Nitrification is often not effective because the characters of nitrifying bacteria is alwaysÃ‚Â slow growing and temperature, pH, DO, amonia concentration, nitrite and C/N ratio asÃ‚Â the limited factors. Batch experiment was operated for 6 hours, every half an hoursÃ‚Â ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were measured.The results showed that added C sourse (glucose) in medium from PDAM Bogorand Surabaya have a significant effects of ammonium degradation, nitrite and nitrateÃ‚Â production.Ã‚Â Degradation of ammonium in batch reactor from PDAM Bogor showed that both Ã‚Â naerobic and aerobic condition have a different fluctuation. Production of nitrite wasÃ‚Â stable from the middle of reaction to last of aerobic phase. In aerobic condition nitrateÃ‚Â production is reduced to 49,21 % (+ glucose) and 60,87% (+ acetate)Ã‚Â Batch reactor from PDAM Surabaya differ from PDAM Bogor particularly on degradationÃ‚Â of ammonium. Added glucose as C source cause the concentration of ammonium wasÃ‚Â increased and acetate as C source showed stable with a slightly fluctuation. Nitrite andÃ‚Â nitrate production relatively small in both C source.
H. IMAMUDDIN. 1987.The failure of pods and seeds development of Bauhinia tomentosa L. Suppl. Berita Biologi 3 : 35 - 37.Microscopic,observation to study the failure of pods and seeds development of Bauhinia tomentosa L. was conducted.Several buds,6 - 21 mm long, were diserved with paraffin method.The results showed that the failure of pods and seeds development of B. tomentosa were not caused by either flower morphology, pollen fertility or nticrospore development,but by abnormal development of saccus embrionalis,followed by incomplete development of egg cell,which made the flowers aborted before receptive.
ABSTRACTStudy of Some Bacteria to Heavy Metal Resistent (Hg, As, Cd, Ni, Pt and Se). The study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of some bacteria toward heavy metal (Hg, As, Cd, Ni, Pt and Se) by monitoring growth inhibition in Minimal Basal Medium (MBM) and Nutrient Broth (NB). Prior to growth inhibition study, pre selection of heavy metal resistance was determined by disk blanks methods. The results showed that AT 01, AT 03 and AT 11 were found to be heavy metal-resistent, however Pseudomonas sp. was a heavy metal-sensitive. The study also showed that AT 01 grew better in NB than MBM.Key words: Resistance, heavy metal, Pseudomonas sp.
Growth Capacity of Soil Bacteria Isolates Obtained from Estate Area from Media Containing Propoxur and Carbaryl. Isolation actions have been carried out with three soil samples derived from soil estate of pine apple, sugar cane, and banana in Lampung area, Southern Sumatra. The isolates were grown in the selected media containing carbaryl insecticide, and herbicide of diuron and bromocyl. The highest and vigorous growth isolates have gathered from threedifferent soil samples, and subsequently named GGPC, GM, and NTF isolates. Furthermore, those isolates were studied through the growth rate in the media containing propoxur and carbaryl in the nutrient rich liquid (NB) and compared to limited mineral (MM). All of the isolates grew faster against pesticides in the liquid medium of NB compared to MM. High correlated value among parameters nurtured as due to bacterial population and those processes were not affected by media composition. The GM isolate showed similar pattern during propoxur decrease along with incubation even though the rate of pesticide elimination from the media was higher in the rich nutrient liquid media (NB) compared to MM.Keywords: microbe isolate, pesticide, propoxur, carbaryl
ABSTRACTNitrite Oxidation by Heterotrophic Bacteria Under Aerobic Condition. The nitrite transformingactivities of heterotrophic bacteria from isolates from agriculture soil, Lampung were studiedunder aerobic conditions. Among the 9 bacterial isolates tested, almost all are reported haveability to consume of nitrite, but none of the bacterial isolates formed significant nitrate in themedium. NOB H1 (Bacillus licheniformis), is denitrification-negative, consumed 16. 4 mg/L ofnitrites with the accumulation of 4.45 mg/L nitrates. While, NOB H8 (Pseudomonas sp.) isdenitrification-positive, consumed 49. 64 mg/L of nitrite with the accumulation of 3.34 mg/Lnitrates. Nitrite oxidations of both isolates NOB H1 and NOB H8 took place during stationeryphase to the dead phase. Growth pattern of both isolates NOB H1 and NOB H8 were sigmoidwith generation time of 1.69 and 2.19 hour, respectivelyKey words: heterotrophicbacteria; nitrite oxidation; denitrification
