Euis Hermiati
R&D Unit for Biomaterials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, Bogor 16911, Indonesia

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Pengaruh Persentase Katalis pada Pembuatan Perekat Kayu Cair terhadap Daya Rekatnya sebagai Bahan Perekat Substitusi Fenol Formaldehida pada Pembuatan Kayu Lapis The Effects of Catalyst Percentage Used in Producing Wood Liquid on Its Bond Strength as Phenol Formaldehyde Substitute Adhesive in Plywood Production Bambang Prasetya; Euis Hermiati; Sudijono Sudijono
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 2, No 2 (2004): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (148.102 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v2i2.310

Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the effects of percentage of catalyst used in producing wood liquid (WL) on its bond strength as Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) substitute adhesive in plywood production.  Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) wood flour passed 60 mesh sieves having around 5% moisture content was liquefied in phenol solution.  Catalyst used, sulfuric acid 98%, was added at the level of 1%,  2% and 3% of the total phenol solution.  The wood liquid obtained was observed and measured for its physico-chemical properties, including color, total solid, pH, specific gravity and viscosity.  The degrees of PF substitution tried were 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60 and 20/80 (PF/WL).  Those adhesive mixtures were used in the preparation of plywood made of Meranti (Shorea sp.) and Keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.).  Bond strength of the plywood samples were determined based on the Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01 – 2704 – 1992).  Results of the research showed that Albizia wood flour could be completely liquefied by phenol and sulfuric acid.  Bond strength testing of exterior grade plywood samples of Meranti showed that a quite high percentage of catalyst (3%) decreased bond strength, while that of Keruing showed that the higher the percentage of catalyst, the higher the bond strength.  In general, adhesive composition of 80/20, 60/40 and some 40/60 (PF/WL) can be used as plywood adhesive and meet the SNI for plywood.
Campuran Lateks Karet Alam-Stirena dan Poliisosianat sebagai Perekat Kayu Lamina Blends of Natural Rubber Latex-Styrene and Polyisocyanate for Laminated Wood Adhesive Dede H Yulianto; Euis Hermiati
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 6, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (721.085 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v6i2.246

Abstract

Each adhesive has its own strengths and weaknesses due to its bond strength, or its resistance to stress, heat, moisture and organisms.  Blending of several adhesives could combine properties of each.  Besides, it might reduce adhesives prices as well. In this research Natural Rubber Latex-Styrene (NRL-St) was blended with Polyisocyanate (PI) or API (Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate) adhesive. The aim of this research was to study the effects of compositions of adhesive blends on adhesive properties, and the effects of composition of adhesive blends and pressing time on bond strength of laminated wood (Acacia mangium). Blending compositions of NRL-St/PI were 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 0/100. Physico-chemical properties of these blends of  adhesives, including solid content, pH, viscosity and mixtures homogenity were analyzed. Blends of NRL-St with PI adhesive had total solid contents range from 42.39 to 50.58%, pH from 7.45 to 7.98, and viscosity from 3506 to 5661 cp. Results of this study showed that optimum composition of blends of NRL-St and API adhesives for producing laminated wood of Acacia mangium was 50/50 (w/w).  At this composition the shear strength of laminated wood was 7.06 MPa, while delamination ratio in cold and boiling water were 0% and 4.89% respectively.  These values could meet Japan Agriculture Standard (JAS) for laminated wood (shear strength > 5.4 MPa and delamination ratio < 10%).  Optimum pressing time for producing laminated wood using API adhesive as well as blends of NRL-St/API (50/50) was two hours.
PROSES PEMBUATAN SERAT SELULOSA BERUKURAN NANO SISAL (Agave sisalana) DAN BAMBU BETUNG (Dendrocalamus asper) Subyakto .; Euis Hermiati; Dede Heri Yuli Yanto; Fitria .; Ismail Budiman; Ismadi .; Nanang Masruchin; Bambang Subiyanto
JURNAL SELULOSA Vol 44, No 02 (2009): BERITA SELULOSA
Publisher : Center for Pulp and Paper

