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LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM Cymbopogon nardus AS OVIPOSITION DETERRENT AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES AGAINST Helicoverpa armigera Hubner ON CHILI PEPPER Setiawati, Wiwin; Murtiningsih, Rini; Hasyim, Ahsol
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 12, No 1 (2011): April 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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The fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner) is one of the key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest may reach up to 60%. Chemical treatment for con-trolling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. More environmentally safe insecticides are developed based on natural plant ingredients as their active compound such as essential oils. This study aimed to assess the potential of citronella oil for managing H. armigera on chili pepper. The experiments were conducted at the Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute from April 2009 to March 2010 and in Cirebon, West Java from November 2009 to March 2010. A field experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and replicated five times. Citronella oil was extracted by steam distillation from Cymbo-pogon  nardus. The oil was then chemically characterized by using GC-MS and its efficacy (ovicidal and feeding deterrent) against H. armigera was tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The GC-MS result showed that major chemical compounds of the citronella oil used were citronella (35.97%), nerol (17.28%), citronellol (10.03%), geranyle acetate (4.44%), elemol (4.38%), limonene (3.98%), and citronnellyle acetate (3.51%). The laboratory experiment revealed that the highest concentration (4,000 ppm) of citronella oil reduced egg laying by 53-66%. Ovicidal activity was concentration dependent, and egg hatchability decreased by 15-95% compared to control. The field experiment showed that treatment of citronella oil at 2.0 mL L-1 significantly reduced fruit damage by H. armigera similar to the plots treated with spinosad at the recommended dose (60 g ai ha-1). Application of citronella oil significantly reduced fruit damage by 72% and increased quality of the chili pepper. Because oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are key factors in controlling the pest, therefore this study revealed that citronella oil has potential to be incorporated into the controlling program of H. armigera on chili pepper.
Penampilan Beberapa Klon Bawang Merah dan Hubungannya dengan Intensitas Serangan Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Putrasamedja, Sartono; Setiawati, Wiwin; Lukman, L; Hasyim, Ahsol
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 22, No 4 (2012): Desember
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Perkembangan varietas-varietas bawang merah di suatu daerah ditentukan oleh keserasian dengan lingkungan, potensi hasil, toleransi terhadap serangan organisme pengganggu tumbuhan (OPT), serta umur dan mutu hasil. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji penampilan beberapa klon bawang merah dan hubungannya dengan intensitas serangan OPT penting. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Brebes dan Tegal (Jawa Tengah) dari Bulan Juni sampai dengan September 2011. Perlakuan yang diuji ialah 10 klon bawang merah hasil silangan tahun 2004 dan 2005, serta dua varietas bawang merah sebagai pembanding (Bauji dan Bima Brebes). Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan ialah acak kelompok dan diulang tiga kali. Parameter yang diamati ialah pertumbuhan tanaman (tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, dan jumlah anakan), hasil panen, dan serangan OPT penting. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa klon no. 2005/1 dapat beradaptasi dengan baik di Brebes dan Tegal, mampu menghasilkan produksi tertinggi masing-masing sebesar 9,95 dan 17,50 t/ha, mempunyai diameter umbi terbesar (1,87 dan 2,41 cm), bentuk umbi bulat, dan berwarna merah tua, sedangkan klon no. 2004/11 mempunyai pertumbuhan dan  produktivitas yang tinggi, relatif toleran terhadap serangan Spodoptera exigua, Alternaria porri, dan Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, diameter umbi (1,67 dan 1,96 cm), bentuk umbi bulat,  dan berwarna merah tua, sedangkan klon no. 2004/10 dan no. 2005/19 sangat rentan terhadap serangan hama S. exigua, penyakit A. porri, dan C. gloeosporioides. Klon-klon yang mempunyai tingkat serangan rendah/toleran terhadap OPT merupakan klon harapan bawang merah toleran/tahan OPT. Namun demikian, penggunaan pestisida sesuai dengan konsep pengendalian hama terpadu (PHT) masih tetap diperlukan terutama apabila serangan OPT tersebut mencapai ambang pengendalian yang ditetapkan. The development of shallots varieties in one location depends on the genetic adaptability, yield potential,  tolerance to pest and diseases, harvest date, yield and quality. The aim of study was to evaluate 10 clones and two local clones as check, Bima Brebes and Bauji were conducted in Brebes and Tegal (Central Java) from June to September 2011. The trial were laid out in a completely randomized block design and each treatment was replicated three times. The parameters used for evaluating these clones were plant height, no. of sprout,  no. of leaves, yield and pests and diseases incidence. The results showed that considering overall performance, clone no. 2005/1 gave the highest yield (9.95 and 17.50 t/ha), and diameter of bulb (1.87 and 2.41 cm) in Brebes and Tegal respectively, clone no. 2004/11 produced growth and good yield  and showed tolerance to Spodoptera exigua, Alternaria porri, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, bulb diameter (1.67 and 1.96 cm) with dark red color,  while clone no. 2004/10 and no. 2005/19 were identified as the most susceptible clones to S. exigua, A. porri, and C. gloeosporioides. This suggests that some of shallots clones could be good candidates for the new varieties of shallots. However, the use of pesticides in IPM concept were still needed especially if the incidence of pests and diseases reach the action threshold.
