Ismail Budiman
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Pengaruh Lama Perlakuan Uap pada Serat terhadap Sifat Fisis dan Mekanis Papan Semen Serat Sisal Effect of Fiber Steaming Treatment on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber Cement Bonded Board Ismail Budiman; Mohamad Gopar; Subyakto Subyakto; Bambang Subiyanto
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 7, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (249.91 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v7i1.239


The main problem of making Sisal fiber cement bonded board is how to mix fibers and cement to get excellent performance of board due to the presence of extractives.  Steam treatment on fibers is expected to reduce extractives in the fibers; therefore it will improve the bonding between fibers and cement. Beside that, utilization of catalysts, such as calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), is expected to increase the physical and mechanical properties of Sisal fiber cement bonded board. Fibers of Sisal was chopped into 0.5 ~ 1.0 cm of length. Steam treatment was conducted in autoclave for 30, 60 and 120 minutes at 1.15 atm of pressure and 121ºC of temperature, and untreated Sisal as control. Chopped fiber was dried in an oven at 60ºC to obtain 5% of moisture content.  The content of CaCl2 or MgCl2 was 5% of cement weight.The board was produced at a dried fiber : cement ratio of 1 : 3 and water : cement ratio of 1 : 2 based on board weight.  The target density of the boards produced was 1.25 g/cm3.  Cement bonded Sisal fiber was formed into 25cm x 25cm x 1cm mat, and then cold pressed for 24 hours. Composites were conditioned at room temperature for 28 days. Physical and mechanical characteristics were tested by Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Results shown that combination of steam treatment and catalyst added improved the physical and mechanical properties such as thickness swelling (TS), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), screw withdrawal (SW) and internal bond (IB).  
PROSES PEMBUATAN SERAT SELULOSA BERUKURAN NANO SISAL (Agave sisalana) DAN BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) Subyakto .; Euis Hermiati; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto; Fitria .; Ismail Budiman; Ismadi .; Nanang Masruchin; Bambang Subiyanto
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4999.234 KB) | DOI: 10.25269/jsel.v44i02.133


Lignocellulosic natural fibers originated from renewable resources such as wood and non wood (bamboo, sisal, kenaf, ramie, abaca, coconut coir, etc.) are abundantly available on the earth. These fibers can be processed further into nano size cellulose microfibrils which have diameter less than 100 nm. Nanofibers have unique characteristics such as very high strength, large surface to volume ratio and high porous mesh. So nanofibers are very promising materials to be use in composites, automotive, plup and paper, electronics, and other industries . Many methods have been developed to produce nanofibers from wood or non wood resources , basically how to fibrillate the fibers into nano size. Mostly they uses mechanical treatments using refiner, grinder, high pressure homogenizer, or other methods such as using ultrasonic or enzymatic. In this research, development process to produce cellulose nanofibers from sisal (Agave sisalana), betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) was tried, Fibers were processed to produce pulps. The pulps were processed using a stone refiner for several times. The resulted fibers were further processed in a mixer (ultra turrax) for 2 hours at speed of 24000 rpm. Fibers were observed with a Scanning Electon Miscroscope (SEM) to make sure that the diameter size was reached to nano size. Other process are treated fibers with disc refiner and processed further in high pressure homogenizer was also done. Result shown that using the above processes, nano size fibers wuth diameter less tha 100 nm could be produced. For the next research other method to pruduce nanofibers such as using ultrasonic will be conducted. Research on the utilization of nanofibers as reinforcement of composites for automotive components is going on.Keywords : nanofibers, celluloce, sisal, bamboo, mechanical treatmentsINTISARI Lignoselulosa yang berasal dari kayu dan nonkayu (bamboo, sisal, kenaf, rami, abaka, sabut kelapa, dan lain-lain) merupakan bahan yang sangat melimpah keberadaannya di muka bumi. Bahan serat ini dapat diproses lebih lanjut menjadi mikrofibril selulosa yang mempunyai diameter kurang dari 100 nm. Serat nano mempunyai sifat-sifat yang khas seperti sangat kuat , rasio permukaan terhadap volume yang besar dan sangat porous. Sifap sifap tersebut membuat serat nano merupakan bahan yang sangat menjanjikan untuk industry komposit, bahan otomotif, pulp dan kertas, elektronik, dan industry lainnya. Banyak metoda telah dikembangkan untuk memperoleh serat nano dari bahan kayu maupun nonkayu, yang pada prinsipnya adalah bagaimana menguraikan serat menjadi ukuran nano. Kebanyakan metoda yang digunakan adalah perlakuan mekanik seperti menggunakan refiner, grinder, high pressure homogenizer; gelombang ultasonik; atau metoda lain menggunakan enzim. Pada penelitian ini digunakan serat dari daun sisal (Agave sisalana) dan batang bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper). Setelah proses pluping, pulp sisal atau bamboo kemudian difibrilasi dengan stone refiner. Selanjutnya, diproses lanjut menggunakan ultra turax selaman 2 jam pada kecepatan 24000 rpm. Serat yang dihasilkan dimati dengan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) untuk mengetahui diameter serat sudah berukuran nano. Disamping digunakan juga disc refiner dilanjutkan dengan high pressure homogenizer untuk proses fiblirasi. Dari proses ini telah berhasil diperoleh ukuran serat bambu dan serat sisal dengan diameter lebih kecil dari 100 nm. Untuk penelitian selanjutnya akan digunakan teknik ultrasonic untuk proses fibrilasi serat. Penelitian nanofiber sebagai penguat komposit untuk aplikasi komponen otomotif sedang dilakukan.Kata kunci: serat nano, selulosa, sisal, bambu, pengolah mekanik.
Carbon Structure of Coconut Coir Fibers Ismail Budiman; Akhiruddin Maddu; Gustan Pari; Subyakto Subyakto
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 11, No 2 (2013): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (399.383 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v11i2.88


