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This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open ho Widya FATRIASARI; Riksfardini Annisa ERMAWAR; Faizatul FALAH; Dede Heri Yuli YANTO; Euis HERMIATI
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol. 2 No. 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open hot soda process. The cooked bamboo chips were then fibrillated using beater hollander and stone refiner. Yield, kappa numbers (TAPPI 236 cm-85) and freeness (CSF) of the pulp were then analyzed. Pulp yield pretreated with P.ostreatus and incubated for 30 days was the highest (increased by control 22.31%), while that pretreated with T.versicolor was the lowest (decreased by control 22.20%). The increasing of incubation time had positive correlation with the reduction of kappa number. Statistic test (ANOVA) at 95% level of confidence show that fungi give significant effect on kappa number, freeness, and kappa number degradation. Besides that fungi, the interaction between fungi and incubation times give significant effect on the yield changes and pulp yield. T. versicolor had better activity in 45 days of incubation. Pulp freeness resulted              from this study were still lower than the desired value. Pretreatment of betung bamboo using T. versicolor with               45 days of incubation was considered better than the other treatments.   Keywords : Betung bamboo, biopulping, pulp yield, kappa number, degree of freeness
PROSES PEMBUATAN SERAT SELULOSA BERUKURAN NANO SISAL (Agave sisalana) DAN BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) Subyakto .; Euis Hermiati; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto; Fitria .; Ismail Budiman; Ismadi .; Nanang Masruchin; Bambang Subiyanto
JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 44, No 02 (2009): BERITA SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4999.234 KB) | DOI: 10.25269/jsel.v44i02.133

Abstract

Lignocellulosic natural fibers originated from renewable resources such as wood and non wood (bamboo, sisal, kenaf, ramie, abaca, coconut coir, etc.) are abundantly available on the earth. These fibers can be processed further into nano size cellulose microfibrils which have diameter less than 100 nm. Nanofibers have unique characteristics such as very high strength, large surface to volume ratio and high porous mesh. So nanofibers are very promising materials to be use in composites, automotive, plup and paper, electronics, and other industries . Many methods have been developed to produce nanofibers from wood or non wood resources , basically how to fibrillate the fibers into nano size. Mostly they uses mechanical treatments using refiner, grinder, high pressure homogenizer, or other methods such as using ultrasonic or enzymatic. In this research, development process to produce cellulose nanofibers from sisal (Agave sisalana), betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) was tried, Fibers were processed to produce pulps. The pulps were processed using a stone refiner for several times. The resulted fibers were further processed in a mixer (ultra turrax) for 2 hours at speed of 24000 rpm. Fibers were observed with a Scanning Electon Miscroscope (SEM) to make sure that the diameter size was reached to nano size. Other process are treated fibers with disc refiner and processed further in high pressure homogenizer was also done. Result shown that using the above processes, nano size fibers wuth diameter less tha 100 nm could be produced. For the next research other method to pruduce nanofibers such as using ultrasonic will be conducted. Research on the utilization of nanofibers as reinforcement of composites for automotive components is going on.Keywords : nanofibers, celluloce, sisal, bamboo, mechanical treatmentsINTISARI Lignoselulosa yang berasal dari kayu dan nonkayu (bamboo, sisal, kenaf, rami, abaka, sabut kelapa, dan lain-lain) merupakan bahan yang sangat melimpah keberadaannya di muka bumi. Bahan serat ini dapat diproses lebih lanjut menjadi mikrofibril selulosa yang mempunyai diameter kurang dari 100 nm. Serat nano mempunyai sifat-sifat yang khas seperti sangat kuat , rasio permukaan terhadap volume yang besar dan sangat porous. Sifap sifap tersebut membuat serat nano merupakan bahan yang sangat menjanjikan untuk industry komposit, bahan otomotif, pulp dan kertas, elektronik, dan industry lainnya. Banyak metoda telah dikembangkan untuk memperoleh serat nano dari bahan kayu maupun nonkayu, yang pada prinsipnya adalah bagaimana menguraikan serat menjadi ukuran nano. Kebanyakan metoda yang digunakan adalah perlakuan mekanik seperti menggunakan refiner, grinder, high pressure homogenizer; gelombang ultasonik; atau metoda lain menggunakan enzim. Pada penelitian ini digunakan serat dari daun sisal (Agave sisalana) dan batang bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper). Setelah proses pluping, pulp sisal atau bamboo kemudian difibrilasi dengan stone refiner. Selanjutnya, diproses lanjut menggunakan ultra turax selaman 2 jam pada kecepatan 24000 rpm. Serat yang dihasilkan dimati dengan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) untuk mengetahui diameter serat sudah berukuran nano. Disamping digunakan juga disc refiner dilanjutkan dengan high pressure homogenizer untuk proses fiblirasi. Dari proses ini telah berhasil diperoleh ukuran serat bambu dan serat sisal dengan diameter lebih kecil dari 100 nm. Untuk penelitian selanjutnya akan digunakan teknik ultrasonic untuk proses fibrilasi serat. Penelitian nanofiber sebagai penguat komposit untuk aplikasi komponen otomotif sedang dilakukan.Kata kunci: serat nano, selulosa, sisal, bambu, pengolah mekanik.
Synthesis of Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate for Plywood Adhesive Euis Hermiati; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto; Faizatul Falah
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 7, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (548.865 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v7i1.241