ABSTRACTThe growth character and nitrification activity of nitrifying cultures (N-Sw). Theculture of nitrifiers (N-Sw) was obtained from acclimated sludge of sawit palm oil industrywastewater. The growth and nitrification activity of those cultures were investigated.The result shows that the growth and nitrification activity attained optimum at pH 7-8,and temperature of 30 0C. The culture of nitrifiers was still growing at pH 5, but thenitrification activity was not detected. The growth of nitrifiers and the nitrification activitywas inhibited at 40 0C. The ammonium conversion rate reached 0,088-0,090 mg NNH4+/L/hour/g biomass. The rate of ammonium conversion in the bioreactor increasedto 0.630 mg N-NH4+/L/hour/g biomass as the pH maintained at 7.5-8 and dissolvedoxygen at 3-4 mg/l O2.Key words: nitrifying culture, ammonium, ammonium convertion rate
Efficiency of biodegradation of organic carbon and ammonium of sawit palm oil industry wastewater was investigated by using batch reactor with fluidized porous support particles.Two bioreactors, each had an effective volume of 3.0 L, were operated in parallel. Bioreactor-l is a batch reactor with fluidized porous support particles and bioreactor-ll is a suspended growth reactor.The wastewater consisting of 1500-2000 mg/L COD and 50-60 mg/L nitrogen was fed by fill and draw mode with one cycle per day,where 1.5 L treated water was drawn before adding the new wastewater.Efficiency of COD degradation and nitrification were calculated by measuring concentration of COD, ammonium-N, nitrite-N and nitrate-N.The experimental results showed that efficiency of COD degradation and nitrification tend to be higher in the bioreactor-l than in the bioreactor II.The highest efficiency of COD degradation in the reactor-l was 83.7% and in the bioreactor-ll was 63.44 %.The highest efficiency of nitrification in the bioreactor-l and bioreactor-ll was 76.72% and 56%, respectively.Ammonium removal occurred in the bioreactor might not only by biological nitrification, but also by other phisical or chemical processes.
Biodiversity of Basidiomycetes was studied in Kelila, Jayawijaya, Papua.The aim of this observation was to identify species diversity of Basidiomycetes and their utilities. Sixty one species were found in the location. The 19 species were edible mushroom while 7 species have been used as traditional medicines and some species have a common odours (smell) and 1 species (Clavatia sp.) contains clavatin which could be used as arm tumour agent.
The experiment was carried out to study the level of pollution of organic substances entering Brantas River. The water samples were taken twice in a year from 5 stations(Juni dan Agustus 2006..). The number of bacteria was counted by plate count technique. Results showed that 17 species of heterotrophic bascteria were found in the first survey, and 16 species in the second survey, the number of species in first survey ang second survey is almost the same but different from species dominant because the water quqlity is also slightly change ( tables 4 and 7. Bacterial population was composed of various species and varied in each stasiun.The various of the species occuredbecause every species has different activity for degrading the types of waste. Pollution level is inversely correlated with number of heterotrophic bacteria.
Pollution of heavy metals mercury (Hg) is a serious problem especially in gold mining areas. This study aims to isolate the bacteria in the gold mining of Pongkor (West Java) and testing the bacterial resistance to mercury (Hg). The results showed that of the 5isolates tested, qualitatively only 2 isolates (P3 and P5) that resistant to HgCI2, each at a concentration of 30 and 40 ppm.Furthermore, up to 70 ppm concentration of HgCl2, P5 bacteria can still grow well even require a longer time lag phase in period.