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4999.234 KB) | DOI: 10.25269/jsel.v44i02.133

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Lignocellulosic natural fibers originated from renewable resources such as wood and non wood (bamboo, sisal, kenaf, ramie, abaca, coconut coir, etc.) are abundantly available on the earth. These fibers can be processed further into nano size cellulose microfibrils which have diameter less than 100 nm. Nanofibers have unique characteristics such as very high strength, large surface to volume ratio and high porous mesh. So nanofibers are very promising materials to be use in composites, automotive, plup and paper, electronics, and other industries . Many methods have been developed to produce nanofibers from wood or non wood resources , basically how to fibrillate the fibers into nano size. Mostly they uses mechanical treatments using refiner, grinder, high pressure homogenizer, or other methods such as using ultrasonic or enzymatic. In this research, development process to produce cellulose nanofibers from sisal (Agave sisalana), betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) was tried, Fibers were processed to produce pulps. The pulps were processed using a stone refiner for several times. The resulted fibers were further processed in a mixer (ultra turrax) for 2 hours at speed of 24000 rpm. Fibers were observed with a Scanning Electon Miscroscope (SEM) to make sure that the diameter size was reached to nano size. Other process are treated fibers with disc refiner and processed further in high pressure homogenizer was also done. Result shown that using the above processes, nano size fibers wuth diameter less tha 100 nm could be produced. For the next research other method to pruduce nanofibers such as using ultrasonic will be conducted. Research on the utilization of nanofibers as reinforcement of composites for automotive components is going on.Keywords : nanofibers, celluloce, sisal, bamboo, mechanical treatmentsINTISARI Lignoselulosa yang berasal dari kayu dan nonkayu (bamboo, sisal, kenaf, rami, abaka, sabut kelapa, dan lain-lain) merupakan bahan yang sangat melimpah keberadaannya di muka bumi. Bahan serat ini dapat diproses lebih lanjut menjadi mikrofibril selulosa yang mempunyai diameter kurang dari 100 nm. Serat nano mempunyai sifat-sifat yang khas seperti sangat kuat , rasio permukaan terhadap volume yang besar dan sangat porous. Sifap sifap tersebut membuat serat nano merupakan bahan yang sangat menjanjikan untuk industry komposit, bahan otomotif, pulp dan kertas, elektronik, dan industry lainnya. Banyak metoda telah dikembangkan untuk memperoleh serat nano dari bahan kayu maupun nonkayu, yang pada prinsipnya adalah bagaimana menguraikan serat menjadi ukuran nano. Kebanyakan metoda yang digunakan adalah perlakuan mekanik seperti menggunakan refiner, grinder, high pressure homogenizer; gelombang ultasonik; atau metoda lain menggunakan enzim. Pada penelitian ini digunakan serat dari daun sisal (Agave sisalana) dan batang bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper). Setelah proses pluping, pulp sisal atau bamboo kemudian difibrilasi dengan stone refiner. Selanjutnya, diproses lanjut menggunakan ultra turax selaman 2 jam pada kecepatan 24000 rpm. Serat yang dihasilkan dimati dengan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) untuk mengetahui diameter serat sudah berukuran nano. Disamping digunakan juga disc refiner dilanjutkan dengan high pressure homogenizer untuk proses fiblirasi. Dari proses ini telah berhasil diperoleh ukuran serat bambu dan serat sisal dengan diameter lebih kecil dari 100 nm. Untuk penelitian selanjutnya akan digunakan teknik ultrasonic untuk proses fibrilasi serat. Penelitian nanofiber sebagai penguat komposit untuk aplikasi komponen otomotif sedang dilakukan.Kata kunci: serat nano, selulosa, sisal, bambu, pengolah mekanik.
Tekno Ekonomi Produksi Perekat Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate Berbasis Lateks Karet Alam (Techno-Economic of Natural Rubber Latex-Based Aqueous Polymer Isocyanate Adhesive) Fahriya Puspita Sari; Widya Fatriasari; Raden BP Laksana; Teguh Darmawan; Jayadi Jayadi; Euis Hermiati
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 14, No 2 (2016): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (617.414 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v14i2.223