Efikasi dan Persistensi Minyak Serai sebagai Biopestisida terhadap Helicoverpa armigera Hubn. (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) Hasyim, Ahsol; Setiawati, Wiwin; Murtiningsih, R; Sofiari, Eri
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 20, No 4 (2010): Desember 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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ABSTRAK. Helicoverpa armigera merupakan hama penting pada tanaman cabai merah. Kehilangan hasil akibat seranganH. armigera dapat mencapai 60%. Pengendalian yang umum dilakukan adalah menggunakan insektisida secara intensif,yang dapat menimbulkan berbagai dampak negatif. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh berbagai konsentrasiminyak serai terhadap aktivitas biologi larva H. armigera. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium dan Rumah KasaBalai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang dari bulan Juni sampai Desember 2009 pada suhu 27±20C dan kelembaban75-80%. Penelitian dilaksanakan dalam empat tahap kegiatan, yaitu pengaruh minyak serai terhadap: (1) repelensi larvaH. armigera instar II, (2) indeks nutrisi larva H. armigera instar III, (3) toksisitas larva H. armigera instar I, II, dan III,serta (4) persistensi minyak serai dalam pakan H. armigera dan pengaruhnya terhadap mortalitas larva H. armigerainstar III. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan ialah acak kelompok yang terdiri atas enam perlakuan dengan empatulangan. Penelitian menggunakan metode pencelupan (dipping methods). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyakserai dapat digunakan sebagai penolak larva H. armigera instar II, dengan tingkat repelensi kelas II (20-40%) dan kelasIII (40-60%). Aplikasi minyak serai pada konsentrasi 3.000-5.000 ppm dalam pakan dapat menurunkan laju konsumsirelatif, laju pertumbuhan relatif, efisiensi konversi makanan yang dicerna dan yang dimakan, serta dapat menghambatmakan larva H. armigera sebesar 50%. Penggunaan minyak serai dapat menurunkan bobot pupa H. armigera jantandan betina. Nilai LC50 untuk larva H. armigera instar I, II, dan III berturut-turut ialah 12.795,45, 8.327,42, dan 3.324,89ppm, sedang nilai LC95 untuk larva H. armigera instar I, II, dan III berturut-turut sebesar 10.564,59, 12.535,12, dan4.725,30 ppm. Residu minyak serai dalam pakan H. armigera hanya berkisar antara 1- 4 hari setelah pemaparan ataupada 5 HSP toksisitas menurun drastis. Minyak serai sebagai insektisida nabati mempunyai tingkat persistensi yangrelatif rendah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, minyak serai dapat digunakan sebagai insektisida yang potensialuntuk dikembangkan secara komersial dan ramah lingkungan dalam rangka pengendalian H. armigera.ABSTRACT. Hasyim, A., W. Setiawati, R. Murtiningsih, and E. Sofiari. 2010. Efficacy and Persistence of CitronellaOil as A Biopesticide Against Helicoverpa armigera Hubn.. The fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubn.) is one ofthe key pests of chili pepper in Indonesia. Yield loss due to this insect pest is up to 60%. The chemical treatment forcontrolling this insect pest is ineffective and eventually leads to environmental pollution. Studies were conducted toassess the biological activity of citronella oil against tomato fruit worm, H. armigera from June to December 2009 atthe Laboratory and the Screenhouse at Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute. All the bioassays were conducted undercontrolled environmental conditions (27± 20C and 75-80% RH). Four bioassay steps were performed, i.e the effectof citronella oil on percentage repellency of second instar larvae of H. armigera, the antifeedant effect of citronellaoil against third instar larvae of H. armigera, toxicity of citronella oil on first, second, and third instar larvae of H.armigera and persistence of citronella oil and is effect of mortality of H. armigera. The results indicated that citronellaoil significantly repellened to second larvae of H. armigera with the repellency level of relative lowest II (20-40%) andIII (40-60%). Applications of citronella oil at 3,000 until 5,000 ppm concentrations reduced the food consumptionindex, growth rate, approximate digestability, efficiency of conversion of digested food and feeding deterrent was reducedby 50%. Citronella oil significantly decreased the growth and the development of both pupal male and female of H.armigera. The percentage of mortality rate varied significantly among the H. armigera larvae tested and the values ofLC50 for first, second, and third larvae instar of H. armigera were 12,795.45, 8,327.42, and 3,324.89 ppm, respectively.Meanwhile LC95 value at the first, second, and third larvae instar of H. armigera were 10,564.59, 12,535.12, and 4,725.30ppm, respectively. Residual activity of citronella oil were found to be moderately toxic to H. armigera. The residueof citronella on food H. armigera was about 1-4 days after treatment. However, toxicity decreased significantly after5 days. These results clearly showed that citronella oil was not persistent to the environment due to its volatile nature.These results suggested that the application of citronella oil is potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach forthe control of the agricultural pests H. armigera.