The objectives of the research was to characterize the structure of coconut coir fiber carbon. Carbonization was carried out at two successive phases, carbonization at 400 C for 300 minutes and then proceeded at 700, 800, and 900 C. In every temperature level was conducted for 45, 60, and 90 min. The structure of carbon was measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the sample surface analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the degree of crystallinity of the coconut fibers carbonized at 400 C (36.3%) was higher than uncarbonized fibers (16.36%) but lower compared to the coconut fiber carbonized at 700-900 C (41.5-59.81%). Surface analysis of samples showed that the carbonization led to the establishment and enlargement of pores in the fibers.Key words: carbon, coconut coir fiber, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction
Sifat Fisis Mekanis Papan Partikel dari Serat Sisal atau Serat Abaka setelah Perlakuan Uap Physical and Mechanical Properties of Particleboard Made from Steamed Treated Sisal or Abaca Fibers Firda A Syamani; Kurnia W Prasetyo; Ismail Budiman; Subyakto Subyakto; Bambang Subiyanto
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 6, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (177.879 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v6i2.245


Composites made from natural fibers have several weakness, particularly on thickness swelling, due to fiber dimensional changes during swelling of fiber cell wall or changing of lumen dimension by moisture uptaken. Steam treatment on fiber had been expected could reduced fiber water absorbancy by plasticized matrix of fiber cell walls. Fiber of Sisal and Abaca was chopped into 0.5 ~ 2.0 cm of length. Steam treament was conducted in autoclave for 30 minutes on 1.15 atm of pressure and 121ºC of temperature. Chopped fiber was dried in 60ºC oven to obtain 4% of moisture content. Dried fiber was mixed with 10% urea formaldehyde (UF) resin or 8% and 10% melamine urea formaldehyde (MF) resin (based on weight of fiber oven-dried). Glued fiber was formed into 25cm x 25cm x 0.8cm mat, then hot pressed at 20 kgf/cm2 pressure for 10 minutes. Target density was 0.7 g/cm3. Composites conditioning was conducted at room temperature for moisture equilibrium to the enviroment. Physical dan mechanical characteristics testing was carried out based on JIS A 5908 for particle board. Steam treatment could improved physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from sisal fiber using 8% MF.