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Natural rubber latex (NRL)-based aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) adhesive can potentially be used for the production of wood panels or composites. Bonding properties of the adhesive could meet the standard of the wood panels produced. In order to complete its assessment as a commercial wood adhesive, it is important to conduct a techno-economic analysis of this adhesive. The design and analyses were based on 100 L production capacity. The techno-economic analysis as a basis value of the investment to be incurred in the API adhesive production considered the capability of design tools during the production process. Based on the analysis, to produce API adhesives by 34.8 tons per year it is required an investment of 509.5 million rupiahs. The production cost of API adhesives for Rp 50.000 kg-1 is Rp 35.798 with assuming a sales profit of 21.30%. The payback period is 1 year with shut down point (SDP) of 14%, and the break-even point (BEP) of 20.51%. The analysis at various production capacities (34.8, 50, 75, and 100 tons year-1) indicated that API adhesive production will be more profitable with greater production capacity because it can shorten the payback period and increase the return on investment.Keywords: API adhesives, low temperature setting, natural rubber latex (NRL), production design, techno-economic
This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open ho Widya FATRIASARI; Riksfardini Annisa ERMAWAR; Faizatul FALAH; Dede Heri Yuli YANTO; Euis HERMIATI
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol. 2 No. 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

This research was conducted to study the effects of pretreatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybag contained barkless fresh bamboo chips of 1.6 cm in width. Each polybag contained 221.21-230.43 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by P. ostreatus and T. versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days in an incubator. Bamboo chips were cooked in open hot soda process. The cooked bamboo chips were then fibrillated using beater hollander and stone refiner. Yield, kappa numbers (TAPPI 236 cm-85) and freeness (CSF) of the pulp were then analyzed. Pulp yield pretreated with P.ostreatus and incubated for 30 days was the highest (increased by control 22.31%), while that pretreated with T.versicolor was the lowest (decreased by control 22.20%). The increasing of incubation time had positive correlation with the reduction of kappa number. Statistic test (ANOVA) at 95% level of confidence show that fungi give significant effect on kappa number, freeness, and kappa number degradation. Besides that fungi, the interaction between fungi and incubation times give significant effect on the yield changes and pulp yield. T. versicolor had better activity in 45 days of incubation. Pulp freeness resulted              from this study were still lower than the desired value. Pretreatment of betung bamboo using T. versicolor with               45 days of incubation was considered better than the other treatments.   Keywords : Betung bamboo, biopulping, pulp yield, kappa number, degree of freeness
Penyimpanan Jamur dengan Atmosfir Modifikasi dan Terawasi Euis Hermiati
agriTECH Vol 5, No 1 & 2 (1985)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1765.019 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.18984

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Effects of Several Synthesis Conditions on Bond Strength of Plywood Adhered with Natural Rubber Latex – Styrene Adhesive Euis Hermiati; Widya Fatriasari; Faizatul Falah
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 4, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (265.184 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v4i1.287

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This report discusses the effects of synthesis conditions on bond strength of plywood adhered with natural rubber latex - styrene adhesive.  Synthesis variables observed were catalyst (with and without catalyst), pre-stirring (0 and 3 hours) and heating time (1 and 2 hours).  Three-ply plywood samples were prepared from Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Red meranti (Shorea, sp.) veneers and their gluability were evaluated in accordance to Indonesian Standard (SNI 01-2704-1992).  The results revealed that synthesis conditions (i.e. catalyst, pre-stirring and heating time) did not significantly influence the bond strength of plywood.  Natural rubber latex – styrene adhesive is very appropriate as adhesive for Red meranti plywood.  Nevertheless, it can be used as limited interior application for Albizia plywood.  An addition of 10% phenol formaldehyde (PF) in natural rubber latex - styrene adhesive slightly improved the exterior type bond strength of Red meranti plywood
UPAYA MENGURANGI KOTORAN DAN KANDUNGAN ZAT EKSTRAKTIF SERAT TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT DENGAN PENCUCIAN Reduction of Dirts and Extractives Contents of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber by Water Treatment. Euis Hermiati; Nurhayati Nurhayati; Lisman Suryanegara; Mohamad Gopar
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 1, No 1 (2003): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (203.832 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v1i1.330