Respons Hama Lalat Buah Jantan terhadap beberapa Jenis Atraktan dan Warna Perangkap di Kebun Petani Hasyim, Ahsol; Boy, A; Hilman, Yusdar
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 20, No 2 (2010): Juni 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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ABSTRAK. Penelitian respons lalat buah jantan terhadap beberapa jenis atraktan dan warna perangkap dilakukan dikebun buah dan sayur Padang Pariaman dari bulan Juni sampai Oktober 2006. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acakkelompok pola faktorial dengan dua faktor dan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama ialah warna perangkap (merah, kuning,hijau, oranye, dan transparan). Faktor kedua ialah atraktan ME sintetik (metil eugenol murni 90%), petrogenol (ME70%), dan cue-lure. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata jumlah lalat buah yang terperangkap/perangkap/haripada berbagai warna perangkap dan atraktan sintetik berbeda nyata. Lalat buah lebih banyak terperangkap, diperolehpada perangkap warna kuning (39 ekor), kemudian diikuti oleh perangkap warna merah, hijau, oranye, dan transparan,masing-masing 29,84, 27,99, 14,89, dan 14,3 ekor lalat buah/perangkap/hari. Jumlah lalat buah paling banyak tertarikpada perangkap dengan atraktan metil eugenol murni dibandingkan dengan perangkap ME 70% dan cue-lure. Perangkapwarna kuning dengan atraktan ME dapat menarik lebih banyak jenis lalat buah (11 spesies) kemudian diikuti olehperangkap transparan, perangkap warna merah, oranye, dan hijau, masing-masing dapat menarik berturut-turut 9,8, 8, dan 7 jenis lalat buah. Penggabungan antara warna perangkap dengan atraktan sintetik metil eugenol, dapatmeningkatkan kemampuan sebagai perangkap yang potensial dan juga sebagai alat monitoring lalat buah.ABSTRACT. Hasyim, A., A. Boy, and Y. Hilman. 2010. The Response of Male Fruit Fly to Various Attractantand Trap Colors in the Farmer Orchard. The research was conducted in fruits and vegetables farmer orchard inPadang Pariaman from June to October 2006. The factorial randomized completely design with three replications andtwo factors were used in this experiment. The first factor was trap color (red, yellow, green, orange, and transparent).The second factor was kind of synthetic attractant (pure methyl eugenol 90%, petrogenol 70%, and cue-lure). Theresults showed that number of flies’ caught/trap/day was significantly different in response to trap colors and syntheticattractant. Yellow colored trap captured significantly highest number of male fruit fly (39 flies/trap/day) followed byred, green, orange, and transparent trap which were 29.84, 27.99, 14.89, and 14.3 fruit fly/trap/days, respectively.Pure ME (90%) attracted highest number of flies comparing ME 70% (petrogenol) and cue-lure. Yellow trap attractedhighest number of flies species (11 species) followed by transparent trap, red, orange, and green which were of 9, 8,8, and 7 species, respectively. The incorporation of trap color and synthetic attractant such as methyl eugenol wouldprovide powerful tools not only potential for fruit fly trapped but also for monitoring.