Abstract

The aim of this research was to produce natural rubber-based Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate (API) adhesives that could meet standard for exterior grade plywood adhesive.  Base polymers used were Natural Rubber Latex (NRL), Natural Rubber Latex - Styrene (NRL-St), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH).There were two kinds of adhesives produced; one was using NRL and PVOH as base polymers, and the other one was using NRL-St and PVOH as base polymers.  Isocyanate crosslinking agent was added to each kind of adhesives at 2.5; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of the weight of the base polymers.  They were measured for their total solid content (gravimetric method), pH (using pH meter), specific gravity (using picnometer) and viscosity (using Brookfield viscometer). Thermal analyses using TG/DTA was conducted at the addition of 0, 5 and 15% cross-linking agent. The adhesives were spread on the surface of Red Meranti  (Shorea sp.) veneers (250 x 250 x 2.1 mm core; 250 x 250 x 1.5 mm face and back) at the glue spread rate 400 g/m2 DGL (double glue line). The veneers with adhesives were cold pressed at 10 kg/cm2 for 10 minutes and then hot pressed at 10 kg/cm2, 110ºC for 5 minutes.  The plywood produced was conditioned for 2 weeks, then they were measured for their bond strength, delamintaion ratio, water absorption, and thickness swelling. Results of this study showed that either NRL or NRL-St could be used as one of base polymers in preparing API adhesive.  Bond strength of plywood adhered with API adhesives made of NRL-St at all levels of isocyanate crosslinking agent addition were higher than those made from NRL. The addition of 10% or more isocyanate croslinkers to NRL/PVOH (50:50) or to NRL-St/PVOH (50:50) could produce plywood having bond strength that could meet interior grade standard.  Plywood having bond strength of exterior grade standard were produced when 15% or more isocyanate crosslinkers were added to NRL-St/PVOH (50:50) or when 20% or more isocyanate crosslinkers were added NRL/PVOH (50:50).
Catatan Beberapa Jamur Makro Dari Taman Eden 100, Kawasan Toba, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia: Deskripsi dan Potensinya Oktan Dwi Nurhayat; Ivan Permana Putra; Sita Heris Anita; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto
BIOEDUSCIENCE Vol 5 No 1 (2021): BIOEDUSCIENCE
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22236/j.bes/515326