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The purpose of this study is to get an optimum washing process of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OP EFB) fiber to reduce dirts and extractives contents in the fiber.  Treatments used were boiling (0.5; 1; 2 and 3 hours); soaking and shaking in cold water (1; 4; 8; 12; 24 and 48 hours); 10 minutes agitation in cold water using a washing machine; and 10 minutes agitation in cold water using a washing machine followed by boiling for 0.5 hours.  The clean fiber yield as well as water, ash, hot and cold water soluble extractives and fat contents were determined.  Results of this study showed that soaking and shaking of OP EFB fiber in cold water were quite effective for removing dirts on the fiber, but were not for removing hot and cold water extractives and fats.  Strong agitation could increase the removal of dirts and extractives from the OP EFB fiber.  However, boiling and combination of agitation and boiling removed dirts and extractives more effectively than did the two former processes
Kraft and Soda Pulping of White Rot Pretreated Betung Bamboo Widya Fatriasari; Riksfardini A Ermawar; Faizatul Falah; Dede HY Yanto; Deddy TN Adi; Sita H Anita; Euis Hermiati
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 9, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (391.712 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v9i1.145

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This research was conducted to study the effects of pre-treatment with white-rot fungi on pulp properties of betung bamboo. Inoculum stocks of white-rot fungi (25 ml) were injected into polybags contained barkless fresh bamboo chips. Each polybag contained 214.9–286.8 g oven dry weight of chips. Bamboo chips in the polybags were inoculated by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor. Both of them were then incubated for 30 and 45 days at room temperature. Bamboo chips were cooked using soda and Kraft processes. The cooked bamboo chips were then defiberize using disc refiner for 3 times. Pulp yield, kappa number and degree of freeness of the pulp were then analyzed. The treatment of two white rot fungi, gave different effects on the characteristic of betung bamboo pulp. The effects of fungi treatment on kappa number and degree of freeness can be seen only at samples cooked using kraft process. Incubation time did not affect pulp yield of bamboo treated with both fungi, but it affected kappa number and degree of freeness of bamboo pulp cooked using kraft process. Bamboo treated with T. versicolor incubated for 45 days and cooked using kraft process produced the best pulp quality with high pulp yield.Key words: betung bamboo, biopulping, degree of freeness, kappa number, pulp yield.
Microwave Treatment on Two Fast Growing Trees Species for Bioethanol Production Lucky Risanto; Euis Hermiati; Danang S Adi
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis Vol 10, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis
Publisher : Masyarakat Peneliti Kayu Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (398.776 KB) | DOI: 10.51850/jitkt.v10i1.128

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The objectives of this research were to analyze chemical component and to evaluate the effect of micro wave treatment on the bioethanol production of “balik angin daun kecil” and “balik angin daun sedang” woods. Woods were milled to the size of 40-60 mesh and followed by measuring their chemical component. Glycerol and 0.5% sulphuric acid were added to the woods with the ratio of 10:1 and 20:1, respectively and then irradiated to the micro waves for 2.5-10 min. with power 50 and 70%. The pulp was hydrolyzed with cellulose for 48 H and reducing sugar yield was obtained. The results indicated that hollocellulose and alpha cellulose of “balik angin daun kecil” wood was higher than that of “balik angin daun sedang” wood. Conversely, lignin content of “balik angin daun kecil” wood was lower than that of “balik angin daun sedang” wood. The highest reducing sugar yield of balik angin daun kecil and balik angin daun sedang woods were 21.00% and 22.40%, respectively and they were obtained on irradiated to microwaves for 5 min at 70% power.Key words: balik angin, bioethanol, chemical component, enzymatic hydrolysis, microwave