Patogenisitas Jamur Entomopatogen terhadap Stadia Telur dan Larva Hama Kubis Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius Hasyim, Ahsol; Nuraida, -; Trizelia, -
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 19, No 3 (2009): September 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Entomologi dan Fitopatologi Universitas Andalas Padangdari bulan Mei sampai September 2006. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui patogenisitas isolat-isolat jamurentomopatogen terhadap stadia telur dan larva hama kubis Crocidolomia pavonana. Penelitian ditata dalam rancanganacak lengkap pola faktorial dengan 2 faktor, yaitu 7 isolat ditambah 1 kontrol dan 5 stadia larva hama kubis. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas masing-masing isolat jamur entomopatogen berbeda nyata terhadapberbagai stadia telur dan larva hama ulat kubis. Hasil uji patogenisitas menunjukkan bahwa jamur Beauveria (isolatBAP5 dan BPP1), Nomuraea (isolat NAP3), Metarhizium (isolat MAP1), Paecilomyces (isolat PPP4), dan Fusarium(isolat FPP3) adalah jamur yang virulen terhadap telur dan larva C. pavonana. Jamur B. bassiana mempunyai potensiuntuk dikembangkan sebagai agens pengendali hama kubis pada masa mendatang.ABSTRACT. Hasyim, A., Nuraida, and Trizelia. 2009. Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Fungi Isolates toEggs and Larvae of Cabbage Head Caterpillar, Crocidolomia pavonana F (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). This studywas carried out at Entomology and Phytopathology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University fromMay to September 2006. The objectives of this study were to assess the pathogenicities of the entomopathogenicfungi isolates to eggs and larvae of C. pavonana. A completely randomized design with 2 factors i.e. 7 isolates ofentomophatogenic fungi with a control and 5 larvae stages of cabbage caterpillars were used. The results showedthat there were significant difference in infectivity of all isolates tested to eggs and larvae stages of the caterpillar.The isolates of Beauveria (isolate BAP5 and BPP1), Nomuraea (isolate NAP3), Metarhizium (isolate MAP1)w,Paecilomyces (isolate PPP4), and Fusarium (isolate FPP3) were more virulence to eggs and larva stages of C.pavonana. Beauveria bassiana was potential for controlling C. pavonana in near future
Isolasi, Identifikasi, dan Karakterisasi Jamur Entomopatogen dari Rizosfir Pertanaman Kubis Nuraida, -; Hasyim, Ahsol
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 19, No 4 (2009): Desember 2009
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi dan mengkarakterisasi jamur entomopatogen dari rizosfirpertanaman kubis. Percobaan ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Entomologi dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, FakultasPertanian Universitas Andalas dan Laboratorium Entomologi, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika Solok dariMaret sampai Agustus 2006. Pengujian sporulasi jamur entomopatogen menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap polafaktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu jenis isolat dan substrat. Sebanyak 500 g tanah diambil dari pertanaman kubis di PadangPanjang (Desa Koto Panjang) dan Alahan Panjang (Desa Rimbo Data) kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam kotak plastik.Sebanyak 10 ekor Tenebrio molitor stadia larva instar ketiga yang baru berganti kulit dimasukkan ke dalam kotakyang berisi tanah, kemudian ditutup dengan selapis tipis tanah dan dilembabkan dengan menyemprotkan akuadessteril di atasnya sebanyak 100-150 ml. Kotak tersebut diletakkan di laboratorium dengan kelembaban >90%. Larvayang terinfeksi setelah 3-4 hari digunakan sebagai sumber isolat jamur entomopatogen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa jamur yang menginfeksi T. molitor adalah jamur entomopatogen yang dapat menyebabkan kematian hamakrop kubis Crocidolomia pavonana F.. Enam jenis jamur patogen serangga berhasil dibiakkan pada media SDAY.Genus jamur patogen tersebut adalah Fusarium sp., Beauveria sp., Metarhizium sp., Nomuraea sp., Paecilomycessp., dan Achersonia sp.. Beras dan gandum adalah substrat yang paling baik bagi perbanyakan dan pertumbuhankoloni jamur dibandingkan substrat lainnya. Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa spesies jamur entomopatogentersebar secara alami di lingkungan kebun tanaman kubis.ABSTRACT. Nuraida and A. Hasyim. 2009. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of EntomopathogenicFungi from Rhizosphere of Cabbage Plant. This experiment was conducted at Entomology and PhytopathologyLaboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University and Entomology Laboratory of Tropical Fruit ResearchInstitute, Solok, West Sumatera, from March to August 2006. A factorial completely randomized design with 2factors, i.e. fungi isolates and its substrates was applied. About 500 g soil samples were collected from cabbagefields in Padang Panjang (Koto Panjang Village) and Alahan Panjang (Rimbo Data Village) and placed into plasticbags. The soils were screened for the presence of entomopathogenic fungi. The new third instars larvas of Tenebriomolitor L. were used as baits. About 10 larvae were placed on the soil surface in plastic bowl and covered withlid. Then the bowl was incubated under laboratory condition with >90% RH. The infected larvas, after 3-4 days,were used as source of entomopathogenic fungi isolate. The results showed that fungi isolated from T. molitor baitwere all entomopathogenic causing mortality of Crocidolomia pavonana. Six entomopathogens were successfullycultured on SDAY. These were Fusarium sp., Beauveria sp., Metarhizium sp., Nomuraea sp., Paecilomyces sp., andAchersonia sp.. Rice and wheat produced better cultures and growth of fungal colony than those other substrates.The present study has provided strong evidence that entomopathogenic fungal species were naturally spread in thesoil environment of cabbage field.
