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SAKARIFIKASI SERAT TANDAN KOSONG DAN PELEPAH KELAPA SAWIT SETELAH PRETREATMENT MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR CAMPURAN JAMUR PELAPUK PUTIH Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor Abimanyu, Haznan; Hanafi, Ahmad; Aristiawan, Yosi; Anita, Sita Heris; Risanto, Lucky; Hermiati, Euis
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 32, No 2 (2014): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Penggunaan kultur campuran jamur pelapuk putih pada proses pretreatment bahan lignoselulosa belum banyak diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh penggunaan kultur  Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Trametes versicolor pada proses pretreatment serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit terhadap hasil sakarifikasinya. Inokulum P. Chrysosporium dan T. versicolor dituangkan ke dalam sampel substrat serat tandan kosong dan pelepah kelapa sawit (40-60 mesh) yang telah disterilkan, masing-masing sebanyak 5% (w/v), sehingga total inokulum yang ditambahkan ke dalam kedua macam substrat masing-masing 10% (w/v). Sampel diinkubasikan pada suhu ±27°C selama 4 minggu. Sebagian dari contoh diambil dan lalu diperiksa setelah masa inkubasi 1, 2, 3, dan 4 minggu. Sakarifikasi dilakukan menggunakan enzim selulase sebanyak 20 FPU per g biomassa dan β-glukosidase dalam shaking waterbath pada suhu 50°C selama 48 jam. Analisis gula pereduksi, glukosa dan xilosa dilakukan terhadap hasil sakarifikasi. Rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari tandan kosong kelapa sawit. diperoleh dari sakarifikasi serat dengan pretreatment selama 4 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 13,08%, 0,86 mg/g dan 0,13 mg/g, sedangkan rendemen gula pereduksi, konsentrasi glukosa dan xilosa tertinggi dari pelepah kelapa sawit didapatkan dari sakarifikasi substrat dengan pretreatment selama 2 minggu, yaitu masing-masing 8,98%, 0,92 mg/g dan 0,23 mg/g.
Properties of Lignin from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Its Application for Plywood Adhesive Sudiyani, Yanni; Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 18, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (212.229 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v18i2.397

Abstract

Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a potential biopolymer for wood adhesive. The aims of this study were to characterize lignin isolated from the black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber pretreated with steam explosion in alkaline conditions and to examine the bond quality of aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) adhesive prepared from lignin, natural rubber latex (NRL), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as base polymers with isocyanate crosslinkers. Lignin was precipitated from the black liquor by adding hydrochloric acid; then the precipitate was separated by filtration, thoroughly washed with water up to pH 2 and pH 5, and dried. The isolated lignin was characterized by ultimate analysis, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Three-layer plywood samples were prepared, and the bond strengths of the plywood samples were determined in dry conditions and after cyclic boiling. The lignin isolates with different pH values did not have significantly different chemical and thermal properties. Both lignin isolates had similar C, H, and O contents, identical functional groups in the FTIR spectra, similar absorption in the UV spectra, and high decomposition temperatures. The base polymers composition that could produce API adhesive for exterior applications was NRL/PVA/lignin (4/4/2). The use of more lignin in the adhesive formulation decreased the bond strength of the plywood.
Biological Pretreatment of Oil Palm Frond Fiber Using White-Rot Fungi for Enzymatic Saccharification Hermiati, Euis; Anita, Sita; Risanto, Lucky; Styarini, Dyah; Sudiyani, Yanni; Hanafi, Achmad; Abimanyu, Haznan
Makara Journal of Technology Vol 17, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.583 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/mst.v17i1.260

Abstract

Oil palm frond is one type of lignocellulosic biomass abundantly and daily available in Indonesia. It contains cellulose which can be converted to glucose, and further processed to produce different kinds of value –added products. The aim of this research is to study the effects of biological pretreatment of oil palm frond (OPF) fiber using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor on the enzymatic saccharification of the biomass. The OPF fiber (40-60 mesh sizes) was inoculated with cultures of the two fungi and incubated at 27 °C for 4 weeks. The samples were taken after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation. Chemical components of the biomass after pretreatment were analyzed. The saccharification of the pretreated samples using cellulase and β-glucosidase was performed in a water bath shaker at 50 °C for 48 hours. The concentration of reducing sugar increased with increasing of incubation time, either in those pretreated with culture of P. chrysosporium or with T. versicolor. Pretreatment of OPF fiber using single culture of T. versicolor for 4 weeks gave the highest reducing sugar yield (12.61% of dry biomass).
CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER Adi, Danang Sudarwoko; Wahyuni, Ika; Risanto, Lucky; Rulliaty, Sri; Hermiati, Euis; Dwianto, Wahyu; Watanabe, Takashi
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 2, No 1 (2015): Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (624.734 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2015.2.1.%p

