soft tissue to the distal fragment. and type III where the fracture line slight anteriorly and proximally to the condyle of the femur with some attachment of the soft tissues and ligaments to the distal fragment. A case of young motor cyclist who involved in collision against a bridge is reviewed. He has type I Hoffa fracture Which is equal to grade III B Gustilo classification system. The conservative procedure of open wound management and skeletal traction was adequate. The problem was that, the radiographic interpretation was difficult if the anterior part of the femoral condyle was intact, undisplaced or slightly displaced. Therefore CT-Scan and tomography were indicated. In type I and type III Hoffa fracture, some soft tissue structures remain attached to the distal condyle fragment and that there will be some blood supply to this fragment. However, in type II fracture the soft tissue may completely be unattached especially type II C and it could predispose to avascular necrosis or nonunion.Key Words : Fracture - intraarticular - femoral condyle - avascular necrosis - non-union
Abstract : This research aims to produce mathematics learning devices in form of syllabus, Lesson Plan (LP), and Student Worksheet (SW) based on discovery learning on number sequence material in eigth grade. Development model used is 4D that consist of define, design, develop, and dissemination. The research is limited to develop stage. Testing conducted included validity test on syllabus, four LP, and four SW, along with practicality test of the SW usage. Validty test was conducted by involving two experts and a practitioner, then practicality test was conducted in small-group test at SMPN1 Tualang by involving ten students. Validity Data included scores and validator’s suggestions that collected with questionnare technique used validator sheet. Practicality Data included scores and respondent’s suggestion that collected with questionnare technique used students response questionnare. The suggestions collected was analyzed with data reduction method, and the scores collected was analyzed with editing, coding, and data tabulation method. In data tabulation, calculations are performed to determine average percentage scores of the validation and small group test results. Based on the data analysis of the validation results, obtained the average percentage score for: (1) syllabus 94,81%; (2) LP overall more than 94%; and (3) SW overall more than 91%, then based on the data analysis from the result of questionnaire of students response, obtained the average percentage score for SW overall more than 87%. Thus, it can be concluded also that the learning devices have complied very valid criteria, and the SW also has complied very practical criteria.Keyword: Mathematic Learning Devices, Discovery Learning, Development Research,4D Model
Abstract: This study aims to improve the learning process and the student’s mathematical understanding skill by applying Discovery Learning (DL) model. This research is Classroom Action Research with two cycles. This research was conducted in class X science 2 MAN 1 Kuantan Singingi in the second semester of academic year 2017/2018 to 27 students. The required data are qualitative and quantitative data. The research instruments used are mathematical learning instruments (Syllabus, Lesson Plans, and Student Activity Sheets) and instruments for collecting data (Observation Sheets and Mathematical-Understanding Tests). Qualitative data were collected by observation technique and analyzed by descriptive narrative analysis. Quantitative data were collected by test technique and analyzed by descriptive statistics analysis. Based on the analysis of the observation sheets showed that implementation of learning process on cycle II had happened improvement from implementation on cycle I. Weakness on cycle I is improved on implementation cycle II according with planning of improvement after reflection cycle I. Result of the test indicates that the student’s learning achievement for the first is 40,4 improved in cycle I to 60,2 and improved to 89.62 in cycle II. The improvement of student’s learning achievement founded for each indicator of mathematical understanding skill: redefine the concept, provide examples and not examples the concept, and applying concepts to solve the problem. This study concludes that the implementation of DL improved the learning process and the student’s mathematical understanding skill at class X science 2 MAN 1 Kuantan Singingi in the second semester of academic year 2017/2018.Key Words: discovery learning, mathematical understanding skill, learning process
Most of the lecturers do not give great attention or not considered the importance of teaching materials. This is reinforced by the lack of existed teaching materials that to supports the lectures. This study aims to develop competency-based teaching materials in for the subjects of Initial Value Problem and Boundary Condition (IVPBC) to build students higher-order thinking skills. This research is a development research consisting of three main stages, namely preliminary analysis, product design, and development. The object of this research is competence-based teaching materials in the subject of the initial value problem and boundary condition itself. After designing the teaching materials, then it was tested and validated by experts. The instrument used is a validation sheet consisting of 35 statement items. The result of the research shows that all validators have approved every aspect of assessment of teaching materials that are (1) relevance, (2) accuracy, (3) completeness of the presentation, (4) presentation system, (5) conformity of the presentation with the demand of student-centered learning, (6) presentation technique, (7) Indonesian language compliance and (8) legibility and communicativeness. As the conclusion, the developed teaching materials are valid and can be used on a wide scale of teaching.
Abstract: This research aims to improve learning process and the student’s mathematics learning outcomes through implementation of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Model. This type of research is Classroom Action Research with two cycle. The research was conducted in class VIII1 SMP Negeri 13 Pekanbaru in the odd semester of the academic year 2018/2019. The subject of this research consist of 40 students. The research instrument consists of learning materials used include Syllabus, Lesson Plan and Student Activity Sheets and instruments for collecting data are observation sheets and test of mathematics learning outcomes. Data analysis techniques in this study are descriptive narrative analysis and descriptive statistics analysis. From the analysis of observation sheets, it can be seen that there is improvement of learning process. The percentage and frequency of students who achieved minimum completeness criteria is increased from the basic score with percentage 45% (18 students) to cycle I with percentage 72,5% (29 students) and 87,5% (35 students) in cycle II. This research concludes that the implementation of PBL model improved the learning process and the student’s mathematics learning outcomes at class VIII1 SMP Negeri 13 Pekanbaru in the odd semester of the academic year 2018/2019.Key Words: Problem Based Learning model, Mathematics Learning Outcomes
Abstrak :Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh hasil belajar siswa pada materi aljabar yang tergolong masih rendah dan kurang memuaskan dengan persentase 48% siswa yang mencapai KKM. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperbaiki proses pembelajaran dan meningkatkan hasil belajar matematika siswa dengan pendekatan struktural Numbered Heads Together pada kelas VIII MTs. Muhammadiyah Duri. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada semester ganjil. Jumlah siswa dalam penelitian sebanyak 25 orang terdiri dari 12 siswa laki-laki dan 13 siswa perempuan. Bentuk penelitian yang digunakan adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK). Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua siklus. Instrumen pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah lembar pengamatan aktivitas guru dan siswa, serta tes hasil belajar. Lembar pengamatan dianalisis secara deskriptif naratif, sedangkan tes hasil belajar akan dianalisis secara statistik deskriptif dengan menganalisis persentase kemampuan meningkatkan proses pembelajaran, analisis distribusi frekuensi, dan analisis ketercapaian kriteria ketuntasan minimum (KKM). Dari analisis deskriptif naratif terlihat bahwa terjadi perbaikan proses pembelajaran dari sebelum tindakan ke siklus I dan siklus II. Kemudian hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan terjadi peningkatan hasil belajar matematika siswa dari skor dasar dengan persentase 48 %, pada ulangan harian I dengan persentase 56% dan pada ulangan harian II dengan persentase 84%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa penerapan model pembelajaran pendekatan struktural Numbered Heads Together di kelas VIII MTs. Muhammadiyah Duri dapat memperbaiki proses pembelajaran dan meningkatkan hasil belajar matematika siswa pada materi pokok teorema phytagoras tahun pelajaran 2013/2014Kata Kunci : Pendekatan struktural Numbered Heads Together, proses pembelajaran matematika, hasil belajar matematika.