Seleksi Substrat untuk Perbanyakan Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin dan Infektivitasnya terhadap Hama Penggerek Bonggol Pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar Hasyim, Ahsol; Yasir, H; Azwana, -
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 15, No 2 (2005): Juni 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Seleksi substrat untuk perbanyakan Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin dan infektivitasnya terhadap hama penggerek bonggol pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni sampai Desember 2002 di Laboratorium Entomologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah, Solok. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui media substrat yang terbaik untuk perbanyakan B. bassiana dan infektivitasnya dalam mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari lima jenis media substrat yaitu beras, jagung, pupuk kandang, dedak halus, dan kontrol (air). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat variabilitas daya kecambah isolat B. bassiana yang dibiakkan pada substrat jagung, beras, pupuk kandang, dan dedak. Daya kecambah isolat B. bassiana yang dibiakkan pada media substrat jagung dan beras lebih tinggi (86,47 dan 76,67%) dibandingkan media substrat dedak dan pupuk kandang yaitu 31,67 dan 24,00%. Produksi konidia pada jagung dan beras lebih tinggi dan berbeda sangat nyata (2,8 x 108 konidia ml/l dan 1,96 x 108 konidia ml/l) dibandingkan dengan dedak dan pupuk kandang dengan jumlah konidia paling rendah berturut-turut 1,26 x 106 konidia ml/l dan 4,57 x 106 konidia ml/l. Mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol pisang, C. sordidus paling tinggi diperoleh setelah diaplikasikan dengan jamur B. bassiana hasil biakan pada substrat jagung dan beras berturut-turut yaitu 86,67 dan 76,67%. Sedangkan jamur B. bassiana hasil biakan pada substrat pupuk kandang dapat menyebabkan kematian hama penggerek bonggol paling rendah yaitu 29,54% (LT50). Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi bahwa substrat jagung dan beras merupakan media perbanyakan B. bassiana yang baik untuk mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang. Selection of substrates for mass production of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and their infectiveness to control banana weevil borer, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar. Experiment was conducted at Entomological Laboratory of Indonesian Fruit Research Institute from June to December 2002. The aim of this study was to find out the best substrates for mass production of B. bassiana and their infectivity to control banana weevil borer. The research used a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of five substrates such as rice, maize, animal manure, rice siftings, and control (water). The results showed that there was variability in germination of fungal B. bassiana culture on solid media (maize, rice, animal manure, and rice siftings). Germination rate of B. bassiana cultured in maize and rice substrate were higher (86.47 and 76.67% respectively), than the germination rate of B. bassiana cultured in animal manure and rice siftings substrate (31.67 and 24.00% respectively). A total of conidia production on maize and rice substrate were significantly higher i.e. 2.8 x 108 conidia ml/l and 1.96 x 108 conidia ml/l respectively, than that of B. bassiana isolate on animal manure and rice siftings substrate (1.26 x 106 conidia ml/l and 4.57 x 106 conidia ml/l) respectively. The highest mortalities of adult banana weevil borer, Cosmopolites sordidus was obtained by application of B. bassiana produced form maize and rice substrates i.e. 86.67 and 76.67% respectively. While B. bassiana produced form animal manure caused lowest death of C. sordidus i.e. 29.54% (LT50). This study was undertaken to provide more information of maize and rice substrates as a media for mass production of B. bassiana to control banana weevil borer.