Abstract

Background: The record and research on macrofungi from Taman Eden 100, Toba-Samosir Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia, was conducted to provide some information about their current status and potential use in the future. Methods: This research was divided into three steps: exploration, identification, and literature studies of the potential use from the identified macrofungi. Results: The research had successfully identified 14 macrofungi that were classified into 4 orders and 9 families. All the macrofungi found were Basidiomycota, namely Gymnopilus sp., Marasmiellus sp.1, Marasmiellus sp.2, Marasmius sp., Favolaschia sp., Coprinellus sp., Coprinopsis sp., Auricularia sp.1, Auricularia sp.2, Auricularia sp.3, Auricularia sp.4, Tylopilus sp., Suillus sp., and Russula sp. The identified macrofungi are potentially used as food supplements, medicine, bio-fertilisers, bioherbicides, and bioremediation agents based on the literature. Conclusions: Taman Eden 100 has a unique fungal diversity of macrofungi and has never been published in a scientific journal. Further investigations are needed to determine the fungal diversity and potential use of macrofungi in other places in Taman Eden 100.
KARAKTERISTIK ANATOMI KULIT BATANG SAGU (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) UNTUK BAHAN BAKU PULP DAN KERTAS Ahmad Arsyad; Wiwin Tyas Istikowati; Sunardi Sunardi; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto; Widya Fatriasari; Danang Sudarwoko Adi
Jurnal Sylva Scienteae Vol 4, No 6 (2021): Jurnal Sylva Scienteae Volume 4 No 6 Edisi Desember 2021
Publisher : Universitas Lambung Mangkurat

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (513.257 KB) | DOI: 10.20527/jss.v4i6.4577

Abstract

The study aims to analyze the anatomical characteristics and values of fiber derivatives as raw materials of pulp and paper, samples in the form of sticks the size of matchsticks are prepared for measurement of fiber dimensions then inserted into the test tube and added a chemical solution until the sample is submerged. The test tube is heated to a boil and is yellowish-white. Samples are cooled and washed with aquades. The sample is colored with safranin. Based on the results of research on the value of sago skin fiber derivatives if the average runkel number is obtained worth 1.18, with a class 4 weaving power category of 38.82 with a class 4 category, musteph rotio worth 38.43% with class 2 category, coefficient of rigidity worth 0.26 with class 4 category and flexibility ratio of 0.45 with category 3, Based on fiber classification value can conclude that sago skin is included in class 3 categoryPenelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis karakteristik anatomi dan nilai turunan serat sebagai bahan baku pulp dan kertas, sampel berupa stik seukuran batang korek api disiapkan untuk pengukuran dimensi serat selanjutnya dimasukan ke dalam tabung reaksi dan ditambahkan larutan kimia sampai sampel terendam. Tabung reaksi dipanaskan sampai mendidih dan berwarna putih kekuning-kuningan. Sampel didinginkan dan dicuci dengan aquades. Sampel diwarnai dengan safranin. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian pada nilai turunan serat kulit sagu jika dirata-rata diperoleh bilangan runkel senilai 1,18, dengan kategori kelas 4 daya tenun senilai 38,82 dengan kategori kelas 4, musteph rotio senilai 38,43% dengan kategori kelas 2, coefficient of rigidity senilai 0,26 dengan kategori kelas 4 dan flexibility ratio senilai 0,45 dengan kategori 3, Berdasarkan nilai klasifikasi serat dapat simpulkan bahwa kulit sagu sagu masuk dalam kategori kelas 3
A Review on The Biological, Physical and Chemical Mitigation of Harmful Algal Bloom Nur Hanisah Ibrahim; Anwar Iqbal; Normawaty Mohammad-Noor; Roziawati M.R.; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto; Lee D. Wilson; Abdul Hanif Mahadi
Squalen, Buletin Pascapanen dan Bioteknologi Kelautan dan Perikanan Vol 17, No 2 (2022): August 2022
Publisher : Research and Development Center for Marine and Fisheries Product Processing and Biotechnol

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/squalen.633

Abstract

The harmful algal bloom (HABs) refers to the rapid growth of toxic or high-biomass-producing microalgae. The impact of this phenomenon can cause significant economic loss affecting many industries and causing harm to wildlife and human health. As technology develops, greater research has been conducted to monitor and reduce HABs occurrence’s impact, including mitigating agents. This review presents the advantages and disadvantages of currently used and recently developed biological, chemical, and physical approaches to tackle issues related to HABs. The present review also emphasizes the interaction between the mitigating agents and the algal cells, thus identifying the gap of knowledge that needs to be addressed. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of the approaches and the interaction between the mitigating agents and algal cells will enable researchers to develop a better sustainable system for managing HAB.