Abstract

Fast growing wood species could be promising to fulfill the gap between wood demand and supply. Due to their low quality, the utilization of fast growing wood species has been limited to pulp and paper. Our previous study on the fiber characteristic and density of the 30 unutilized fast growing wood species from PT Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, showed that there were five species which could be promising as pulp and paper material. These wood species have fiber lengths of more than 2200 µm. This research was conducted to get information another property of the five woods to more discover their potential utilization, especially for pulp and paper material. The wood species investigated were Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia sp., Adinandra dumosa, Adinandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii. The results showed that these five species have a long of fiber length, which are classified in Class I, low to medium density, fiber derived value which the total score felt in the class I. The chemical compositions showed that extractive, holocelullose, α-cellulose, and lignin contents were 1.74-4.12%, 62.73-73.83%, 37.24-46.97%, 29.68-38.92%, respectively. Based on fiber characteristic, density, and chemical properties, these five species could be used as an alternative raw material for pulp and paper industries. 
Biological Pretreatment of Oil Palm Frond Fiber Using White-Rot Fungi for Enzymatic Saccharification Hermiati, Euis; Anita, Sita Heris; Risanto, Lucky; Styarini, Dyah; Sudiyani, Yanni; Hanafi, Achmad; Abimanyu, Haznan
Makara Journal of Technology Vol. 17, No. 1
Publisher : UI Scholars Hub

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Abstract

Oil palm frond is one type of lignocellulosic biomass abundantly and daily available in Indonesia. It contains cellulose which can be converted to glucose, and further processed to produce different kinds of value –added products. The aim of this research is to study the effects of biological pretreatment of oil palm frond (OPF) fiber using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor on the enzymatic saccharification of the biomass. The OPF fiber (40-60 mesh sizes) was inoculated with cultures of the two fungi and incubated at 27 °C for 4 weeks. The samples were taken after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation. Chemical components of the biomass after pretreatment were analyzed. The saccharification of the pretreated samples using cellulase and β-glucosidase was performed in a water bath shaker at 50 °C for 48 hours. The concentration of reducing sugar increased with increasing of incubation time, either in those pretreated with culture of P. chrysosporium or with T. versicolor. Pretreatment of OPF fiber using single culture of T. versicolor for 4 weeks gave the highest reducing sugar yield (12.61% of dry biomass).
Properties of Lignin from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Its Application for Plywood Adhesive Risanto, Lucky; Hermiati, Euis; Sudiyani, Yanni
Makara Journal of Technology Vol. 18, No. 2
Publisher : UI Scholars Hub

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Abstract

Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a potential biopolymer for wood adhesive. The aims of this study were to characterize lignin isolated from the black liquor of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber pretreated with steam explosion in alkaline conditions and to examine the bond quality of aqueous polymer isocyanate (API) adhesive prepared from lignin, natural rubber latex (NRL), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as base polymers with isocyanate crosslinkers. Lignin was precipitated from the black liquor by adding hydrochloric acid; then the precipitate was separated by filtration, thoroughly washed with water up to pH 2 and pH 5, and dried. The isolated lignin was characterized by ultimate analysis, UV spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Three-layer plywood samples were prepared, and the bond strengths of the plywood samples were determined in dry conditions and after cyclic boiling. The lignin isolates with different pH values did not have significantly different chemical and thermal properties. Both lignin isolates had similar C, H, and O contents, identical functional groups in the FTIR spectra, similar absorption in the UV spectra, and high decomposition temperatures. The base polymers composition that could produce API adhesive for exterior applications was NRL/PVA/lignin (4/4/2). The use of more lignin in the adhesive formulation decreased the bond strength of the plywood.