Distribusi Spesies Lalat Buah di Sumatera Barat dan Riau Muryati, -; Hasyim, Ahsol; de Kogel, W J
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 17, No 1 (2007): Maret 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui distribusi dan diversitas spesies lalat buah di Sumatera Barat dan Pulau Kundur Kabupaten Karimun, Riau. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei mulai bulan Juni 2003 – Desember 2004. Lalat buah ditangkap menggunakan perangkap yang terbuat dari botol bekas air mineral yang di dalamnya digantungkan kapas yang telah dibasahi dengan metil eugenol dan cue lure. Lalat buah hasil tangkapan dibawa ke Laboratorium Proteksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika Solok untuk diidentifikasi menggunakan kunci identifikasi elektronik Cabikey. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari semua lokasi penelitian diperoleh 45 spesies lalat buah (2 spesies belum teridentifikasi). Tiga spesies lalat buah ditemukan di semua lokasi penelitian, yaitu B. albistrigata, B. carambolae, dan B. papayae. Keragaman spesies lalat buah paling tinggi ditemukan di Kabupaten Solok, Sumatera Barat dan Pulau Kundur, berturut-turut ditemukan 30 spesies dan 25 spesies lalat buah. Hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat sebagai informasi terutama bagi karantina sebagai dasar untuk memperketat aturan mengenai keluar masuknya buah-buahan dari dan ke suatu daerah sehingga spesies-spesies yang ada di daerah tertentu terutama daerah yang mempunyai diversitas spesies tinggi tidak masuk ke daerah lain.ABSTRACT. Muryati, A. Hasyim, and W.J. de Kogel. 2007. Distribution of Fruit Fly Species at West Sumatera and Riau. The objective of the research was to understand the distribution and diversity of the fruit flies species at West Sumatera and Kundur Island. The research was done by survey method on June 2003 to December 2004. Fruit flies were trapped by using methyl eugenol and cue lure attractant that were hung inside of traps made from used bottle of mineral water. The fruit flies that were caught brought to the Plant Protection Laboratory of Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute for identification purpose by using electronic identification key Cabikey. Forty five fruit fly species spread on the whole research location (2 species were not yet identified). Three species of fruit fly found in the whole research locations, i.e. B. albistrigata, B. carambolae, and B. papayae. Solok Regency and Kundur Island had the most species diversity than other locations, which were found 30 and 25 species fruit flies, respectively. This information useful for quarantine regulation to prevent the spreading of fruit fly species to other areas.
Evaluasi Bahan Carrier dalam Pemanfaatan Jamur Entomopatogen, Beauveria bassiana (BALSAMO) Vuillemin untuk Mengendalikan Hama Penggerek Bonggol Pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus GERMAR Hasyim, Ahsol
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 16, No 3 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika, Solok, dari Juli sampai Desember 2002. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui bahan carrier terbaik dalam pemanfaatan Beauveria bassiana untuk mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus GERMAR. Penelitian ditata dalam rancangan acak lengkap, dengan 7 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari 6 bahan carrier, yaitu tepung jagung, tepung beras, talk, tepung maizena, minyak Sania, air, dan kontrol (konidia kering). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tepung beras merupakan carrier yang paling baik dalam pemanfaatan B. bassiana dan menyebabkan mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol paling tinggi dibandingkan dengan carrier minyak Sania yang menyebabkan mortalitas paling rendah. Mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol C. sordidus yang paling tinggi yakni 90% diperoleh jika menggunakan B. bassiana dengan tepung beras sebagai carrier pada batang semu pisang. Sedangkan B. bassiana yang diaplikasikan pada batang pisang semu dengan menggunakan minyak atau air hanya dapat menyebabkan mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol paling rendah, yaitu berkisar antara 61-65%. Nilai LT50 dan LT95 dari bahan carrier tepung beras adalah 12,93 hari dan bahan carrier minyak adalah 23,34 hari. Hasil penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa bahan carrier berbentuk tepung dapat mempertinggi kemampuan jamur entomopatogen, B. bassiana dalam mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang, C. sordidus.ABSTRACT. Hasyim, A. 2006. Evaluation of carrier materials for Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin to control banana corm borer, Cosmopolites sordidus GERMAR. The experiment was conducted at Entomological Laboratory, Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute from July to Desember 2002. The objective of the study was to determine the best carrier for B. bassiana to control banana weevil borer, C. sordidus GERMAR. A randomized completely design with 7 treatments and 3 replications were used. Treatments consisted of 6 carriers, such as corn powder, talc, rice powder, maizena powder, Sania oil, water, and control (dry conidia). The results showed that rice powder was the best carrier for B. bassiana and caused highest mortality of banana corm borer. Whereas Sania oil carrier gave the lowest mortality of banana corm borer. The highest mortality of adult banana weevil borer, C. sordidus obtained when B. bassiana was exposed using rice powder carrier on pseudostem, which was 90%. While the B. bassiana exposed at liquid carrier of oil or water carrier on pseudostem, caused the lowest mortality of C. sordidus by 61 and 65%, respectively. The value of LT50 and LT95 from rice powder was lowest (12.93 days) and oil carrier was highest (23.34 days). The results demonstrated that powder as a carrier can enhance the efficacy of the insect pathogenic fungus B. bassiana against banana weevil borer, C. sordidus.
Efektivitas Model dan Ketinggian Perangkap dalam Menangkap Hama Lalat Buah Jantan, Bactrocera spp Hasyim, Ahsol; Muryati, -; de Kogel, W J
Jurnal Hortikultura Vol 16, No 4 (2006): Desember 2006
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Horticultural Research and Development

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Abstract

ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui model dan ketinggian perangkap yang efektif dalam menangkap lalat buah, Bactrocera spp. Penelitian ini dilakukan di kebun petani di Kenagarian Kacang pada pertanaman polikultur dan Alahan Panjang pada pertanaman monokultur, Solok mulai Maret 2003-Desember 2004. Model alat perangkap yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu perangkap bekas botol air mineral, modifikasi gipsy moth, modifikasi perangkap steiner, perangkap delta, dan perangkap McPhail. Masing-masing perangkap diberi umpan dengan 0,5 ml metil eugenol atau cue lure yang diteteskan pada sepotong kapas dan digantungkan di dalam perangkap. Untuk mengetahui ketinggian perangkap yang efektif untuk menangkap lalat buah, penelitian dilakukan dengan memasang perangkap dari botol air mineral pada ketinggian 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, dan 2,5 m dari permukaan tanah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah lalat buah yang tertangkap per perangkap/hari pada masing-masing jenis perangkap yang digunakan berbeda nyata. Lalat buah yang paling banyak tertangkap per perangkap/hari adalah pada perangkap McPhail yaitu 52 ekor dan yang paling sedikit diperoleh pada perangkap gipsy moth yaitu 6 ekor/perangkap/hari. Ketinggian perangkap terlihat berbeda nyata, di mana lalat buah yang paling banyak tertangkap adalah pada perangkap dengan ketinggian 1,5 m dari permukaan tanah. Penggabungan antara model perangkap dengan atraktan sintetis, seperti metil eugenol atau cue lure meningkatkan kemampuan tidak hanya sebagai perangkap lalat buah yang potentsial tetapi juga sebagai alat monitoring hama lalat buah.ABSTRACT. Hasyim, A., Muryati, and W. J. de Kogel. 2006. Trap type and trap height effectiveness on catching male fruit flies, Bactrocera spp. The objective of the research was to understand trap types and trap position that most effective on catching male fruit flies, Bactrocera spp. The research was conducted at Kenagarian Kacang of polyculture plantation and Alahan Panjang of monoculture plantation, Solok from March 2003 to December 2004. The types of trap used in this experiment were the trap made from used bottle of mineral water, the modified of gipsy moth trap, the steiner trap, delta trap, and McPhail trap. One piece of cotton, soaked in 0.5 ml methyl eugenol were hung in each trap. To determine the trap height effectiveness, the trap made from used bottle of mineral water were set at several height of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 m above the ground level, respectively. The results showed that the number of flies cought/trap/day was significantly different in respect to trap types. The highest number of flies cought/day/trap was found in McPhail trap (52 flies), and the lowest number of flies cought/day/trap was found in modified gypsy moth traps (6 flies), the trap positions was significantly affect the number of fruit flies cought and the higest number of flies cought/trap/day was obtained by 1.5 m trapped height. The combination types of trap and syntetic attractant such as methyl eugenol or cue lure could increase the capacity, not only as a potential trapped but also as a monitoring tool for fruit flies.